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1.  Kitasato symposium 2010: new prospects for cytokines 
The Second Kitasato Symposium: New Prospects for Cytokines brought together researchers and rheumatologists to consider the essential role of cytokines in health and their contributions to autoimmunity. Topics addressed during the Symposium - which was held in Berlin, Germany from 27 to 29 May 2010 - included established and new cytokine targets in arthritis and autoimmunity and innovative aspects of osteoimmunology as well as current perspectives from translational and clinical studies. The keynote lecture, delivered by George Kollias, focused on insights gained from animal models into the mechanisms of TNF function in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The presentations at the Symposium resulted in productive discussions regarding potential new targets for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders.
PMCID: PMC3046527  PMID: 21235827
2.  Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition 
The Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition was held in Berlin, Germany from 7 to 9 May 2009. The key aims of this meeting were to bring together a group of front-line researchers and rheumatologists to evaluate the use of cytokine blockade and to examine the role of certain cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A keynote lecture delivered by Professor Jean-Michel Dayer provided an up-to-date overview of the interactions occurring between the immune system and acute phase proteins. Other speakers discussed the role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis, including their role in joint destruction, as well as their regulatory role upon T cells and B cells. The involvement of cytokines in other autoimmune diseases was also addressed.
PMCID: PMC3003512  PMID: 20067593
3.  Key outcomes from stakeholder workshops at a symposium to inform the development of an Australian national plan for rare diseases 
Calls have been made for governments to adopt a cohesive approach to rare diseases through the development of national plans. At present, Australia does not have a national plan for rare diseases. To progress such a plan an inaugural Australian Rare Diseases Symposium was held in Western Australia in April 2011. This paper describes the key issues identified by symposium attendees for the development of a national plan, compares these to the content of EUROPLAN and national plans elsewhere and discusses how the outcomes might be integrated for national planning.
The symposium was comprised of a series of plenary sessions followed by workshops. The topics covered were; 1) Development of national plans for rare diseases; 2) Patient empowerment; 3) Patient care, support and management; 4) Research and translation; 5) Networks, partnerships and collaboration. All stakeholders within the rare diseases community were invited to participate, including: people affected by rare diseases such as patients, carers, and families; clinicians and allied health practitioners; social and disability services; researchers; patient support groups; industry (e.g. pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device companies); regulators and policy-makers.
All of these stakeholder groups were represented at the symposium. Workshop participants indicated the need for a national plan, a national peak body, a standard definition of ‘rare diseases’, education campaigns, lobbying of government, research infrastructure, streamlined whole-of-lifetime service provision, case co-ordination, early diagnosis, support for health professionals and dedicated funding.
These findings are consistent with frameworks and initiatives being undertaken internationally (such as EUROPLAN), and with national plans in other countries. This implies that the development of an Australian national plan could plausibly draw on frameworks for plan development that have been proposed for use in other jurisdictions. The translation of the symposium outcomes to government policy (i.e. a national plan) requires the consideration of several factors such as the under-representation of some stakeholder groups (e.g. clinicians) and the current lack of evidence required to translate some of the symposium outcomes to policy options. The acquisition of evidence provides a necessary first step in a comprehensive planning approach.
PMCID: PMC3488492  PMID: 22883422
National plan; Rare diseases; Stakeholder consultation
4.  The Precarious State of the Liver After a Fontan Operation: Summary of a Multidisciplinary Symposium 
Pediatric Cardiology  2012;33(7):1001-1012.
As the cohort of survivors with the single-ventricle type of congenital heart disease grows, it becomes increasingly evident that the state of chronically elevated venous pressure and decreased cardiac output inherent in the Fontan circulation provides the substrate for a progressive decline in functional status. One organ at great risk is the liver. Wedged between two capillary beds, with the pulmonary venous bed downstream, which typically has no pulsatile energy added in the absence of a functional right ventricle, and the splanchnic bed upstream, which may have compromised inflow due to inherent cardiac output restriction characteristic of the Fontan circulation, the liver exists in a precarious state. This review summarizes a consensus view achieved at a multidisciplinary symposium held at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in June 2011. The discussion includes current knowledge concerning the hemodynamic foundations of liver problems, the diagnostic tools available, the unique histopathology of the liver after the Fontan operation, and proposed mechanisms for hepatic fibrosis at the cellular level. At the completion of the symposium, a consensus recommendation was made by the authors’ group to pursue a new prospective protocol for clinical evaluation of the liver for all patients in our practice 10 years after the Fontan operation.
