PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (441264)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Effect of Long-term Exercise on Voiding Functions in Obese Elderly Women 
Purpose
An overactive bladder (OAB) may be defined as urgency that is a sudden, compelling, difficult to defer desire to pass urine that is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia and possibly by incontinence. Obesity and old age are two factors in various causes of OAB. Several epidemiologic studies have identified positive associations among obesity, old age, urinary incontinence, and OAB. However, although exercise has been known to improve obesity and reduce incontinent urine loss, little research has been done in elderly women. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on obesity-related metabolic factors, blood lipid factors, and OAB symptoms in elderly Korean women.
Methods
Twenty-one women aged between 69 and 72 years were recruited from the Seoul senior towers in Korea. All subjects worked out on a motorized treadmill and stationary cycle for 40 minutes, respectively, and performed resistance exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 52 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, OAB symptom score, and King's health questionnaire were investigated and analyzed.
Results
Before performing physical exercise, all subjects showed increased OAB symptoms in association with enhanced body mass index (BMI), percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles. However, physical exercise for 52 weeks suppressed BMI, percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles and thus improved OAB symptoms.
Conclusions
We suggest that long-term physical exercise can be a valuable tool for remarkable improvement of OAB.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.3.130
PMCID: PMC3797893  PMID: 24143292
Overactive urinary bladder; Obesity; Exercise; Overactive bladder symptom score; King's health questionnaire
2.  Defining and Managing Overactive Bladder: Disagreement among the Experts 
Urology  2013;81(2):257-262.
Objectives
To better understand experts’ perceptions of the definition of overactive bladder (OAB), the evaluation of OAB, and treatment of OAB. OAB is defined by the International Continence Society as “urinary urgency, with or without urge urinary incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia.” Under the current definition, people with very different clinical conditions fall under the OAB umbrella. With the goal of improving the care for women with OAB, we sought to better understand experts’ perceptions of OAB as it is presently defined.
Methods
Twelve interviews with leading urologic, gynecologic, and geriatric practitioners in urinary incontinence and OAB were performed. Questions were asked about their perception and agreement with the current definition of OAB. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the data.
Results
Overall, there was a great deal of variability in defining and managing OAB. Four categories of definitions were derived from the qualitative analysis: current definition is adequate, OAB is a constellation of symptoms, should include the fear of leakage, and OAB is a marketing term. While there is some consensus on evaluation, several areas demonstrate disagreement over elements of the evaluation. Experts also felt that OAB is a chronic condition, with variability of symptoms, and it has no cure. Managing patient expectation is essential, as OAB is challenging to treat. A focus was placed on behavioral therapy.
Conclusions
There was disagreement among experts over the definition and work-up of OAB. However, experts agree that OAB is a chronic condition with a low likelihood of cure.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2012.09.028
PMCID: PMC3890251  PMID: 23374774
overactive bladder; urgency; urge incontinence; diagnosis; evaluation; management; definition
3.  Urodynamic Detrusor Overactivity in Patients with Overactive Bladder Symptoms 
Purpose
To evaluate the relationship between urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in men and women.
Methods
We reviewed the records of adult males and females who attended a tertiary referral center for urodynamic evaluation of OAB syndrome symptoms with the presence or absence of DO. DO was calculated for symptoms alone or in combination.
Results
The overall incidence of DO was 76.1% and 58.7% in male and female OAB patients, respectively. Of men 63% and 61% of women with urgency (OAB dry) had DO, while 93% of men and 69.8% of women with urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (OAB wet) had DO. Of women, 58% who were OAB wet had stress urinary incontinence symptoms with 26.4% having urodynamic stress incontinence. 6% of men and 6.5% of women with OAB symptoms had urodynamic diagnosis of voiding difficulties with postvoid residual greater than 100 mL. Combination of symptoms is more accurate in predicting DO in OAB patients. The multivariate disease model for males included urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and urgency while for females it included UUI and nocturia.
Conclusions
There was a better correlation in results between OAB symptoms and the urodynamic diagnosis of DO in men than in women, more so in OAB wet than in OAB dry. Combination of symptoms of the OAB syndrome seems to have a better correlation with objective parameters from the bladder diary, filling cystometry, and with the occurrence of DO.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.1.48
PMCID: PMC3070227  PMID: 21468287
Overactive bladder; Urodynamic investigation; Urinary incontinence; Detrusor overactivity
4.  Association of overactive bladder and C-reactive protein levels. Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey 
Bju International  2011;110(3):401-407.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the association between overactive bladder (OAB) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based sample of men and women.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
Epidemiological survey of urological symptoms among men and women aged 30–79 years. A multi-stage stratified cluster design was used to randomly sample 5503 adults from the city of Boston. Analyses were conducted on 1898 men and 1854 women with available CRP levels.
