Although corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and Fas ligand (FasL) have been documented in ovarian carcinoma, a clear association with tumour progression and immuno-escape has not been established. FasL plays an important role in promoting tumour cells' ability to counterattack immune cells. Here, we examined immunohistochemically the expression of CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2 and FasL in 47 human ovarian cancer cases. The ovarian cancer cell lines OvCa3 and A2780 were further used to test the hypothesis that CRH might contribute to the immune privilege of ovarian tumours, by modulating FasL expression on the cancer cells. We found that CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2 and FasL were expressed in 68.1, 70.2, 63.8 and 63.8% of the cases respectively. Positivity for CRH or FasL expression was associated with higher tumour stage. Finally, CRH increased the expression of FasL in OvCa3 and A2780 cells through CRHR1 thereby potentiated their ability to induce apoptosis of activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Corticotropin-releasing hormone produced by human ovarian cancer might favour survival and progression of the tumour by promoting its immune privilege. These findings support the hypothesis that CRHR1 antagonists could potentially be used against ovarian cancer.
CRH; Fas ligand; ovarian cancer; immune privilege; apoptosis
The FAS and FASL system plays a substantial role in apoptosis and immune escape of cells. Three polymorphisms located in the promoter regions of FAS (-1377G/A and -670A/G) and FASL (-844T/C) have been shown to alter the transcriptional activity of the genes, respectively. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these polymorphisms on the susceptibility of neuroblastoma in the Chinese population. A total of 203 patients with neuroblastoma and 411 controls were recruited in this case-control study. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for genotyping. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate cancer risk by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). It was observed that significantly increased risks of neuroblastoma associated with FAS -1377G/A and FASL -844T/C polymorphisms, with ORs equal to 1.55 (95% CI, 1.10–2.20) for FAS -1377 A allele and 2.90 (95% CI, 2.04–4.12) for FASL -844CC genotype carriers compared with non-carriers, respectively. However, no association was found between the polymorphisms of FAS -670A/G and risk of neuroblastoma. In addition, the cumulative effect of FAS and FASL polymorphisms on risk of neuroblastoma was observed (P for trend = 2.502×10−10), with OR for the carriers of both FAS -1377A allele and FASL -844CC genotypes equaled to 3.95 (95% CI, 2.40–6.51). This work reveals that polymorphisms of FAS -1377G/A and FASL -844T/C but not FAS -670A/G are associated with risk of neuroblastoma in Chinese. These findings support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphism in FAS/FASL death system may influence individual susceptibility to neuroblastoma.
Malignant glioma is a lethal form of brain cancer that is very difficult to treat. The aggressive behavior of these neoplasms and their limited responsiveness to therapy has been attributed in part to the ability of these tumors to evade the immune system. Gliomas, like many other solid tumors, express components of numerous immune escape mechanisms, including immunosuppressive proteins such as TGF-β, IL-10, and FasL. Here, we show that FasL expression can support the growth of experimental intracranial glioma. We show that FasL is readily detected in human glioblastoma multiforme clinical specimens. FasL was found to be expressed by three well-characterized rat glioma cell lines (9L, F98, and C6) and glioma cell-derived FasL mediated the death of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated Jurkat T-lymphocytes when cocultured with glioma cells in vitro. We asked if inhibiting 9L-derived FasL altered the growth of experimental glioma. FasL expression knockdown using shRNA reduced the growth of subcutaneous and intracranial 9L gliomas by ∼50% in immune competent Fisher 344 rats. In contrast, FasL expression knockdown had no affect on the growth of intracranial 9L glioma in T-cell deficient athymic rats. Intracranial tumors derived from FasL knockdown 9L glioma cells contained up to 3-fold more tumor infiltrating T-cells than tumors derived from control 9L cells. These results demonstrate that down-regulating FasL expression and/or function in glial malignancies can enhance T-cell tumor infiltration and inhibit tumor growth. The findings suggest that targeting endogenous FasL in glial malignancies could enhance the efficacy of emerging immune-based treatment strategies.