PMCID: PMC3442163  PMID: 22534759
Decreased cardiac output; Elevated venous pressure; Fontan operation; Hepatic fibrosis; Liver
5.  Impact of Platelet Transfusion on Survival of Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage after Administration of Anti-Platelet Agents at a Tertiary Emergency Center 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97328.
This study examined the impact of platelet transfusion (PLT) on the survival of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients who had been administered anti-platelet agents (APA). This retrospective cohort analysis investigated 432 patients (259 men, 60%) who were newly diagnosed with ICH between January 2006 and June 2011 at the tertiary emergency center of Kitasato University Hospital. Median age on arrival was 67.0 years (range, 40–95 years). ICH was subcortical in 72 patients (16.7%), supratentorial in 233 (53.9%), and infratentorial in 133 (30.8%). PLT was performed in 16 patients (3.7%). Within 90 days after admission to the center, 178 patients (41.2%) had died due to ICH. Before the onset of ICH, 66 patients had been prescribed APA because of atherosclerotic diseases. Multivariate regression analysis indicated APA administration was an independent risk factor for death within 7 days (odds ratio, 5.12; P = 0.006) and within 90 days (hazard ratio, 1.87; P = 0.006) after arrival. Regarding the effect of a PLT in ICH patients with APA, no patient with PLT died. PLT had a survival benefit on patients with ICH, according to our analysis. Further prospective analysis is necessary to confirm the effects of PLT on survival in ICH with APA.
PMCID: PMC4037183  PMID: 24869669
6.  Highlights from the Student Council Symposium 2011 at the International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology and European Conference on Computational Biology 
BMC Bioinformatics  2011;12(Suppl 11):A1.
The Student Council (SC) of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) organized their annual symposium in conjunction with the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference.
This meeting report summarizes the scientific content of the Student Council Symposium 2011 as well as other activities organized by the Student Council in the context of ISMB. The symposium was held in Vienna, Austria on July 15th 2011.
PMCID: PMC3277250
7.  Translational medicine as a new clinical tool and application which improves metabolic diseases: perspectives from 2012 Sino-American symposium on clinical and translational medicine 
Because of the economic growth and changes in lifestyle, metabolic diseases have become a major public health problem, which impose heavy economic burdens on individuals, families and health systems. However, its precise mediators and mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Clinical translational medicine (CTM) is an emerging area comprising multidisciplinary research from basic science to medical applications and as a new tool to improve human health by reducing disease incidence, morbidity and mortality. It can bridge knowledge of metabolic diseases processes, gained by in vitro and experimental animal models, with the disease pathways found in humans, further to identify their susceptibility genes and enable patients to achieve personalized medicament treatment. Thus, we have the reasons to believe that CTM will play even more roles in the development of new diagnostics, therapies, healthcare, and policies and the Sino-American Symposium on Clinical and Translational Medicine (SAS-CTM) will become a more and more important platform for exchanging ideas on clinical and translational research and entails a close collaboration among hospital, academia and industry.
PMCID: PMC3996143  PMID: 24512772
Metabolic diseases; Clinical translational medicine; Hepatotoxicity; Colorectal cancer; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; microRNAs
8.  The global cancer genomics consortium's third annual symposium: from oncogenomics to cancer care 
Genes & Cancer  2014;5(3-4):64-70.
The Global Cancer Genomics Consortium (GCGC) is a cohesive network of oncologists, cancer biologists and structural and genomic experts residing in six institutions from Portugal, United Kingdom, Japan, India, and United States. The team is using its combined resources and infrastructures to address carefully selected, shared, burning questions in cancer medicine. The Third Annual Symposium was organized by the Institute of Molecular Medicine, Lisbon Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal, from September 18 to 20, 2013. To highlight the benefits and limitations of recent advances in cancer genomics, the meeting focused on how to better translate our gains in oncogenomics to cancer patients while engaging our younger colleagues in cancer medicine at-large. Over two hundreds participants actively discussed some of the most recent advances in the areas cancer genomics, transcriptomics and cancer system biology and how to best apply such knowledge to cancer therapeutics, biomarkers discovery and drug development, and an essential role played by bio-banking throughout the process. In brief, the GCGC symposium provided a platform for students and translational cancer researchers to share their excitement and worries as we are beginning to translate the gains in oncogenomics to a better cancer patient treatment.