The International Continence Society defines OAB as ‘Urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia.’ OAB was defined as: (1) urgency, (2) urgency with frequency, and (3) urgency with frequency and nocturia.
Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the CRP and OAB association were estimated using logistic regression.
RESULTS
Prevalence of OAB increased with CRP levels in both men and women.
In men, adjusted ORs (95% CI) per log10(CRP) levels were 1.90 (1.26–2.86) with OAB defined as urgency, 1.65 (1.06–2.58) with OAB defined as urgency and frequency, and 1.92 (1.13–3.28) with OAB defined as urgency, frequency and nocturia.
The association was more modest in women with ORs (95% CI) of 1.53 (1.07–2.18) for OAB as defined urgency, 1.51 (1.02–2.23) for OAB defined as urgency and frequency, and 1.34 (0.85–2.12) for OAB defined as urgency, frequency and nocturia.
CONCLUSIONS
Results show a consistent association of increasing CRP levels and OAB among both men and women.
These results support our hypothesis for the role of inflammation in the development of OAB and a possible role for anti-inflammatory agents in its treatment.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10769.x
PMCID: PMC3325364  PMID: 22176817
C-reactive protein; epidemiology; inflammation; overactive bladder
5.  The Influence of an Overactive Bladder on Falling: A Study of Females Aged 40 and Older in the Community 
Purpose
An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities.
Methods
We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling.
Results
Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024).
Conclusions
Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.1.41
PMCID: PMC3070226  PMID: 21468286
Urinary bladder; Overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urge; Accidental falls
6.  Fesoterodine for overactive bladder: A review of the literature 
Background: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a chronic condition affecting both men and women, with prevalence increasing with age. Antimuscarinics form the cornerstone of treatment of OAB. Fesoterodine, a nonselective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2008 for once daily, oral administration in the treatment of OAB to relieve the symptoms of urinary urge incontinence, urgency, and frequency.
Objective: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the mechanism of action of and clinical trial data for fesoterodine, and to discuss the present status of fesoterodine in the management of OAB.
Methods: The MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched (June 1, 1999–December 1, 2009) using the terms fesoterodine, overactive bladder, and muscarinic antagonists. Full-text articles in English were selected for reference, and articles presenting the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and data from clinical trials were included. The parameters measured were tolerability, efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Trials involving animals and Phase I studies were excluded.
Results: The initial literature search yielded 48 papers. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In two 12-week, randomized, multicenter, Phase III clinical trials involving patients with increased micturition frequency and urgency and/or urinary urge incontinence (n = 836 and 1132 in each trial), both fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg were associated with significantly improved symptoms of OAB (frequency of micturition, urgency, and urge incontinence) compared with placebo (P < 0.05). In a post hoc analysis of pooled data of the Phase III trials, HRQoL improved significantly with both doses. In a 12-week, Phase Illb trial, fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg led to treatment satisfaction in ∼80% of patients (of 516 enrolled) who were initially unsatisfied with their previous treatment.
Conclusion: A review of the literature suggests that fesoterodine is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with OAB.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2010.10.003
PMCID: PMC3969610  PMID: 24688149
overactive bladder; fesoterodine; muscarinic antagonists
7.  Short-term Effects of a Systematized Bladder Training Program for Idiopathic Overactive Bladder: A Prospective Study 
Purpose
This study was to investigate whether a systematized bladder training (BT) program is effective for patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB).
Methods
A prospective study was conducted on 105 patients with OAB from March 2009 to November 2011. We developed a 30 minutes BT program, which consisted of first, refraining from going to the bathroom after feeling an urge to void, second, in order to stop thinking about voiding, ceasing action and thought temporarily, and third, performing pelvic floor exercises 5 to 6 times. Before and after BT, the patients filled out voiding diaries as well as the following questionnaires; International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q), the short form 36-item health survey (SF-36) questionnaire, the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, and a patients' perception of treatment benefit (PPTB).
Results
A final analysis was performed from on 85 patients (38 male, 47 female) with idiopathic OAB. After the first BT, the results of the ICIQ-OAB showed improvement in frequency, nocturia, and urgency (P<0.05), and all domains of IPSS questionnaires showed significant improvement (P<0.05). Among the SF-36 domains, the role-physical domain showed significant improvement after the first BT, and the general health domain showed significant improvement after the second. The voiding diaries showed statistically significant changes in maximal voided volume after the first BT, and nocturia index and nocturnal polyuria index after the second BT. According to the PPTB questionnaire, the perceived usefulness of BT increased after each session, and almost all of the patients replied that BT improved their symptoms.
