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1.  Meeting Report from the Second “Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations” (MIBBI) workshop 
Standards in Genomic Sciences  2010;3(3):259-266.
This report summarizes the proceedings of the second workshop of the ‘Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations’ (MIBBI) consortium held on Dec 1-2, 2010 in Rüdesheim, Germany through the sponsorship of the Beilstein-Institute. MIBBI is an umbrella organization uniting communities developing Minimum Information (MI) checklists to standardize the description of data sets, the workflows by which they were generated and the scientific context for the work. This workshop brought together representatives of more than twenty communities to present the status of their MI checklists and plans for future development. Shared challenges and solutions were identified and the role of MIBBI in MI checklist development was discussed. The meeting featured some thirty presentations, wide-ranging discussions and breakout groups. The top outcomes of the two-day workshop as defined by the participants were: 1) the chance to share best practices and to identify areas of synergy; 2) defining a series of tasks for updating the MIBBI Portal; 3) reemphasizing the need to maintain independent MI checklists for various communities while leveraging common terms and workflow elements contained in multiple checklists; and 4) revision of the concept of the MIBBI Foundry to focus on the creation of a core set of MIBBI modules intended for reuse by individual MI checklist projects while maintaining the integrity of each MI project. Further information about MIBBI and its range of activities can be found at http://mibbi.org/.
doi:10.4056/sigs.147362
PMCID: PMC3035314  PMID: 21304730
2.  Statistical filtering for NMR based structure generation 
The constitutional assignment of natural products by NMR spectroscopy is usually based on 2D NMR experiments like COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. The difficulty of a structure elucidation problem depends more on the type of the investigated molecule than on its size. Saturated compounds can usually be assigned unambiguously by hand using only COSY and 13C-HMBC data, whereas condensed heterocycles are problematic due to their lack of protons that could show interatomic connectivities. Different computer programs were developed to aid in the structural assignment process, one of them COCON. In the case of unsaturated and substituted molecules structure generators frequently will generate a very large number of possible solutions. This article presents a "statistical filter" for the reduction of the number of results. The filter works by generating 3D conformations using smi23d, a simple MD approach. All molecules for which the generation of constitutional restraints failed were eliminated from the result set. Some structural elements removed by the statistical filter were analyzed and checked against Beilstein. The automatic removal of molecules for which no MD parameter set could be created was included into WEBCOCON. The effect of this filter varies in dependence of the NMR data set used, but in no case the correct constitution was removed from the resulting set.
doi:10.1186/1758-2946-3-31
PMCID: PMC3174868  PMID: 21835037
3.  Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography combined with tilted-angle-rotation evaporation: A versatile method for fabrication of low-cost and large-area complex plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials 
Summary
Many nano-optical applications require a suitable nanofabrication technology. Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography has proven to be a low-cost and large-area alternative for the fabrication of complex plasmonic nanostructures as well as metamaterials. In this paper, we describe the fabrication process step by step. We manufacture a variety of different plasmonic structures ranging from simple nano-antennas over complex chiral structures to stacked composite materials for applications such as sensing. Additionally, we give details on the control of the nanostructure lateral density which allows for the multilayer-fabrication of complex nanostructures. In two accompanying movies, the fabrication strategy is explained and details are being demonstrated in the lab. The movies can be found at the website of Beilstein TV.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.5.68
PMCID: PMC4077317  PMID: 24991494
hole-mask colloidal nanolithography; localized surface plasmon resonance sensing; low-cost large-area plasmonic nanostructures; multilayer fabrication; surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SERS)
4.  How Large Is the Metabolome? A Critical Analysis of Data Exchange Practices in Chemistry 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(5):e5440.
Background
Calculating the metabolome size of species by genome-guided reconstruction of metabolic pathways misses all products from orphan genes and from enzymes lacking annotated genes. Hence, metabolomes need to be determined experimentally. Annotations by mass spectrometry would greatly benefit if peer-reviewed public databases could be queried to compile target lists of structures that already have been reported for a given species. We detail current obstacles to compile such a knowledge base of metabolites.