PMCID: PMC4091529
Oncogenomics; Cancer Biomarkers; Cancer Therapy
9.  Development and promotion in translational medicine: perspectives from 2012 sino-american symposium on clinical and translational medicine 
Clinical translational medicine (CTM) is an emerging area comprising multidisciplinary research from basic science to medical applications and entails a close collaboration among hospital, academia and industry.
This Session focused discussing on new models for project development and promotion in translational medicine. The conference stimulated the scientific and commercial communication of project development between academies and companies, shared the advanced knowledge and expertise of clinical applications, and created the environment for collaborations.
Although strategic collaborations between corporate and academic institutions have resulted in a state of resurgence in the market, new cooperation models still need time to tell whether they will improve the translational medicine process.
PMCID: PMC3561049  PMID: 23369198
10.  SSAT/AHPBA Joint Symposium on Evaluation and Treatment of Benign Liver Lesions 
Benign liver lesions are common incidental radiologic findings.
Experts convened in 2011 at a Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract/ Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association joint symposium to discuss the evaluation and treatment of benign liver lesions.
Most benign liver lesions can be accurately diagnosed with high-quality imaging, including ultrasonography, multiphase computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, particularly with hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. Percutaneous biopsy is reserved for lesions that cannot be characterized radiographically, and its accuracy is improved with immunophenotypic markers. Hepatic cysts are the most commonly diagnosed benign liver lesions; these must be distinguished from malignant cystic lesions, which are rare. Among the solid benign liver lesions, hemangiomas and focal nodular hyperplasia seldom require treatment. In contrast, hepatocellular adenomas are associated with a risk for complications. A new classification system for hepatocellular adenomas based on genetic and phenotypic features can help guide patient care. In patients who are symptomatic or at risk for complications, multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment based on clinicopathologic, radiographic, and molecular analysis is needed.
Most benign liver lesions can be accurately diagnosed radiographically and do not require treatment. Treatment is necessary for patients with symptoms or at risk for complications.
PMCID: PMC3628697  PMID: 23377783
Liver; cyst; hemangioma; adenoma; focal nodular hyperplasia
11.  Cheminformatics Aspects of High Throughput Screening: from Robots to Models: Symposium Summary 
The “Cheminformatics aspects of high throughput screening (HTS): from robots to models” symposium was part of the Computers in Chemistry (COMP) technical program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in Denver, Colorado during the fall of 2011. This symposium brought together researchers from high throughput screening centersand molecular modelers from academia and industry to discuss the integration of currently available high throughput screening data and assays with computational analysis. The topics discussed at this symposium covered the data-infrastructure at various academic, hospital, and NIH-funded high throughput screening centers, the cheminformatics and molecular modeling methods used in real world examples to guide screening and hit-finding, and how academic and non-profit organizations can benefit from current high throughput screening cheminformatics resources. Specifically, this article also covers the remarks and discussions in the open panel discussion in thesymposium and summarizes the following talks on “Accurate Kinase virtual screening: biochemical, cellular and selectivity”, “Selective, privileged and promiscuous chemical patterns in high-throughput screening” and “Visualizing and exploring relationships among HTS hits using network graphs”.
PMCID: PMC4205101  PMID: 23636795
Cheminformatics; high throughput screening; molecular modeling; data-infrastructure
12.  Reflections of a Member of the Bicentennial Class on the Bicentennial Symposium 
This perspective piece explores what it means to be a first-year medical student at Yale School of Medicine during its bicentennial year. At first, it seemed like a hefty burden to bear. However, upon listening to Dr. Eric Kandel speak at the Bicentennial Symposium at Yale on April 28, 2011, it became clear what it means to be a part of the future of science and medicine at Yale.
PMCID: PMC3117409  PMID: 21698047
perspective; opinion; medical student; Yale; symposium
13.  What is new in the liver sinusoids? meeting report, 16th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid (ISCHS) 
The 16th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid (ISCHS) took place in Florence, Italy on 22-24 September 2011. This symposium is a multidisciplinary meeting where new and important findings on the biology of liver cells are presented and discussed.