Conclusions
Our results demonstrated that BT was effective in improving many OAB related symptoms and quality of life in patients with idiopathic OAB. More clinical application of BT could be implemented in the future.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.1.11
PMCID: PMC3627992  PMID: 23610706
Behavior modification; Overactive urinary bladder; Quality of life
8.  Associations between subjective overactive bladder symptoms and objective parameters on bladder diary and filling cystometry 
International Urogynecology Journal  2012;23(11):1619-1624.
Introduction and hypothesis
A study was conducted to assess associations between different overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and their outcomes on bladder diary and filling cystometry parameters.
Methods
We performed a retrospective cohort study in database of 6,876 Urinary Distress Inventories, 3,185 bladder diaries and 2,153 filling cystometries from women referred to our urogynecological center between 2003 and 2009. Women were dichotomized into two groups. Group I: those women without symptoms, and those with symptoms that were not bothersome. Group II: women with bothersome symptoms. Data obtained from bladder diaries were: daytime urinary frequency, nocturnal frequency, minimum voided volume, maximum voided volume, average voided volume, and incontinence episodes. From filling cystometries, volumes at first desire to void, normal desire to void, strong desire to void and maximum cystometric capacity, were extracted. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to determine associations between OAB symptoms and bladder diary and filling cystometry measurements.
Results
After multivariate analysis the objective daytime frequency was most strongly associated with the frequency symptom (β 0.27, p < 0.05), night time frequency with the nocturia symptom (β 0.40, p < 0.05) and the number of incontinence episodes with the urge incontinence symptom (β 0.37, p < 0.05). Both frequency and nocturia symptoms were significantly associated with bladder diary and cystometry filling volumes, and their effect size was the same. The urgency symptom proved to be poorly associated with objective parameters.
Conclusions
In contrast to the frequency and nocturia symptom, the urgency symptom is poorly associated with objective parameters on bladder diary and filling cystometry. Therefore, the current practice of using frequency and incontinence episodes in outcome research of OAB trials is justified.
doi:10.1007/s00192-012-1774-3
PMCID: PMC3592260  PMID: 22543547
Bladder diary; Cystometry; Overactive bladder
9.  Effects of Tamsulosin on Urinary Bladder Function and Neuronal Activity in the Voiding Centers of Rats with Cyclophosphamide-induced Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats.
Methods
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted.
Results
Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment.
Conclusions
Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB.
doi:10.5213/inj.2012.16.1.13
PMCID: PMC3321398  PMID: 22500249
Overactive bladder; Cyclophosphamide; Tamsulosin; Rats
10.  Agents for treatment of overactive bladder: a therapeutic class review 
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a medical syndrome defined by symptoms of urgency, with or without urge urinary incontinence (any involuntary loss of urine), usually with frequency and nocturia. Although anticholinergic agents have been the first-line treatment for OAB for many years, the efficacious pharmacologic management of this condition has been compromised by concerns regarding tolerability. Flavoxate was the first anticholinergic and antispasmodic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat symptoms of OAB but is not routinely used today since newer agents are more effective. The more recent drugs, oxybutynin and tolterodine, have appeared to be equally efficacious in treating the symptoms of OAB in clinical trials; however, tolterodine has proven to be better tolerated with fewer adverse effects. In 2004, the FDA approved the three newest agents for the class: darifenacin, solifenacin, and trospium. Compared with oxybutynin and tolterodine, these agents have a more favorable side effect profile, which can enhance tolerability and patient compliance. Side effects are reduced in part because of the drugs' greater tissue selectivity for inhibiting the bladder muscle contraction over other anticholinergic receptors in the body. In recent clinical trials, darifenacin, solifenacin, and trospium have shown superiority to placebo and efficacy comparable to that of oxybutynin and tolterodine.
PMCID: PMC1906583  PMID: 17637888
11.  Medical management of overactive bladder 
Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.65403
PMCID: PMC2938554  PMID: 20877608
Antimuscarinics; bladder training; overactive bladder
12.  How Dry is “OAB-Dry”?: Perspectives from Patients and Physician Experts 
The Journal of urology  2012;188(5):1811-1815.
Purpose
Overactive bladder (OAB) is subtyped into OAB-wet and OAB-dry, based on the presence or absence, respectively, of urgency incontinence. In order to better understand patient and physician perspectives on symptoms among women with OAB-wet and OAB-dry, we conducted patient focus groups and interviews with experts in urinary incontinence.
Materials and Methods
Five focus groups totaling 33 patients with OAB symptoms, including three groups of OAB-wet and 2 groups of OAB-dry patients, were conducted. Topics addressed patients’ perceptions of OAB symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Twelve expert interviews were then conducted in which experts were asked to describe their views on OAB-wet and OAB-dry. Focus groups and expert interviews were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data analysis was performed using Grounded Theory methodology, as described by Charmaz.