Results
As an example, results are presented for rice. Two rice (oryza sativa) subspecies have been fully sequenced, oryza japonica and oryza indica. Several major small molecule databases were compared for listing known rice metabolites comprising PubChem, Chemical Abstracts, Beilstein, Patent databases, Dictionary of Natural Products, SetupX/BinBase, KNApSAcK DB, and finally those databases which were obtained by computational approaches, i.e. RiceCyc, KEGG, and Reactome. More than 5,000 small molecules were retrieved when searching these databases. Unfortunately, most often, genuine rice metabolites were retrieved together with non-metabolite database entries such as pesticides. Overlaps from database compound lists were very difficult to compare because structures were either not encoded in machine-readable format or because compound identifiers were not cross-referenced between databases.
Conclusions
We conclude that present databases are not capable of comprehensively retrieving all known metabolites. Metabolome lists are yet mostly restricted to genome-reconstructed pathways. We suggest that providers of (bio)chemical databases enrich their database identifiers to PubChem IDs and InChIKeys to enable cross-database queries. In addition, peer-reviewed journal repositories need to mandate submission of structures and spectra in machine readable format to allow automated semantic annotation of articles containing chemical structures. Such changes in publication standards and database architectures will enable researchers to compile current knowledge about the metabolome of species, which may extend to derived information such as spectral libraries, organ-specific metabolites, and cross-study comparisons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005440
PMCID: PMC2673031  PMID: 19415114
5.  Nanotechnology 
Executive Summary
Objective
Due to continuing advances in the development of structures, devices, and systems with a length of about 1 to 100 nanometres (nm) (1 nm is one billionth of a metre), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a horizon scanning appraisal of nanotechnologies as new and emerging technologies, including an assessment of the possibly disruptive impact of future nanotechnologies.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States proclaimed a 2015 challenge goal of eliminating suffering and death from cancer. To help meet this goal, the NCI is engaged in a concerted effort to introduce nanotechnology “to radically change the way we diagnose, treat and prevent cancer.” It is the NCI’s position that “melding nanotechnology and cancer research and development efforts will have a profound, disruptive effect on how we diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.”
Thus, this appraisal sought to determine the systemic effects of nanotechnologies that target, image and deliver drugs, for example, with respect to health human resources, training, and new specialties; and to assess the current status of these nanotechnologies and their projected timeline to clinical utilization.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Cancer is a heterogeneous set of many malignant diseases. In each sex, 3 sites account for over one-half of all cancers. In women, these are the breast (28%), colorectum (13%) and lungs (12%). In men, these are the prostate (28%), lungs (15%), and the colorectum (13%).
It is estimated that 246,000 people in Ontario (2% of the population) have been diagnosed with cancer within the past 10 years and are still alive. Most were diagnosed with cancer of the breast (21%), prostate (20%), or colon or rectum (13%).
The number of new cancer cases diagnosed each year in Ontario is expected to increase from about 53,000 in 2001 to 80,000 in 2015. This represents more than a 50% increase in new cases over this period. An aging population, population growth, and rising cancer risk are thought to be the main factors that will contribute to the projected increase in the number of new cases.
The Technology Being Reviewed - Medical Advisory Secretariat Definition of Nanotechnology
First-Generation Nanotechnologies
Early application of nanotechnology-enabled products involved drug reformulation to deliver some otherwise toxic drugs (e.g., antifungal and anticancer agents) in a safer and more effective manner.
Examples of first-generation nanodevices include the following:
liposomes;
albumin bound nanoparticles;
gadolinium chelate for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);
iron oxide particles for MRI;
silver nanoparticles (antibacterial wound dressing); and
nanoparticulate dental restoratives.
First-generation nanodevices have been in use for several years; therefore, they are not the focus of this report.
Second-Generation Nanotechnologies
Second-generation nanotechnologies are more sophisticated than first- generation nanotechnologies, due to novel molecular engineering that enables the devices to target, image, deliver a therapeutic agent, and monitor therapeutic efficacy in real time. Details and examples of second-generation nanodevices are discussed in the following sections of this report.
Review Strategy
The questions asked were as follows:
What is the status of these multifunctional nanotechnologies? That is, what is the projected timeline to clinical utilization?