CD95L; Fas ligand; glioma; immunotherapy; immunity
Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE2 increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E2-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE2 positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE2.
Fas ligand; prostaglandin E2; regulation; tumour immune evasion
Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system is one of the key apoptotic signaling entities in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. De-regulation of this pathway, i.e. by mutations may prevent the immune system from the removal of newly-formed tumor cells, and thus lead to tumor formation. The present study investigated the association between −1377 G/A (rs2234767) and −670 A/G (rs1800682) polymorphisms in Fas as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms INV2nt −124 A/G (rs5030772) and −844 C/T (rs763110) in FasL in a sample of Iranian patients with breast cancer. This case-control study was done on 134 breast cancer patients and 152 normal women. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. The polymorphisms were determined by using tetra-ARMS-PCR method. There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution of FAS rs2234767 polymorphism between cases and controls. FAS rs1800682, FASL rs5030772, and FASL rs763110 genotypes showed significant associations with an increasing risk of breast cancer (odds ratio OR = 3.18, P = 0.019; OR = 5.08, P = 0.012; OR = 2.40, P = 0.024, respectively). In conclusion, FAS rs2234767 was not associated with breast cancer risk. Though, FAS rs1800682, FASL rs5030772, and FASL rs763110 polymorphisms were associated with the risk of breast cancer in the examined population.
Background: The FAS and FASL system plays a key role in regulating apoptotic cell death and corruption of this signalling pathway has been shown to participate in immune escape and tumorigenesis. There is reduced expression of FAS but elevated expression of FASL in many types of human cancers including lung cancer. We recently reported an association between functional polymorphisms in FAS (–1377G→A) and FASL (–844T→C) and risk of oesophageal cancer.
Objective: To examine the contribution of these polymorphisms to risk of developing lung cancer.
Methods: Genotypes of 1000 lung cancer patients and 1270 controls were analysed by PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Associations with risk of lung cancer were estimated by logistic regression.
Results: Compared with non-carriers, there was a 1.6 fold excess risk of developing lung cancer for carriers of the FAS –1377AA genotype (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 to 2.10; p = 0.001), and 1.8 fold excess risk (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.52; p = 0.001) for carriers of FASL –844CC. Gene–gene interaction of FAS and FASL polymorphisms increased risk of lung cancer in a multiplicative manner (OR for the carriers of both FAS –1377AA and FASL –844CC genotypes 4.18, 95% CI 2.83 to 6.18). Gene–environment interaction of FAS or FASL polymorphism and smoking associated with increased risk of lung cancer was also found.
Conclusion: These results are consistent with our initial findings in oesophageal cancer and further support the hypothesis that the FAS and FASL triggered apoptosis pathway plays an important role in human carcinogenesis.
A recent report described the expression of Fas ligand (FasL) by melanoma cells as an important mechanism involved in the immune evasion by tumors [M. Hahne et al., Science (Washington DC), 274: 1363–1366, 1996]. To investigate the expression of FasL by melanomas, we screened a panel of early-passage cell lines by functional assay and reverse transcriptase-PCR. Using conditions designed to replicate those in the original report, we did not find functional FasL on any of the 19 human melanoma lines established at the National Cancer Institute. Furthermore, we additionally evaluated our melanoma lines using reverse transcriptase-PCR and found that 0 of the 26 human melanoma cell lines expressed FasL mRNA. FasL mRNA was abundantly expressed by antimelanoma T-cell lines after activation. These data do not support a role for FasL expression in the escape of melanoma cells from immune destruction.
The potentially functional polymorphism, rs763110 (−844C>T), in the promoter region of the FAS ligand (FASL) gene, has been implicated in cancer risk, but individually published studies show inconclusive results. To derive a more precise estimation of the association between the FASL rs763110 and risk of cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of 19 published studies that included 11 105 cancer cases and 11 372 controls. We used odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the associations. Overall, the rs763110 CT and TT variant genotypes were associated with a significantly reduced cancer risk of all cancer types in different genetic models (homozygote comparison: OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.95, Pheterogeneity=0.001; heterozygote comparison: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95, Pheterogeneity<0.001; dominant model comparison: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.71–0.94, Pheterogeneity<0.001; and recessive model comparison: OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.81–0.96, Pheterogeneity=0.074). In the stratified analyses, the risk remained for studies of the smoking-related cancers and Asian populations, or population-based studies in all the genetic models. Although some modest bias could not be eliminated, this meta-analysis suggests that the FASL rs763110 T allele has a possible protective effect on cancer risk.