Results
During the focus groups sessions, women screened as OAB-dry shared the knowledge that they would probably leak if no toilet is available. This knowledge was based on a history of leakage episodes in the past. Those few patients with no history of leakage had a clinical picture more consistent with painful bladder syndrome than OAB. Physician expert interviews revealed the belief that many patients labeled as OAB–dry may actually be mild OAB-wet.
Conclusions
Qualitative data from focus groups and interviews with experts suggest that a spectrum exists between very mild OAB-wet and severe OAB-wet. Scientific investigations are needed to determine if urgency without fear of leakage constitutes a unique clinical entity.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.07.044
PMCID: PMC3571660  PMID: 22999694
focus groups; qualitative research; urge urinary incontinence; grounded theory; overactive bladder
13.  Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence 
Executive Summary
Objective
The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence.
Background: Condition and Target Population
Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control.
The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent.
The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation
Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an attempt to manage urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. The device was originally developed to manage urinary urge incontinence; however, it has also been used in patients with urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. SNS is intended for patients who are refractory to behaviour, drug, and/or interventional therapy.
There are 2 phases in the SNS process: first, patients must undergo a test stimulation phase to determine if they respond to sacral nerve stimulation. If there is a 50% or greater improvement in voiding function, then the patient is considered a candidate for the next phase, implantation.
Review Strategy
The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from 2000 to November 2004. The Medical Advisory Secretariat also conducted Internet searches of Medscape (1) and the manufacturer’s website (2) to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. In addition, the Web site Current Controlled Trials (3) was searched for ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the role of sacral nerve stimulation in the management of voiding conditions.
Summary of Findings
Four health technology assessments were found that reviewed SNS in patients with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and/or urinary retention. One assessment was found that reviewed SNS in patients with fecal incontinence. The assessments consistently reported that SNS was an effective technology in managing these voiding conditions in patients who did not respond to drug or behaviour therapy. They also reported that there was a substantial complication profile associated with SNS. Complication rates ranged from 33% to 50%. However, none of the assessments reported that they found any incidences of permanent injury or death associated with the device.
The health technology assessments for urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention included (RCTs (level 2) as their primary source of evidence for their conclusions. The assessment of fecal incontinence based its conclusions on evidence from case series (level 4). Because there was level 2 data available for the use of SNS in patients with urinary conditions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat chose to review thoroughly the RCTs included in the assessments and search for publications since the assessments were released. However, for the health technology assessment for fecal incontinence, which contained only level 4 evidence, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched for studies on SNS and fecal incontinence that were published since that assessment was released.
Urge Incontinence
Two RCTs were identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urge incontinence. Both RCTs reported significant improvements (> 50% improvement in voiding function) in the SNS group for number of incontinence episodes per day, number of pads used per day, and severity of incontinence episodes.
Urgency-Frequency (With or Without Chronic Pelvic Pain)
One RCT was identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urgency-frequency. The RCT reported significant improvements in urgency-frequency symptoms in the SNS group (average volume per void, detrusor pressure). In addition to the RCT, 1 retrospective review and 2 prospective case series were identified that measured pelvic pain associated with urgency-frequency in patients who underwent SNS. All 3 studies reported a significant decrease in pain at median follow-up.
Urinary Retention
One RCT was identified that compared SNS to no treatment in patients with refractory urinary retention. The RCT reported significant improvements in urinary retention in the SNS group compared to the control group for number of catheterizations required and number of voids per day. In addition to this RCT, 1 case series was also identified investigating SNS in women with urinary retention. This study also found that there were significant improvements in urinary retention after the women had received the SNS implants.
Fecal Incontinence
Three case series were identified that investigated the role of SNS in patients with fecal incontinence. All 3 reported significant improvements in fecal incontinence symptoms (number of incontinent episodes per week) after the patients received the SNS implants.
Long-Term Follow-up
None of the studies identified followed patients until the point of battery failure. Of the 6 studies identified describing the long-term follow-up of patients with SNS, follow-up periods ranged from 1.5 years to over 5 years. None of the long-term follow-up studies included patients with fecal incontinence. All of the studies reported that most of the patients who had SNS had at least a 50% improvement in voiding function (range 58%–77%). These studies also reported the number of patients who had their device explanted in the follow-up period. The rates of explantation ranged from 12% to 21%.
Safety, Complications, and Quality of Life
A 33% surgical revision rate was reported in an analysis of the safety of 3 RCTs comparing SNS to no treatment in patients with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, or urinary retention. The most commonly reported adverse effects were pain at the implant site and lead migration. Despite the high rate of surgical revision, there were no reports of permanent injury or death in any of the studies or health technology assessments identified. Additionally, patients consistently said that they would recommend the procedure to a friend or family member.