What are the systemic effects of multifunctional nanodevices with integrated applications that target, image, and deliver drugs? That is, what are the implications of the emergence of nanotechnology on health human resources training, new specialties, etc.?
The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its usual search techniques to conduct the literature review by searching relevant databases. Outcomes of interest were improved imaging, improved sensitivity or specificity, improved response rates to therapeutic agents, and decreased toxicity.
Results
The search yielded 1 health technology assessment on nanotechnology by The Centre for Technology Assessment TA-Swiss and, in the grey literature, a technology review by RAND. These, in addition to data from the National Cancer Institute (United States) formed the basis for the conclusions of the review.
With respect to the question as to how soon until nanotechnology is used in patient care, overall, the use of second-generation nanodevices, (e.g., quantum dots [QDs]), nanoshells, dendrimers) that can potentially target, image, and deliver drugs; and image cell response to therapy in real time are still in the preclinical benchwork stage.
Table 1 summarizes the projected timelines to clinical utilization.
Summary of Timelines to Clinical Use*
NCI refers to National Cancer Institute; QD, quantum dot.
Medical Advisory Secretariat Estimated Timeline for Ontario
Upon synthesizing the estimated timelines from the NCI, the Swiss technology assessment and the RAND reports (Figure 1), it appears that:
the clinical use of separate imaging and therapeutic nanodevices is estimated to start occurring around 2010;
the clinical use of combined imaging and therapeutic nanodevices is estimated to start occurring around 2020;
changes in the way disease is diagnosed, treated and monitored are anticipated; and
the full (and realistic) extent of these changes within the next 10 to 20 years is uncertain.
Medical Advisory Secretariat Estimated Timeline for the Clinical Use of Second-Generation Nanodevices in Ontario
With respect to the question on potential systemic effects of second-generation nanodevices (i.e., the implications of the emergence of these nanodevices on health human resources training, new specialties etc.), Table 2 summarizes the findings from the review.
Potential Systemic Effects Caused by Second Generation Nanodevices*
MRI indicates magnetic resonance imaging; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; QD, quantum dot.
Uncertainties Not Addressed in the Literature
The United States National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) funds a variety of research in the economic, ethical, legal, and cultural implications of the use of nanotechnology, as well as the implications for science, education and quality of life.
There are many uncertainties that are sparsely or not addressed at all in the literature regarding second generation nanodevices. These include the following:
long-term stability and toxicology of nanodevices;
cost-effectiveness of nanodevices;
refinement of specific targeting;
effects on hospitals, physician/nurse training, creation/removal of specialties; and
that pertaining to the question, where does disease begin if therapy is applied before the symptoms have appeared?
PMCID: PMC3379172  PMID: 23074489
6.  Real inflation of journal prices: medical journals, U.S. journals, and Brandon list journals. 
Increases in price during the last twenty years were studied for the journals listed in the 1983 Brandon list, and during the last fifteen years for all medical journals and for U.S. periodicals overall. When compared with increases in the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prices in all three categories of publications have increased much more rapidly than have prices overall. Libraries whose journal-acquisition budgets increased merely at the same rate as the CPI during the periods examined today can purchase only 50% to 70% of the journals they purchased in 1963. This information should help librarians justify budget increases.
PMCID: PMC227257  PMID: 6652296
7.  Update on inflation of journal prices: medical journals, U.S. journals, and Brandon/Hill list journals. 
This paper examines the increases in prices for the last twenty years for the journals listed in the 1987 Brandon/Hill list and for the last twelve years for those on a list of medical and general periodicals published annually in Library Journal. This information is compared to the general U.S. inflation rate as measured by the Consumer Price Index. Despite the decline in the general rate of inflation, the buying power of libraries has continued to dwindle. Librarians need to use this information when justifying increased budget requests. They also need to interact more effectively with publishers to resolve this problem. The buying power of the dollar (as compared to the 1975 dollar) spent on the Brandon/Hill list journals is now 59% of that of a dollar spent in the general economy. This compares to 64% in 1983, when this research was last updated.
PMCID: PMC227304  PMID: 2720211
8.  Do new Ethical Issues Arise at Each Stage of Nanotechnological Development? 
Nanoethics  2011;6(1):29-37.