PMCID: PMC3283502  PMID: 22166123
14.  Interstitial Fluid Physiology as It Relates to Glucose Monitoring Technologies: Symposium Introduction 
Nearly all commercially available glucose sensors share the subcutaneous interstitial fluid (ISF) compartment as their preferred implantation site. However, ISF physiology as it relates to glucose sensors is not well understood. This special symposium titled “Interstitial Fluid Physiology as It Relates to Glucose Monitoring Technologies” is intended to help to bridge the gap in our understanding. This symposium is intended to foster a greater understanding of biological factors that impact the success of implantable glucose monitors and to inspire additional research in the area of ISF physiology as it relates to glucose sensing. Recognition that sensor designers need to have an intimate understanding of the biological environment in which their sensor will reside is emphasized. The symposium is published in two parts, with part I published in September 2010 and part II published in May 2011. All articles published in this symposium are summarized herein.
PMCID: PMC3192624  PMID: 21722573
artificial pancreas; continuous glucose monitoring; extracellular matrix; foreign body response; interstitial fluid
15.  1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in MS: Gait and Balance Measures in the Evaluation of People with MS 
Gait and balance measures have particular potential as outcome measures in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) because, of the many hallmarks of MS disability, gait and balance dysfunction are present throughout the course of the disease, impact many aspects of a person's life, and progress over time. To highlight the importance and relevance of gait and balance measures in MS, explore novel measurements of gait and balance in MS, and discuss how gait, balance, and fall measures can best be used and developed in clinical and research settings, the 1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in Multiple Sclerosis was held in Portland, Oregon, USA on October 1, 2011. This meeting brought together nearly 100 neurologists, physiatrists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, engineers, and others to discuss the current status and recent advances in the measurement of gait and balance in MS. Presentations focused on clinician-administered, self-administered, and instrumented measures of gait, balance, and falls in MS.
PMCID: PMC3385660  PMID: 22762000
16.  Hepatitis C Virus: The Rising Concerns and Growing Hopes, Report From the HCV Symposium, Fourth Tehran Hepatitis Congress, November 2011, Tehran, Iran 
Hepatitis Monthly  2012;12(7):423-429.
The rising concerns for future health burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in global scale has continuously encouraged preventing measures particularly public awareness programs. There is an increasing necessity for allocating HCV awareness issues in public scope, especially for high risk populations and patients. Proper knowledge of health care professionals and treating physicians and their attitude with regard to hepatitis C management is also crucial. Achieving this can be a constructive step forward in controlling and hopefully eradicating hepatitis C virus in our community. Having a clear scientific grasp on treatment options and protocols, the concept of “CURE” achievement in hepatitis C and the future hopes in enhancing virological response with the coming direct antiviral agents can significantly add to the current practices of treating hepatitis C. This scientific report paper outlines the insights communicated at the HCV symposium during the 4th Tehran Hepatitis Congress, November 2011, Tehran, Iran.
PMCID: PMC3437452
Hepatitis C; Congresses; Iran
17.  Integrated diagnostics: proceedings from the 9th biennial symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology 
European Radiology  2012;22(11):2283-2294.
The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its 9th biennial meeting in August 2011. The focus of the programme was integrated diagnostics and massive computing. Participants discussed the opportunities, challenges, and consequences for the discipline of radiology that will likely arise from the integration of diagnostic technologies. Diagnostic technologies are increasing in scope, including advanced imaging techniques, new molecular imaging agents, and sophisticated point-of-use devices. Advanced information technology (IT), which is increasingly influencing the practice of medicine, will aid clinical communication and the development of “population images” that represent the phenotype of particular diseases, which will aid the development of diagnostic algorithms. Integrated diagnostics offer increased operational efficiency and benefits to patients through quicker and more accurate diagnoses. As physicians with the most expertise in IT, radiologists are well placed to take the lead in introducing IT solutions and cloud computing to promote integrated diagnostics. To achieve this, radiologists must adapt to include quantitative data on biomarkers in their reports. Radiologists must also increase their role as participating physicians, collaborating with other medical specialties, not only to avoid being sidelined by other specialties but also to better prepare as leaders in the selection and sequence of diagnostic procedures.
Key Points
• New diagnostic technologies are yielding unprecedented amounts of diagnostic information.
• Advanced IT/cloud computing will aid integration and analysis of diagnostic data.
• Better diagnostic algorithms will lead to faster diagnosis and more rapid treatment.
PMCID: PMC3472054  PMID: 22699871
Radiology; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Informatics; Algorithms; Efficiency; Organizational
18.  Proceedings of the 2011 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium 
Toxicologic pathology  2011;40(2):321-344.