FAS ligand; polymorphism; cancer susceptibility; meta-analysis
FAS and its ligand FASL are crucial in apoptotic cell death. Loss of FAS and gain of aberrant FASL expression are common features of malignant transformation. This study was designed to investigate whether the functional polymorphisms of FAS -1377G/A (rs2234767) and FASL -844T/C (rs763110) affect the risk of developing breast cancer. Genotypes were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay in 436 breast cancer patients and 496 healthy controls. In this study, as compared to the wild-type homozygote and heterozygote, the distribution of the FAS -1377GG, GA and AA genotypes among breast cancer patients were significantly different from those among healthy controls (P=0.011), with the AA genotype being more prevalent among patients than the controls (P=0.003). Similarly, the frequencies of the FASL -844TT, TC and CC genotypes also significantly differed among breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P<0.001), with the CC genotype being significantly over-represented in breast cancer patients compared with the controls (P<0.001). In the unconditional logistic regression model following adjustment for age, the subjects carrying the FAS -1377AA genotype had a 1.75-fold increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13–2.69] for development of breast cancer compared with patients carrying the GG genotype. Similarly, in the recessive model, the FASL -844CC genotype significantly increased the risk of breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.92 (95% CI 1.46–2.54) compared with the TT or TT + TC genotypes. Our results suggest that functional polymorphisms in the death pathway genes FAS and FASL significantly contribute to the occurrence of breast cancer.
breast cancer; FAS; FASL; risk
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitously occurring pathogen that infects humans early in childhood. The virus persists as a latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, especially of the trigeminal nerve, and frequently becomes reactivated in humans under conditions of stress. Monocytic cells constitute an important component of the innate and adaptive immune responses. We show here for the first time that HSV-1 stimulates human FasL promoter and induces de novo expression of FasL on the surface of human monocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages. This virus-induced FasL expression causes death of monocytic cells growing in suspension, but not in monolayers (e.g., macrophages). The addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, as well as anti-FasL antibodies, reduced cell death but increased viral replication in the virus-infected cell cultures. We also show here for the first time that the virus-induced de novo expression of FasL on the cell surface acts as an immune evasion mechanism by causing the death of interacting human CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Our study provides novel insights on FasL expression and cell death in HSV-infected human monocytic cells and their impact on interacting immune cells.
being immunogenic, gastric cancers overcome antitumour immune responses
by mechanisms that have yet to be fully elucidated. Fas ligand (FasL)
is a molecule that induces Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of activated
immunocytes, thereby mediating normal immune downregulatory roles
including immune response termination, tolerance acquisition, and
immune privilege. Colon cancer cell lines have previously been shown to
express FasL and kill lymphoid cells by Fas mediated apoptosis in
vitro. Many diverse tumours have since been found to express FasL
suggesting that a "Fas counterattack" against antitumour immune
effector cells may contribute to tumour immune escape.
Aim—To ascertain if
human gastric tumours express FasL in vivo, as a potential mediator of
immune escape in stomach cancer.
paraffin wax embedded human gastric adenocarcinomas.
was detected in gastric tumours using immunohistochemistry; FasL mRNA
was detected in the tumours using in situ hybridisation. Cell death was
detected in situ in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes using terminal
deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL).
expression of FasL was detected in all 30 resected gastric
adenocarcinomas examined. In the tumours, FasL protein and mRNA were
co-localised to neoplastic gastric epithelial cells, confirming
expression by the tumour cells. FasL expression was independent of
tumour stage, suggesting that it may be expressed throughout gastric
cancer progression. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death
among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumour.
gastric adenocarcinomas express the immune downregulatory molecule,
FasL. The results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune
privilege in stomach cancer.