The literature concerning ethical issues associated with nanotechnologies has become prolific. However, it has been claimed that ethical problems are only at stake with rather sophisticated nanotechnologies such as active nanostructures, integrated nanosystems and heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, whereas more basic nanotechnologies such as passive nanostructures mainly pose technical difficulties. In this paper I argue that fundamental ethical issues are already at stake with this more basic kind of nanotechnologies and that ethics impacts every kind of nanotechnologies, already from the simplest kind of engineered nanoproducts. These ethical issues are mainly associated with the social desirability of nanotechnologies, with the difficulties to define nanotechnologies properly, with the important uncertainties surrounding nanotechnologies, with the threat of ‘nano-divide’, and with nanotechnology as ‘dual-use technology’.
doi:10.1007/s11569-011-0137-8
PMCID: PMC3343232  PMID: 22611458
Ethics; Equity; Dual-use technology; Generations of nanotechnologies; Informed consent; Nano-divide; Nanotechnologies; Precautionary principle; Risk; Social desirability; Uncertainty; Philosophy; Ethics; Philosophy of Science; Philosophy of Technology; Nanotechnology
9.  ‘Nanodentistry’: Exploring the beauty of miniature 
Feynman’s early vision in 1959 gave birth to the concept of nanotechnology. He saw it as an unavoidable development in the progress of science and said that there is plenty of room at the bottom. Since then, nanotechnology has been part of mainstream scientific theory with potential medical and dental applications. Numerous theoretical predictions have been made based on the potential applications of nanotechnology in dentistry, with varying levels of optimism. While a few layers of nanotechnologic capability have become a reality for oral health in the last decade, many of these applications are still in their puerile stage .The most substantial contribution of nanotechnology to dentistry till date, is the more enhanced restoration of tooth structure with nanocomposites. The field of nanotechnology has tremendous potential, which if harnessed efficiently, can bring out significant benefits to the human society such as improved health, better use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. The future holds in store an era of dentistry in which every procedure will be performed using equipments and devices based on nanotechnology. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology in dentistry.
Key words:Nanotechnology, nanodentistry, nanocomposites.
doi:10.4317/jced.50720
PMCID: PMC3908795  PMID: 24558536
10.  Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview 
Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have arisen regarding the safety of nanomaterials, and researchers and companies will need to prove that these nanotechnologies do not have more of a negative impact on the environment.
Video abstract
doi:10.2147/NSA.S39406
PMCID: PMC4038422  PMID: 24966671
agriculture; food; nanotechnology; nanoparticle; nanopesticides; nanosensors; smart delivery systems
11.  Comparative analysis of nanotechnology awareness in consumers and experts in South Korea 
International Journal of Nanomedicine  2014;9(Suppl 2):21-27.
Purpose
This study examined the need for public communication about nanotechnologies and nanoparticles by providing a comparative analysis of the differences in risk awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles between consumers and experts.
Methods
A total of 1,007 consumers and 150 experts participated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared examining their awareness of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials and their view of the necessity for information and education about the latest nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.
Results
Our results indicated that the expert group recognized that they knew more than consumers about nanotechnology and that there was a need for relevant education in nanotechnology and nanomaterials among consumers. We found that the consumer group had a more positive attitude toward nanotechnology, even though they did not know much about it. Moreover, the consumer group was inconclusive about the type of information on nanotechnology deemed necessary for the public, as well as the suitable party to be responsible for education and for delivering the information.
Conclusion
An education and promotion program targeting consumers should be established to overcome the differences between consumers and experts in their awareness of nanotechnology. Specifically, the establishment of concepts for nanomaterials or nanoproducts is required immediately. With clear standards on nanomaterials, consumers can make informed decisions in selecting nanoproducts in the market.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S57921
PMCID: PMC4279757  PMID: 25565823
comparative analysis; survey; consumers; experts; nanomaterials
12.  The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences in Its 18th Year: A Look at the Journal’s Growth 
As a small—although growing—journal based in Malaysia, the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS) has faced several challenges in the past, such as promoting our journal as well as making sure our article bank does not go empty. However, we strive to improve ourselves by taking all means necessary to increase the quantity and, most importantly, quality of our publications, as well as to increase our journal’s visibility and citability. This editorial will focus on MJMS statistics throughout 2011—where MJMS turned 18—as well as future plans for our journal.