The 2011 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Denver, Colorado in advance of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology’s 30th Annual Meeting. The goal of the NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers’ presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for audience voting or discussion. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium include: proliferative lesions from various fish species including ameloblastoma, gas gland hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hepatocellular hyperplasia, and malignant granulosa cell tumor; spontaneous cystic hyperplasia in the stomach of CD1 mice and histiocytic aggregates in the duodenal villous tips of treated mice; an olfactory neuroblastoma in a cynomolgus monkey; various rodent skin lesions, including follicular parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, adnexal degeneration, and epithelial intracytoplasmic accumulations; oligodendroglioma and microgliomas in rats; a diagnostically challenging microcytic, hypochromic, responsive anemia in rats; a review of microcytes and microcytosis; nasal lesions associated with green tea extract and Ginkgo biloba in rats; corneal dystrophy in Dutch belted rabbits; valvulopathy in rats; and lymphoproliferative disease in a cynomolgus monkey.
PMCID: PMC3490626  PMID: 22089839
NTP Satellite Symposium; ameloblastoma; gas gland hyperplasia; stomach cystic hyperplasia; sodium dichromate dihydrate; olfactory neuroblastoma; cynomolgus monkey; adnexal degeneration; parakeratotic hyperkeratosis; oligodendroglioma; microglioma; microcytic hypochromic anemia; microcytosis; spherocytosis; poikilocytosis; green tea; Ginkgo biloba; corneal dystrophy; Dutch belted rabbit valvulitis; valvulopathy; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease
19.  Unraveling the genetic underpinnings of myeloproliferative neoplasms and understanding their effect on disease course and response to therapy: Proceedings from the 6th International Post-ASH Symposium 
American journal of hematology  2012;87(5):562-568.
Immediately after the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), a select group of clinical and laboratory investigators in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is summoned to a post-ASH conference on chronic myeloid leukemia and the BCR-ABL1-negative MPN. The 6th such meeting occurred on 13th–14th December 2011, in La Jolla, California, USA, under the direction of its founder, Dr. Tariq Mughal. The current document is the first of two reports on this post-ASH event and summarizes the most recent preclinical and clinical advances in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3491640  PMID: 22460584
ASXL1; EZH2; JAK2; myelofibrosis; myeloproliferative neoplasms; TET2; thrombocythemia
20.  SOT Symposium Highlight: Translatable Indicators of Testicular Toxicity: Inhibin B, MicroRNAs, and Sperm Signatures 
Toxicological Sciences  2013;136(2):265-273.
Testicular toxicity is an important safety endpoint in drug development and risk assessment, but reliable and translatable biomarkers for predicting injury have eluded researchers. However, this area shows great potential for improvement, with several avenues currently being pursued. This was the topic of a symposium session during the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in San Antonio, TX, entitled “Translatable Indicators of Testicular Toxicity: Inhibin B, MicroRNAs, and Sperm Signatures.” This symposium brought together stakeholders from academia, government, and industry to present the limitations and drawbacks of currently used indicators of injury and discussed the ongoing efforts in developing more predictive biomarkers of injury. The presentations highlighted the early challenges of using circulating inhibin B and microRNA levels, and sperm messenger RNA transcript abundance and DNA methylation profiles, as novel biomarkers of testicular toxicity.
PMCID: PMC3858194  PMID: 24052563
biomarkers; testicular toxicity; inhibin B; microRNA; sperm.
21.  The Global Cancer Genomics Consortium’s Second Annual Symposium 
Genes & Cancer  2013;4(5-6):196-200.
The Second Annual Symposium of the Global Cancer Genomics Consortium (GCGC) was held at the Tata Memorial Center in Mumbai, India, from November 19 to 20, 2012. Founded in late 2010, the GCGC aims to provide a platform for highly productive, collaborative efforts on next-generation cancer research through bridging the latest scientific and technology developments with clinical oncology challenges. This year’s presenters brought together highly innovative interdisciplinary views and strategies to meet major challenges in cancer research. The symposium featured 3 major themes: OMICS approaches toward the identification of cancer molecular drivers, single-cell analysis in cancer, and clinical and translational genomics. Each theme was represented in presentations of new findings, with an obvious implication in cross-disciplinary components of OMICs and an overwhelming participation by students. In summary, the GCGC symposium provided a discussion and congregation of the latest advances in basic and translational cancer research and offered the participants with a highly cooperative network environment for future collaboration.