Fas ligand; gastric cancer; immune escape; apoptosis; tumour; mRNA
During carcinogenesis, tumors develop multiple mechanisms for evading the immune response, including upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) expression. Expression of FasL may help to maintain tumor cells in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of anti-tumor immune effector cells. Recently this idea has been challenged by studies reporting that tumor cells of varying origin do not express FasL. In the present study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize FasL expression in tumors of both murine and human origin over a 72 hour time period.
RNA and protein was extracted from six human (SW620, HT29, SW480, KM12SM, HCT116, Jurkat) and three mouse (CMT93, CT26, B16F10) cancer cell lines at regular time intervals over a 72 hour time period. FasL expression was detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR, using intron spanning primers, and at the protein level by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal FasL- specific antibody.
Expression of FasL mRNA and protein was observed in all cell lines analysed. However, expression of FasL mRNA varied dramatically over time, with cells negative for FasL mRNA at many time points. In contrast, 8 of the 9 cell lines constitutively expressed FasL protein. Thus, cells can abundantly express FasL protein at times when FasL mRNA is absent.
These findings demonstrate the importance of complete analysis of FasL expression by tumor cells in order to fully characterize its biological function and may help to resolve the discrepancies present in the literature regarding FasL expression and tumor immune privilege.
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble secreted protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. DcR3 inhibits the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas apoptotic pathway by binding to FasL, competitively with Fas receptor. Previous studies have reported that overexpression of DcR3 has been detected in various human malignancies and that DcR3 functions as a ‘decoy’ for FasL to inhibit FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed that DcR3 has ‘non-decoy’ functions to promote tumor cell migration and invasion, suggesting that DcR3 may play important roles in tumor progression by decoy and non-decoy functions. We have previously reported that overexpression of DcR3 was observed in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), however, the roles of DcR3 in MFH have not been studied. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of DcR3 in tumor progression of MFH, we examined the effects of DcR3 inhibition on cell apoptosis, migration and invasion in human MFH cells. siRNA knockdown of DcR3 enhanced the FasL-induced apoptotic activity and significantly decreased cell migration and invasion with a decrease in the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. The findings in this study strongly suggest that DcR3 plays important roles in tumor progression of human MFH by decoy as well as non-decoy functions and that DcR3 may serve as a potent therapeutic target for human MFH.
DcR3; apoptosis; migration; invasion; matrix metalloproteinase
Fas ligand (FasL) is expressed on some cancers and may play a role in the immune evasion of the tumour. We used immuno-histochemistry to study the expression of Fas and FasL in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, as well as normal breast tissue. Our results show that Fas and FasL are co-expressed both in normal tissue and in breast tumours. Fas and FasL mRNA were expressed in fresh normal and malignant breast tissue, as well as cultured breast epithelium and breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis of live cells failed to detect FasL on the surface of normal or malignant breast cells; however, both stained positive for FasL after permeabilization. Fas was detected on the surface of normal breast cells and T47D and MCF-10A cell lines but only intracellularly in other breast cell lines tested. Neither normal breast epithelium nor breast cell lines induced Fas-dependent apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Finally, 20 tumour samples were stained for apoptosis. Few apoptotic cells were detected and there was no increase in apoptotic cells on the borders between tumour cells and lymphocytes. We conclude that FasL is expressed intracellularly in both normal and malignant breast epithelium and unlikely to be important for the immune evasion of breast tumours. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
Fas; apoptosis; breast neoplasm; tumour infiltrating lymphocytes; CD95; FasL
Fas ligand (FasL) is a type II integral membrane protein homologous with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Recent studies indicate that TNF is processed to yield the soluble cytokine by metalloproteinases at the cell surface of activated macrophages and T cells. In the present study, we investigated whether FasL is also released by metalloproteinases. Treatment with hydroxamic acid inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases specifically led to accumulation of membrane-type FasL (p40) on the surface of human FasL cDNA transfectants and activated human T cells, as estimated by surface immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation with newly established anti-human FasL monoclonal antibodies. This surface accumulation of mFasL was associated with the decrease of soluble FasL (p27) in the supernatant as estimated by quantitative ELISA and immunoprecipitation with anti-human FasL monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that human FasL is efficiently released from the cell surface by metalloproteinases like TNF.