PMCID: PMC3431739  PMID: 22973132
manuscripts; publishing; reports; special events; statistics
13.  Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience 
CytoJournal  2014;11:10.
Background:
The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology.
Design:
We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts.
Results:
Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both). The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45).
Conclusion
We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.
doi:10.4103/1742-6413.131739
PMCID: PMC4058908  PMID: 24987441
Citations; impact; open access; publication
14.  Factors Affecting Journal Quality Indicator in Scopus (SCImago Journal Rank) in Obstetrics and Gynecology Journals: a Longitudinal Study (1999-2013) 
Acta Informatica Medica  2014;22(6):385-388.
Introduction:
Awareness of the latest scientific research and publishing articles in top journals is one of the major concerns of health researchers. In this study, we first introduced top journals of obstetrics and gynecology field based on their Impact Factor (IF), Eigenfactor Score (ES) and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) indicator indexed in Scopus databases and then the scientometric features of longitudinal changes of SJR in this field were presented.
Method and material:
In our analytical and bibiliometric study, we included all the journals of obstetrics and gynecology field which were indexed by Scopus from 1999 to 2013. The scientometric features in Scopus were derived from SCImago Institute and IF and ES were obtained from Journal Citation Report through the Institute for Scientific Information. Generalized Estimating Equation was used to assess the scientometric features affecting SJR.
Result:
From 256 journals reviewed, 54.2% and 41.8% were indexed in the Pubmed and the Web of Sciences, respectively. Human Reproduction Update based on the IF (5.924±2.542) and SJR (2.682±1.185), and American Journal of obstetrics and gynecology based on the ES (0.05685±0.00633) obtained the first rank among the other journals. Time, Index in Pubmed, H_index, Citable per Document, Cites per Document, and IF affected changes of SJR in the period of study.
Discussion:
Our study showed a significant association between SJR and scientometric features in obstetrics and gynecology journals. According to this relationship, SJR may be an appropriate index for assessing journal quality.
doi:10.5455/aim.2014.22.385-388
PMCID: PMC4315645
Journal quality; obstetrics and gynecology; Impact Factor; Eigenfactor Score; SCImago Journal Rank
15.  Endorsement of the CONSORT Statement by high impact factor medical journals: a survey of journal editors and journal 'Instructions to Authors' 
Trials  2008;9:20.
Background
The CONSORT Statement provides recommendations for reporting randomized controlled trials. We assessed the extent to which leading medical journals that publish reports of randomized trials incorporate the CONSORT recommendations into their journal and editorial processes.
Methods
This article reports on two observational studies. Study 1: We examined the online version of 'Instructions to Authors' for 165 high impact factor medical journals and extracted all text mentioning the CONSORT Statement or CONSORT extension papers. Any mention of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) or clinical trial registration were also sought and extracted. Study 2: We surveyed the editor-in-chief, or editorial office, for each of the 165 journals about their journal's endorsement of CONSORT recommendations and its incorporation into their editorial and peer-review processes.
Results
Study 1: Thirty-eight percent (62/165) of journals mentioned the CONSORT Statement in their online 'Instructions to Authors'; of these 37% (23/62) stated this was a requirement, 63% (39/62) were less clear in their recommendations. Very few journals mentioned the CONSORT extension papers. Journals that referred to CONSORT were more likely to refer to ICMJE guidelines (RR 2.16; 95% CI 1.51 to 3.08) and clinical trial registration (RR 3.67; 95% CI 2.36 to 5.71) than those journals which did not.
Study 2: Thirty-nine percent (64/165) of journals responded to the on-line survey, the majority were journal editors. Eighty-eight percent (50/57) of journals recommended authors comply with the CONSORT Statement; 62% (35/56) said they would require this. Forty-one percent (22/53) reported incorporating CONSORT into their peer-review process and 47% (25/53) into their editorial process. Eighty-one percent (47/58) reported including CONSORT in their 'Instructions to Authors' although there was some inconsistency when cross checking information on the journal's website. Sixty-nine percent (31/45) of journals recommended authors comply with the CONSORT extension for cluster trials, 60% (27/45) for harms and 42% (19/45) for non-inferiority and equivalence trials. Few journals mentioned these extensions in their 'Instructions to Authors'.