PMCID: PMC3782003
genomics medicine; anticancer target; cancer therapy
22.  26th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 3–6 December 2003: update on preclinical and translational research 
Breast Cancer Research  2004;6(2):E10.
The San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium is the largest annual meeting devoted solely to breast cancer research. The late William L McGuire's vision for this meeting was to stimulate 'translational research', many years before this term became popular. In this way, the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium represents a forum in which basic and clinical researchers present their research side by side. Each year sees the continued evolution of our understanding of the basic mechanisms of breast cancer initiation and progression, and the clinical application of this knowledge. Major topics of discussion at the symposium this year were the cell cycle, new evolving concepts of estrogen receptor action, breast cancer stem cells, new predictive and prognostic markers (including microarray studies), and continued exploration of the mechanisms of drug resistance. This report will summarize preclinical and translational highlights from the meeting.
PMCID: PMC400657  PMID: 14979916
BRCA1; cell cycle; drug resistance; estrogen receptor; growth factor receptors; microarray; prognostic and predictive markers
23.  Towards an HIV cure: science and debate from the International AIDS Society 2013 symposium 
Retrovirology  2013;10:134.
The International AIDS Society convened the multi-stakeholder “Towards an HIV Cure” symposium in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2013 to address the significant research challenges posed by the search for a cure for HIV infection. Current antiretroviral regimens select for a small reservoir of cells that harbour latent HIV provirus, produce few or no HIV virions, and resist detection or clearance by host immunity. The symposium examined basic molecular science and animal model data, and emerging and ongoing clinical trial results to prioritise strategies and determine the viral and immune responses that could lead to HIV remission without ART. Here we review the presentations that scrutinized the molecular mechanisms controlling virus expression from proviral DNA, and the intrinsic cellular restriction and immune mechanisms preventing viral production. Insights from the basic science have translated into new therapeutic strategies seeking HIV remission without ongoing therapy, and much interest was focused on these ongoing trials. We also summarise the emerging ethical issues and patient expectations as concepts move into the clinic.
PMCID: PMC3828479  PMID: 24224983
24.  The USCACA hosted symposiums at the 7th CACA annual meeting and the 15th CSCO annual meeting in Beijing 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(11):505-506.
In September 2012, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) hosted two symposiums in Beijing. The USCACA hosted the first joint session at the 7th annual meetings of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA), themed on “Collaboration between the US and China in Cancer Research.” Six experts from the United States and China presented their latest work on basic and translational cancer research. During this symposium, 5 young Chinese scholars, returnees after their training in the United States, were honored the “AFCR-USCACA Scholarships Award.” The USCACA hosted a second symposium during the 15th annual meeting of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO), focused on the “US-China Collaboration in Cancer Drug Clinical Development.” An international delegation of oncology experts presented the innovative clinical trial strategies and discussed the biomarkers for cancer early detection and clinical trials, targeted therapy, and new drug development. The Oncology Drug Clinical Development and Safety Evaluation Committee was also launched to promote an innovative environment and to provide a collaborative platform for anti-cancer drug development in China.
PMCID: PMC3777516  PMID: 23121765
25.  Proceedings of the First International Optogenetic Therapies for Vision Symposium 
Optogenetics is a research field that uses gene therapy to deliver a gene encoding a light-activated protein to cells providing light-regulated control of targeted cell pathways. The technology is a popular tool in many fields of neuroscience, used to transiently switch cells on and off, for example, to map neural circuits. In inherited retinal degenerative diseases, where loss of vision results from the loss of photoreceptors, optogenetics can be applied to either augment the function of surviving photoreceptors or confer light sensitivity to naturally nonlight sensitive retinal cells, such as a bipolar cells. This can be achieved either by the light sensitive protein integrating with native internal signaling pathways, or by using a dual function membrane protein that integrates light signaling with an ion channel or pump activity. Exposing treated cells to light of the correct wavelength activates the protein, resulting in cellular depolarization or hyperpolarization that triggers neurological signaling to the visual cortex.
While there is a lot of interest in optogenetics as a pan-disease clinical treatment for end-stage application in the inherited degenerative diseases of the retina, research to date has been limited to nonhuman clinical studies. To address the clinical translational needs of this technology, the Foundation Fighting Blindness and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary cohosted an International Optogenetic Therapies for Vision Workshop, which was held at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts on June 1, 2012.
PMCID: PMC3860355  PMID: 24349882
optogenetics; vision; retina; gene therapy

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