Metastatic spinal cancer is characterized by the maintenance of normal disc structure until the vertebral body is severely destroyed by cancer cells. Anatomic features of the discs have been thought to be the main factor which confer the discs their resistance to metastatic cancer. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism to prevent or attenuate the local infiltration of cancer cells into the discs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Fas ligand (FasL) produced by disc cells can kill Fas-bearing breast cancer cells by Fas and FasL interaction. Two human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) were obtained and cultured (1 × 106 cells/well), and the expression of Fas was investigated by western blot analysis. Annulus fibrosus cells were isolated and cultured, and the presence of FasL was quantified in the supernatants of three different numbers of annulus fibrosus cells (1×, 2×, and 4 × 106 cells/well) by ELISA assay. The MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were cultured with supernatants of annulus fibrosus cells for 48 h. As controls, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were also cultured by themselves for 48 h. Finally, we determined and quantified the apoptosis rates of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells by Annexin V–FITC and PI and TUNEL at 48 h, respectively. The expression of Fas was identified in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The mean concentrations of FasL in supernatants of annulus fibrosus cells (1×, 2×, and 4 × 106 cells/well) were 10.8, 29.6, and 56.4 pg/mL, respectively. After treatment with the supernatant of three different numbers of annulus fibrosus cells, the mean apoptosis rate of MCF-7 cancer cells was increased (2.8%, P < 0.01; 6.7%, P < 0.001; 31.0%, P < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner of FasL compared to that of control (1.1%). The mean apoptosis rate of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells was also increased (5.7%, P < 0.01; 11.1%, P < 0.001; 25.3%, P < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner of FasL compared to that of control (2.1%). TUNEL also demonstrated direct evidence of apoptoses of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that Fas-bearing cancer cells undergo apoptosis by FasL produced by disc cells, which may be considered as a potential biochemical explanation for the disc’s resistance to metastatic cancer.
Intervertebral disc; Resistance; Metastatic cancer; Fas and Fas ligand; Apoptosis
Fas Ligand (FasL) expression by cancer cells may contribute to tumour immune escape via the Fas counterattack against tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Whether this plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome was examined studying FasL expression, tumour cell apoptosis and number of TILs in colorectal neoplasms from Lynch syndrome patients (50 adenomas, 20 carcinomas) compared with sporadic cases (69 adenomas, 52 carcinomas). FasL expression was observed in 94% of Lynch syndrome adenomas and in all carcinomas. FasL expression patterns and apoptotic indices were similar in Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms and sporadic cases. The number of TILs was higher in Lynch syndrome neoplasms than in sporadic cases. There were no correlations between FasL expression and tumour cell apoptosis or number of TILs in Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms. So, FasL expression is an early event in Lynch syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, but not related to TIL number. Taken together, our data do not support a role for the Fas counterattack in colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome.
Apoptosis; Colorectal cancer; Counterattack; Fas ligand; HNPCC; Lynch syndrome
The Fas–Fas ligand (FasL) system has been recognized as a major pathway for the induction of apoptosis in cells and tissues. Fas-mediated apoptosis is deeply involved in cancer cell death brought about by the immune system. This study was performed to determine the Fas and FasL expression in human bladder cancer and the impact of schistosomiasis infection.
Material and methods:
Of the 75 patients, 25 with chronic bilharzial cystitis and 50 with bladder cancer were included in this study. Ten control patients were included in the study, following their consent. Fas and FasL expressions in bladder tissue were determined by indirect immunohistochemistry using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method.
The association of bilharziasis with malignancy raised the incidence of Fas positive immunoreactivity to 100%. The number of malignant cases positive for Fas decreased with progress of tumour grade and stage. All control cases were negative for FasL expression. The percentage of positive FasL malignant cases increased with increasing tumour grade or stage.