Conclusion
Journals should be more explicit in their recommendations and expectations of authors regarding the CONSORT Statement and related CONSORT extensions papers.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-9-20
PMCID: PMC2359733  PMID: 18423021
16.  Quality of nonstructured and structured abstracts of original research articles in the British Medical Journal, the Canadian Medical Association Journal and the Journal of the American Medical Association. 
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the quality of nonstructured and structured abstracts of original research articles in three medical journals. DESIGN: Blind, criterion-based observational study. SAMPLE: Random sample of 300 abstracts (25 abstracts per journal each year) of articles published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), the Canadian Medical Association Journal and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 1988 and 1989 (nonstructured abstracts) and in 1991 and 1992 (structured abstracts). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The quality of abstracts was measured against 33 objective criteria, which were divided into eight categories (purpose, research design, setting, subjects, intervention, measurement of variables, results and conclusions). The quality score was determined by dividing the number of criteria present by the number applicable; the score varied from 0 to 1. RESULTS: The overall mean quality scores for nonstructured and structured abstracts were 0.57 and 0.74 respectively (p < 0.001). The frequency in meeting the specific criteria was generally higher for the structured abstracts than for the nonstructured ones. The mean quality score was higher for nonstructured abstracts in JAMA than for those in BMJ (0.60 v. 0.54, p < 0.05). The scores for structured abstracts did not differ significantly between the three journals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support recommendations that promote the use of structured abstracts. Further studies should be performed to assess the effect of time on the quality of abstracts and the extent to which abstracts reflect the content of the articles.
PMCID: PMC1336964  PMID: 8174031
17.  Tracking the Current Rise of Chinese Pharmaceutical Bionanotechnology 
ABSTRACT
Background: The Context and Purpose of the Study
Over the last decade China has emerged as a major producer of scientific publications, currently ranking second behind the US. During that time Chinese strategic policy initiatives have placed indigenous innovation at the heart of its economy while focusing internal R&D investments and the attraction of foreign investment in nanotechnology as one of their four top areas. China’s scientific research publication and nanotechnology research publication production has reached a rank of second in the world, behind only the US. Despite these impressive gains, some scholars argue that the quality of Chinese nanotech research is inferior to US research quality due to lower overall times cited rates, suggesting that the US is still the world leader. We combine citation analysis, text mining, mapping, and data visualization to gauge the development and application of nanotechnology in China, particularly in biopharmananotechnology, and to measure the impact of Chinese policy on nanotechnology research production.
Results, the main findings
Our text mining-based methods provide results that counter existing claims about Chinese nanotechnology research quality. Due in large part to its strategic innovation policy, China’s output of nanotechnology publications is on pace to surpass US production in or around 2012.A closer look at Chinese nanotechnology research literature reveals a large increase in research activity in China’s biopharmananotechnology research since the implementation in January, 2006 of China’s Medium & Long Term Scientific and Technological Development Plan Guidelines for the period 2006-2020 (“MLP”).
Since the implementation of the MLP, China has enjoyed a great deal of success producing bionano research findings while attracting a great deal of foreign investment from pharmaceutical corporations setting up advanced drug discovery operations. Given the combination of current scientific production growth as well as economic growth, a relatively low scientific capacity, and the ability of its policy to enhance such trends, China is in some sense already the new world leader in nanotechnology. Further, the Chinese national innovation system may be the new standard by which other national S&T policies should be measured.