Economic Analysis
One health technology assessment and 1 abstract were found that investigated the costing factors pertinent to SNS. The authors of this assessment did their own “indicative analysis” and found that SNS was not more cost-effective than using incontinence supplies. However, the assessment did not account for quality of life. Conversely, the authors of the abstract found that SNS was more cost-effective than incontinence supplies alone; however, they noted that in the first year after SNS, it is much more expensive than only incontinence supplies. This is owing to the cost of the procedure, and the adjustments required to make the device most effective. They also noted the positive effects that SNS had on quality of life.
Conclusions and Implications
In summary, there is level 2 evidence to support the effectiveness of SNS to treat people with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, or urinary retention. There is level 4 evidence to support the effectiveness of SNS to treat people with fecal incontinence.
To qualify for SNS, people must meet the following criteria:
Be refractory to behaviour and/or drug therapy
Have had a successful test stimulation before implantation; successful test stimulation is defined by a 50% or greater improvement in voiding function based on the results of a voiding diary. Test stimulation periods range from 3 to 7 days for patients with urinary dysfunctions, and from 2 to 3 weeks for patients with fecal incontinence.
Be able to record voiding diary data, so that clinical results of the implantation can be evaluated.
Patients with stress incontinence, urinary retention due to obstruction and neurogenic conditions (such as diabetes with peripheral nerve involvement) are ineligible for sacral nerve stimulation.
Physicians will need to learn how to use the InterStim System for Urinary Control. Requirements for training include these:
Physicians must be experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of lower urinary tract disorders and should be trained in the implantation and use of the InterStim System for Urinary Control.
Training should include the following:
Participation in a seminar or workshop that includes instructional and laboratory training on SNS. This seminar should include a review of the evidence on SNS with emphasis on techniques to prevent adverse events.
Completion of proctoring by a physician experienced in SNS for the first 2 test stimulations and the first 2 implants
PMCID: PMC3382408  PMID: 23074472
14.  Perceptions of “Urgency” in Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome or Overactive Bladder 
Neurourology and urodynamics  2010;30(3):402-405.
Purpose
To compare urgency symptoms in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and Methods
Women with diagnoses of IC/BPS (n = 194) and OAB (n = 85) were recruited from the clinical practices of Urologists (n = 8) and Gynecologists (n = 16) with recognized expertise in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Subjects completed a comprehensive telephone survey about their current symptoms. The questionnaire included 11 questions about urinary urgency. Responses were compared between the two groups.
Results
Urgency was commonly reported as a symptom by women with both conditions (81% IC/BPS and 91% OAB). Compared with IC/BPS, urgency in OAB more often resulted in leakage, and was perceived to be more of a problem. In IC/BPS, the urgency was primarily reported as due to pain, pressure, or discomfort, while in OAB the urgency was more commonly due to fear of leakage. However, approximately 40% of women with OAB also report urgency due to pain, pressure, or discomfort. Similar proportions of both groups (~60%) indicated that the urgency occurred “suddenly” instead of more gradually over a period of minutes or hours.
Conclusions
Urgency symptoms differed in women diagnosed with IC/BPS versus those diagnosed with OAB, but there was significant overlap. This suggests that “urgency” is not a well-defined and commonly understood symptom that can be utilized to clearly discriminate between IC/BPS and OAB. These findings reinforce the clinical observation that it is often challenging to differentiate between these two conditions.
doi:10.1002/nau.20974
PMCID: PMC3513332  PMID: 21412821
sensations; specificity; symptoms
15.  The Prevalence and Therapeutic Effect of Constipation in Pediatric Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a manifestation of urgency, regardless of urge incontinence, due to involuntary bladder contraction during the storage period. There is a close association between constipation and OAB, but constipation cannot be readily diagnosed. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of constipation in OAB and the consequent therapeutic effects according to the diagnostic criteria for constipation.
Methods
We collected clinical data from 40 children (mean age, 71±22 months) with chief complaints of urgency, frequency, and incontinence. A voiding questionnaire and a 2-day voiding diary were collected, and urinalysis, the Bristol stool scale, and plain abdominal radiography were performed. Constipation was defined as conditions satisfying at least one of the following criteria: Rome III diagnostic criteria, Bristol stool scale types I/II, or a Leech score higher than 8 points as determined by plain radiography. Lower urinary tract symptoms, defecation symptoms, and the bladder volume of patients were examined, and the therapeutic outcomes by constipation diagnostic criteria were evaluated.
Results
Of the 40 OAB patients, 25 had constipation. Among them, 6 had reduced functional bladder capacity (24%; P>0.05). Regarding treatment, in patients who satisfied only one diagnostic criterion, the symptoms improved in 76.9%, 76.9%, and 69.6% of patients meeting the Rome III criteria, Bristol stool scale, and Leech score, respectively (P<0.05). Among the 8 patients satisfying all three criteria, 75% responded to treatment (P<0.05).