Malignant bladder lesions express high levels of Fas and decreased expression of Fas is associated with disease progression. Urinary bladder carcinoma acquires the functional FasL during tumour progression that may induce apoptosis of anti tumour T lymphocytes. Fas and FasL are recommended to be considered important tumour markers to define aggressive bladder cancer and may be included in defining the surveillance protocol for superficial bladder cancer.
apoptosis; Fas; Fas ligand; bladder carcinoma; schistosomiasis
Alterations in the expression of Fas (CD95/APO-1) and its ligand (FasL) have been demonstrated in various types of cancers as a mechanism for tumour cell to escape from the immune system. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of the Fas and FasL genes in a wide range of primary gynaecological carcinomas. These included 31 ovarian, 29 cervical and 25 endometrial carcinoma tissues as well as four ovarian and three cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that down-regulation of Fas expression is more prominent than the up-regulation of FasL expression in all types of gynaecological cancer studied. This down-regulation of Fas expression was also true for the seven carcinoma cell lines. Only one cervical carcinoma cell line, DoT, exhibited a high level of FasL expression. These results indicated that down-regulation of Fas expression is a common abnormality in many types of cancers including gynaecological cancers, whereas an increase in FasL expression is not a common phenomenon in these cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
Fas; FasL; quantitative PCR; primary tumours
Most data on the therapeutic potential of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as well as resistance to FAS ligand (FASL) in colorectal cancer have come from in vitro studies using cell lines. To gain a clearer understanding about the susceptibility of patient tumours to TRAIL and FASL, we derived primary human cancer epithelial cells from colon cancer patients. Characterisation of primary cultures PAP60 and MIH55 determined their highly proliferating advantage, transforming capability and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Although FASL treatment appeared to cause little apoptosis only in the PAP60 primary culture, increased apoptosis independent of p53 was observed in both primary PAP60 and MIH55 and control cell lines Caco-2, HT29 and DLD-1 after treatment with SuperKiller TRAIL. Expression analysis of death receptors (DR) in the original parental tumours, the primary cultures before and after engraftment as well as the mouse xenografts, revealed a significant upregulation of both DR4 and DR5, which correlated to differences in sensitivity of the cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Treating patient tumour xenograft/SCID mouse models with Killer TRAIL in vivo suppressed tumour growth. This is the first demonstration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in characterised tumorigenic primary human cultures (in vitro) and antitumour activity in xenograft models (in vivo).
primary colon cancer cells; TRAIL; FASL; invasion; FACS; xenografts
Fas and its ligand (FasL) are known to play a crucial role in the genetically controlled mechanism of cell death, and their deregulation in cancer cells is involved in the immune escape of the tumor. The aim of this review is to analyze the current knowledge on the prognostic value of Fas/FasL in breast cancer patients. Both the results of other authors and our own experiences indicate that the lack of Fas ligand, and particularly Fas, is related to a significantly worse prognosis. It probably results from the resistance of Fas-deficient breast tumors to the mechanisms of apoptosis. On the other hand, some results suggest that the Fas/FasL-dependent mechanisms of tumor spread may be different for various target tissues. The expression of the Fas/Fas-ligand system has potential prognostic application in view of current knowledge, and consequently should be considered as an additional prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.
breast cancer; Fas; Fas ligand; prognosis
FAS (also known as APO-1 or CD95) belongs to the subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family that contain an intra-cellular ‘death domain’ and can trigger apoptosis. Its physiological ligand, FASL (CD95L), is a member of the corresponding TNF cytokine family. Studies with spontaneous mutant mice, gene-targeted mice and cells from human patients have shown that FAS and FASL play critical roles in the immune system, in particular in the killing of pathogen infected target cells and the death of no longer needed, potentially deleterious as well as autoreactive lymphocytes. This ligand-receptor pair thereby functions as a guardian against autoimmunity and tumor development. FASL-FAS signaling triggers apoptosis through FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain, also called MORT1) adaptor protein-mediated recruitment and activation of the aspartate-specific cysteine protease, caspase-8. In certain cells such as hepatocytes, albeit not in lymphocytes, FAS-induced apoptosis signaling requires amplification through proteolytic activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BID. Curiously, several components of the FAS signaling machinery have been implicated in non-apoptotic processes, including cellular activation, differentiation and proliferation. Here we describe current knowledge of the roles of FASL and FAS in the immune system, discuss important unresolved issues and propose experimental approaches to address them.