PMCID: PMC2850247  PMID: 19838996
18.  Nanotechnology in Corneal Neovascularization Therapy—A Review 
Abstract
Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1–100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels.1 The term “nanotechnology” was first coined in 1974.2 Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods.3 The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.
doi:10.1089/jop.2012.0158
PMCID: PMC3601629  PMID: 23425431
19.  Current status of nanomedicine and nanosurgery 
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from physics, biology, engineering, and chemistry. Applications of nanotechnology to medicine and physiology imply materials and devices designed to interact with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity. There is considerable useful information about nanotechnology available and already in use. However, at present, it is very incomplete and scattered. We realized many doctors are unaware of nanotechnology used during surgery and its future prospects in patients. Though most medical products that use nanotechnology are still in the research and development stage, there are a few which are commercially available. Nanotechnology has grown by leaps and bounds over the last few years; applications of this technology in the field of medicine and surgery have been an important spin-off. Many biological structures are at nanometer scale used by surgeons in orthopedic, dental, and neurosurgeries. This article starts with the basics of the nanotechnology and how it is utilized through most medical products. This important article, which is felt to offer high educational value for the doctors, have been selected from an extensive search on the internet, and elaborately discussed. In this review, the scientific and technical aspects of nanotechnology are introduced, and some of its potential clinical applications are discussed.
doi:10.4103/0259-1162.118976
PMCID: PMC4173536
Nanomedicine; nanosurgery; nanotechnology; smart sensors (Source: MeSH; NLM)
20.  The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content 
Journal of Nanoparticle Research  2010;12(4):1083-1094.
The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites—blogs, government, and general sites—are conducted.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-010-9860-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11051-010-9860-2
PMCID: PMC2988218  PMID: 21170132
Nanotechnology; Online content analysis; Online audiences; Information seeking; Online communication; Public perceptions; Societal implications
21.  A Boost for the Emerging Field of RNA Nanotechnology 
ACS Nano  2011;5(5):3405-3418.
This Nano Focus article highlights recent advances in RNA nanotechnology as presented at the First International Conference of RNA Nanotechnology and Therapeutics, which took place in Cleveland, OH, USA (October 23–25, 2010) (http://www.eng.uc.edu/nanomedicine/RNA2010/), chaired by Peixuan Guo and co-chaired by David Rueda and Scott Tenenbaum. The conference was the first of its kind to bring together more than 30 invited speakers in the frontier of RNA nanotechnology from France, Sweden, South Korea, China, and throughout the United States to discuss RNA nanotechnology and its applications. It provided a platform for researchers from academia, government, and the pharmaceutical industry to share existing knowledge, vision, technology, and challenges in the field and promoted collaborations among researchers interested in advancing this emerging scientific discipline. The meeting covered a range of topics, including biophysical and single-molecule approaches for characterization of RNA nanostructures; structure studies on RNA nanoparticles by chemical or biochemical approaches, computation, prediction, and modeling of RNA nanoparticle structures; methods for the assembly of RNA nanoparticles; chemistry for RNA synthesis, conjugation, and labeling; and application of RNA nanoparticles in therapeutics. A special invited talk on the well-established principles of DNA nanotechnology was arranged to provide models for RNA nanotechnology. An Administrator from National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer discussed the current nanocancer research directions and future funding opportunities at NCI. As indicated by the feedback received from the invited speakers and the meeting participants, this meeting was extremely successful, exciting, and informative, covering many groundbreaking findings, pioneering ideas, and novel discoveries.
doi:10.1021/nn200989r
PMCID: PMC3102291  PMID: 21604810
22.  Nanomedicine: Promising Tiny Machine for the Healthcare in Future-A Review 
Oman Medical Journal  2009;24(4):242-247.
One of the 21st century’s most promising technologies is nanotechnology. Nanomedicine, an offshoot of nanotechnology, refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone, muscle, or nerve. Nanotechnology is a collective term referring to technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1-100 nm. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, too small to be seen with a conventional laboratory microscope. It is at this size scale - about 100 nanometers or less - that biological molecules and structures inside living cells operate. Therefore, nanotechnology is engineering and manufacturing at the molecular scale.