Conclusions
The prevalence of constipation in OAB is high. Constipated patients recruited by use of the Rome III criteria, Bristol scale, and Leech score alone and together showed similar outcomes on OAB improvement after the treatment of constipation, which implies that each criterion has the same strength and can be applied comprehensively and generally.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.4.206
PMCID: PMC3256305  PMID: 22259734
Overactive urinary bladder; Pediatrics; Constipation
16.  Treatment success for overactive bladder with urinary urge incontinence refractory to oral antimuscarinics: a review of published evidence 
BMC Urology  2009;9:18.
Background
Treatment options for overactive bladder (OAB) with urinary urge incontinence (UUI) refractory to oral antimuscarinics include: botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA), sacral neuromodulation (SNM), and augmentation cystoplasty (AC). A standard treatment success metric that can be used in both clinical and economic evaluations of the above interventions has not emerged. Our objective was to conduct a literature review and synthesis of published measures of treatment success for OAB with UUI interventions and to identify a treatment success outcome.
Methods
We performed a literature review of primary studies that used a definition of treatment success in the OAB with UUI population receiving BoNTA, SNM, or AC. The recommended success outcome was compared to generic and disease-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) measures using data from a BoNTA treatment study of neurogenic incontinent patients.
Results
Across all interventions, success outcomes included: complete continence (n = 23, 44%), ≥ 50% improvement in incontinence episodes (n = 16, 31%), and subjective improvement (n = 13, 25%). We recommend the OAB with UUI treatment success outcome of ≥ 50% improvement in incontinence episodes from baseline. Using data from a neurogenic BoNTA treatment study, the average change in the Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire was 8.8 (95% CI: -4.7, 22.3) higher for those that succeeded (N = 25) versus those that failed (N = 26). The average change in the SF-6D preference score was 0.07 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.12) higher for those that succeeded versus those that failed.
Conclusion
A treatment success definition that encompasses the many components of underlying OAB with UUI symptoms is currently not practical as a consequence of difficulties in measuring urgency. The treatment success outcome of ≥ 50% improvement in incontinence episodes was associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in disease-specific HRQoL for those with neurogenic OAB with UUI. The recommended success definition is less restrictive than a measure such as complete continence but includes patients who are satisfied with treatment and experience meaningful improvement in symptoms. A standardized measure of treatment success will be useful in clinical and health economic applications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-9-18
PMCID: PMC2788579  PMID: 19930578
17.  Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB) in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness.
Methods
A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL.
Results
The diabetic (third group) and nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group) and the nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group) had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group) and without (fourth group) OAB was not significant.
Conclusions
This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.2.67
PMCID: PMC3713244  PMID: 23869270
Overactive urinary bladder; Urinary bladder; Diabetes mellitus
18.  The Urologist's View of Male Overactive Bladder: Discrepancy between Reality and Belief in Practical Setting 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(3):432-437.
Purpose
In order to gain insight into the physicians' awareness of and attitude towards management of overactive bladder (OAB) in males, we performed a nationwide survey of the current strategies that urologists use to diagnose and manage OAB in male patients.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a random sample of 289 Korean urologists were mailed a structured questionnaire that explored how they manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Results
A total of 185 completed questionnaires were returned. The consent rate in the survey was 64.5%. Eighty-one (44%) urologists believed that of all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 20% or more had OAB and 72 (39%) believed that 10-20% had OAB. Half of the urologists surveyed believed that the most bothersome symptom in male OAB patients was nocturia. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported that they prescribed alpha blockers with anticholinergics for first line management, while 19% of urologists prescribed alpha blocker monotherapy but not anticholinergics for OAB patients. Though acute urinary retention (AUR) was considered the anticholinergic adverse event of most concern, the most frequently observed adverse event was dry mouth (95%).
Conclusion
The present study provides insights into urologist views of male OAB. There is a discrepancy between the awareness of urologists and actual patterns of diagnosis and treatment of male OAB. This finding indicates the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.3.432
PMCID: PMC2852801  PMID: 20376898
Overactive bladder; physician's practice patterns; bladder outlet obstruction; benign prostatic hyperplasia; anticholinergics
19.  Darifenacin treatment for overactive bladder in patients who expressed dissatisfaction with prior extended-release antimuscarinic therapy 
Introduction and objective:
Patient perception of overactive bladder (OAB) treatment outcomes can be a useful indicator of benefit and may help drive persistence on treatment, which is known to be poor in OAB. It remains unclear whether OAB patients dissatisfied with one antimuscarinic can achieve satisfaction with another and supporting data are limited. This study investigated patient-reported outcomes and clinical parameters during darifenacin treatment in OAB patients who expressed dissatisfaction with prior extended-release (ER) oxybutynin or tolterodine therapy (administered for ≥ 1 week within the past year).