FAS; FAS ligand; apoptosis; death receptors; immune system
Fas ligand (FasL) is a transmembrane protein that regulates cell death in Fas-bearing cells. FasL-mediated cell death is essential for immune system homeostasis and the elimination of viral or transformed cells. Because of its potent cytotoxic activity, FasL expression at the cell surface is tightly regulated, for example, via processing by ADAM10 and SPPL2a generating soluble FasL and the intracellular fragments APL (ADAM10-processed FasL form) and SPA (SPPL2a-processed APL). In this study, we report that FasL processing by ADAM10 counteracts Fas-mediated cell death and is strictly regulated by membrane localization, interactions and modifications of FasL. According to our observations, FasL processing occurs preferentially within cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich nanodomains (rafts) where efficient Fas–FasL contact occurs, Fas receptor and FasL interaction is also required for efficient FasL processing, and FasL palmitoylation, which occurs within its transmembrane domain, is critical for efficient FasL-mediated killing and FasL processing.
Fas ligand; proteolysis; ADAM10 processing; rafts; palmitoylation
Activation induced cell death (AICD) via Fas/FasL is the primary homeostatic molecular mechanism employed by the immune system to control activated T-cell responses and promote tolerance to self-antigens. We herein investigated the ability of a novel multimeric form of FasL chimeric with streptavidin (SA-FasL) having potent apoptotic activity to induce apoptosis in diabetogenic T cells and modulate insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes (IDDM) in an adoptive transfer model. Diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD/Lt females were co-cultured in vitro with SA-FasL, SA control protein, or alone without protein, and adoptively transferred into NOD/Lt-Rag1null recipients for diabetes development. All animals receiving control (Alone: n=16 or SA: n=17) cells developed diabetes on average by 6 weeks, whereas animals receiving SA-FasL-treated (n = 25) cells exhibited significantly delayed progression (p<.001) and decreased incidence (70%). This effect was associated with an increase in CD4+CD25+ T cells and correlated with FoxP3 expression in pancreatic lymph nodes. Extracorporeal treatment of peripheral blood lymphocytes using SA-FasL during disease onset represents a novel approach that may alter the ability of pathogenic T cells to mediate diabetes and have therapeutic utility in clinical management of IDDM.
FasL; diabetes; immunomodulation; treatment; apoptosis
The mechanisms of immune privilege in human nucleus pulposus (NP) remain unclear. Accumulating evidence indicates that Fas ligand (FasL) might play an important role in the immune privilege of the disc. We aimed for addressing the role of FasL expression in human intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and immune privilege in terms of the interaction between NP cells and immunocytes via the FasL-Fas machinery. We collected NP specimens from 20 patients with IDD as degenerative group and 8 normal cadaveric donors as control. FasL expression was detected by qRT-PCR, western blotting and flow cytometry (FCM). We also collected macrophages and CD8+ T cells from the peripheral blood of patients with IDD for co-cultures with NP cells. And macrophages and CD8+ T cells were harvested for apoptosis analysis by FCM after 2 days of co-cultures. We found that FasL expression in mRNA, protein and cellular resolutions demonstrated a significant decrease in degenerative group compared with normal control (p<0.05). FCM analysis found that human NP cells with increased FasL expression resulted in significantly increased apoptosis ratio of macrophages and CD8+ T cells. Our study demonstrated that FasL expression tends to decrease in degenerated discs and FasL plays an important role in human disc immune privilege, which might provide a novel target for the treatment strategies for IDD.
intervertebral disc degeneration; FasL; immune privilege; macrophage; CD8+ T cell.