Utilities of nanotechnology to biomedical sciences imply creation of materials and devices designed to interact with the body at sub-cellular scales with a high degree of specificity. This could be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications aimed at maximal therapeutic effects with very limited adverse-effects. Nanomedicine can offer impressive resolutions for various life threatening diseases. Disease areas which can be expected to benefit most from nanotechnology within the next few years are cancer, diseases of the cardiovascular system, the lungs, blood, neurological (especially neurodegenerative) diseases, diabetes, inflammatory/infectious diseases, Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease and orthopaedic problems. In the first half of the 21st century, nanomedicine should eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century, and virtually all medical pain. This article presents an overview of some of the applications of nanotechnology in nanomedicine.
doi:10.5001/omj.2009.50
PMCID: PMC3243873  PMID: 22216376
23.  Public optimism towards nanomedicine 
Background
Previous benefit–risk perception studies and social experiences have clearly demonstrated that any emerging technology platform that ignores benefit–risk perception by citizens might jeopardize its public acceptability and further development. The aim of this survey was to investigate the Italian judgment on nanotechnology and which demographic and heuristic variables were most influential in shaping public perceptions of the benefits and risks of nanotechnology.
Methods
In this regard, we investigated the role of four demographic (age, gender, education, and religion) and one heuristic (knowledge) predisposing factors.
Results
The present study shows that gender, education, and knowledge (but not age and religion) influenced the Italian perception of how nanotechnology will (positively or negatively) affect some areas of everyday life in the next twenty years. Furthermore, the picture that emerged from our study is that Italian citizens, despite minimal familiarity with nanotechnology, showed optimism towards nanotechnology applications, especially those related to health and medicine (nanomedicine). The high regard for nanomedicine was tied to the perception of risks associated with environmental and societal implications (division among social classes and increased public expenses) rather than health issues. However, more highly educated people showed greater concern for health issues but this did not decrease their strong belief about the benefits that nanotechnology would bring to medical fields.
Conclusion
The results reported here suggest that public optimism towards nanomedicine appears to justify increased scientific effort and funding for medical applications of nanotechnology. It also obligates toxicologists, politicians, journalists, entrepreneurs, and policymakers to establish a more responsible dialog with citizens regarding the nature and implications of this emerging technology platform.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S26340
PMCID: PMC3260040  PMID: 22267931
nanotechnology; nanomedicine; nanodrugs; benefit perception; risk perception; societal impact
24.  Nanoplatforms for constructing new approaches to cancer treatment, imaging, and drug delivery: What should be the policy? 
NeuroImage  2010;54(Suppl 1):S106-S124.
Nanotechnology is the design and assembly of submicroscopic devices called nanoparticles, which are 1–100 nm in diameter. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Disease-specific receptors on the surface of cells provide useful targets for nanoparticles. Because nanoparticles can be engineered from components that (1) recognize disease at the cellular level, (2) are visible on imaging studies, and (3) deliver therapeutic compounds, nanotechnology is well suited for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases. Nanotechnology will enable earlier detection and treatment of diseases that are best treated in their initial stages, such as cancer. Advances in nanotechnology will also spur the discovery of new methods for delivery of therapeutic compounds, including genes and proteins, to diseased tissue. A myriad of nanostructured drugs with effective site-targeting can be developed by combining a diverse selection of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic components. Incorporating immune target specificity with nanostructures introduces a new type of treatment modality, nano-immunochemotherapy, for patients with cancer. In this review, we will discuss the development and potential applications of nanoscale platforms in medical diagnosis and treatment. To impact the care of patients with neurological diseases, advances in nanotechnology will require accelerated translation to the fields of brain mapping, CNS imaging, and nanoneurosurgery. Advances in nanoplatform, nano-imaging, and nano-drug delivery will drive the future development of nanomedicine, personalized medicine, and targeted therapy. We believe that the formation of a science, technology, medicine law–healthcare policy (STML) hub/center, which encourages collaboration among universities, medical centers, US government, industry, patient advocacy groups, charitable foundations, and philanthropists, could significantly facilitate such advancements and contribute to the translation of nanotechnology across medical disciplines.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.105
PMCID: PMC3524337  PMID: 20149882
Nanoplatforms; Nanotechnology; Image-guided therapy; Nanomedicine; Nanoneurosurgery; Nanostructures; Contrast agents; Nanoparticles; Nanotechnology policy; Nano-radiology; Nano-neuroscience; Nano-neurology
25.  Food nanotechnology – an overview 
Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.
PMCID: PMC3781769  PMID: 24198465
nanotechnology; nanofood; food packaging; nanoparticles; nanoencapsulation

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