Methods:
This open-label study was conducted in darifenacin-naïve OAB patients. Patients received 7.5 mg darifenacin once daily with the possibility of up-titrating to 15 mg after 2 weeks, for up to 12 weeks. Efficacy parameters included the Patient’s Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), patient satisfaction with treatment, micturition frequency and number of urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded.
Results:
In total, 497 patients were treated (84.1% women). Darifenacin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in PPBC scores, micturition frequency, urgency and UUI episodes from baseline at 12 weeks. The improvements were similar for patients previously treated with oxybutynin ER or tolterodine ER. More than 85% of patients expressed satisfaction with darifenacin. As noted in other studies, the most common AEs were dry mouth and constipation, but these infrequently resulted in treatment discontinuation, which was low overall.
Conclusions:
In this study, PPBC score and OAB symptoms were significantly improved, and satisfaction was high during treatment with darifenacin (7.5/15 mg) in patients who were dissatisfied with the previous antimuscarinic treatment.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01893.x
PMCID: PMC2680263  PMID: 18811599
20.  Effects of flexible-dose fesoterodine on overactive bladder symptoms and treatment satisfaction: an open-label study 
Aims:
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment.
Methods:
This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject’s and physician’s subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed.
Results:
Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all p< 0.0001). Approximately 80% of subjects who responded to the TSQ at week 12 reported satisfaction with treatment; 38% reported being very satisfied. Using the PPBC, 83% of subjects reported improvement at week 12 with 59% reporting improvement ≥ 2 points. Significant improvements from baseline (p< 0.0001) exceeding the minimally important difference (10 points) were observed in OAB-q Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) scales and all four HRQL domains. Dry mouth (23%) and constipation (5%) were the most common adverse events; no safety issues were identified.
Conclusion:
Flexible-dose fesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of treatment satisfaction and was well tolerated in subjects with OAB who were dissatisfied with prior tolterodine therapy.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02035.x
PMCID: PMC2705818  PMID: 19348029
21.  The Efficacy and Safety of Propiverine Hydrochloride in Patients with Overactive Bladder Symptoms Who Poorly Responded to Previous Anticholinergic Agents 
Advances in Urology  2011;2011:714978.
Objectives. To prospectively examine the efficacy and safety of propiverine hydrochloride in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms who poorly responded to previous treatment with solifenacin, tolterodine or imidafenacin. Methods. Patients aged ≥20 with persisting OAB symptoms (≥6 in OAB symptom score (OABSS)) even after at least 4-week treatment using solifenacin, tolterodine or imidafenacin were enrolled. Propiverine 20 mg/day was administered for 12 weeks to 70 patients who desired the further improvement of OAB symptoms and 3 who had intolerable adverse events of previous drugs. The OABSS and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) were determined before and at 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Of 73 patients enrolled (29 males and 44 females, median age 71 years), 52 completed the protocol treatment. The OABSS was significantly improved by propiverine treatment (9.0 at baseline, 6.2 at 4 weeks, 6.3 at 12 weeks (P < 0.001)). The scores of OAB symptoms (nighttime frequency, urgency and urge incontinence) except daytime frequency also improved significantly. No increase in PVR was observed. The most frequent adverse event was dry mouth (13.7%), followed by constipation (6.8%). Conclusions. Propiverine is useful to improve OAB for patients who poorly respond to solifenacin, tolterodine or imidafenacin.
doi:10.1155/2011/714978
PMCID: PMC3130959  PMID: 21747845
22.  Role of fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder 
Muscarinic receptors have long been the target receptors for treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB). These patients experience symptoms of urgency, urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary leakage of urine associated with urge). Fesoterodine, a pro-drug, structurally and functionally related to tolterodine, is the newest agent developed for the treatment of OAB. Fesoterodine is broken down to the active metabolite, 5-hydroxy-methyl-tolterodine (5-HMT) by non-specific esterases. This metabolism results in the complete breakdown of the parent compound and is responsible for dose related improvements in clinical efficacy and health related quality of life. Like other antimuscarinic agents including tolterodine, fesoterodine is associated with improvements in clinical variables related both to bladder filling (decreasing micturition frequency and increasing mean voided volume) and urgency (urgency and urge incontinence episodes). Improvements in health related quality of life following treatment with fesoterodine is indicated by improvements in 7 of the 9 variables measured by the King’s Health Questionnaire. Also like other antimuscarinic agents, fesoterodine use is associated with adverse events including dry mouth. However the incidence of dry mouth is reduced with fesoterodine, compared to oxybutynin, due to the improved bladder selectivity of 5-HMT.
PMCID: PMC3818872  PMID: 24198608
fesoterodine; 5-hydroxymethy1-tolterodine; muscarinic; overactive bladder; urgency; incontinence
23.  Effect of Anticholinergic Use for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder on Cognitive Function in Post-Menopausal Women 
Clinical drug investigation  2012;32(10):697-705.
Background
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition affecting the elderly. The mainstay of treatment for OAB is medical therapy with anticholinergics. However, adverse events have been reported with this class of drugs including cognitive changes.
Objective
To investigate the effect of an anticholinergic medication on cognitive function in postmenopausal women being treated for OAB.
Study Design
Prospective cohort study conducted from January to December 2010, with 12-week follow-up after medication initiation.
Setting
Urogynecology clinic at one academic medical center.
Patients
Women age 55 or older seeking treatment for OAB and opting for anticholinergic therapy were recruited.
Intervention
Baseline cognitive function was assessed via the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised Form (HVLT-R) (and its 5 subscales), the Orientation, Memory & Concentration (OMC) short form, and the Mini-Cog evaluation. After initiation of trospium chloride extended release, cognitive function was reassessed at Day 1, Week 1, Week 4 and Week 12. Bladder function was assessed via three condition-specific quality of life questionnaires. Secondary outcomes included change in bladder symptoms, correlation between cognitive and bladder symptoms, and overall medication compliance.
Main Outcome Measure
Change in HVLT-R score at Week 4 after medication initiation, compared to baseline (pre-medication) score.
Results
Of 50 women enrolled, 35 completed the assessment. Average age was 70.4 years and 77.1% had previously taken anticholinergic medication for OAB. At enrollment 65.7% had severe overactive bladder and 71.4% had severe urge incontinence. Cognitive function showed an initial decline on Day 1 in HVLT-R total score (p=0.037), HVLT-R Delayed Recognition subscale (p=0.011) and HVLT-R Recognition Bias subscale (p=0.01). At Week 1 the HVLT-R Learning subscale declined from baseline (p=0.029). All HVLT-R scores normalized by Week 4. OMC remained stable throughout. The Mini-Cog nadired at a 90.9% pass rate at Week 4. OAB symptoms did not improve until Week 4, based on questionnaire scores (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Cognitive function exhibited early changes after initiation of trospium chloride but normalized within four weeks. Cognitive changes occurred weeks prior to OAB symptom improvement. Surveillance for cognitive changes with anticholinergic use should be part of OAB management.
doi:10.2165/11635010-000000000-00000
PMCID: PMC3572901  PMID: 22873491
Anticholinergic; Cognitive Function; Elderly; Overactive Bladder
24.  Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency 
BMC Urology  2007;7:9.
Background
Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence.
Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB), a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency.
Methods
Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution) and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected.
At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation.
Results
At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM). After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17%) considered that their urinary condition had improved enough to repeat the treatment. At 1 and 3 months after RTX the number of episodes of urgency decreased to 39 ± 9 (p = 0.002) and 37 ± 6 (p = 0.02), respectively (p indicates statistical differences against vehicle). The percentage of patients with subjective improvement after RTX and willing to repeat the instillation at a later occasion was 69%.
Conclusion
In OAB patients with refractory urgency bladder desensitization should be further investigated as an alternative to the standard management. Additionally, the specific effect of RTX on TRPV1 receptors suggests that urothelium and sub-urothelial C-fibers play an important role to the generation of urgency sensation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-7-9
PMCID: PMC1903357  PMID: 17561998
25.  Behavioral Intervention versus Pharmacotherapy or Their Combinations in the Management of Overactive Bladder Dysfunction 
Advances in Urology  2009;2009:345324.
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) refers to individuals with the following symptoms: urinary urgency, increased urinary frequency, and urge incontinence. These symptoms are not life threatening but can cause embarrassment and significantly impact quality of life. There are numerous treatment options for OAB, including behavioral therapy, traditional pharmacological therapy or a combination of the two. These options are considered the mainstay of treatment for OAB. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review of the available literature on the effectiveness of behavioral intervention, anticholinergic drugs, and their combination in the management of adults with overactive bladder, with emphasis on results from clinical trials and primary literature. Each treatment intervention is efficacious, and the choice should be based on the patient's severity of symptoms, tolerability, compliance and satisfaction with the treatment. Based on available literature, management of OAB using a combination of behavioral therapy and drug intervention is the most efficacious in terms of patient satisfaction, perceived improvement, and reduction of bladder symptoms. It is also the most practical and cost effective for optimal management of patients with OAB. Pharmacological treatment, in addition to behavioral therapy, remains important in the management of adults with OAB syndrome.
doi:10.1155/2009/345324
PMCID: PMC2796220  PMID: 20029638

Results 1-25 (441264)