To investigate preoperative characteristics that distinguish favourable and unfavourable pathological and clinical outcomes in men with high biopsy Gleason sum (8 – 10) prostate cancer to better select men who will most benefit from radical prostatectomy (RP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS
The Institutional Review Board-approved institutional RP database (1982 – 2010) was analysed for men with high-Gleason prostate cancer on biopsy; 842 men were identified.
The 10-year biochemical-free (BFS), metastasis-free (MFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan – Meier method to verify favourable pathology as men with Gleason <8 at RP or ≤ pT3a compared with men with unfavourable pathology with Gleason 8 – 10 and pT3b or N1.
Preoperative characteristics were compared using appropriate comparative tests.
Logistic regression determined preoperative predictors of unfavourable pathology.
There was favourable pathology in 656 (77.9%) men. The 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS were 31.0%, 60.9% and 74.8%, respectively.
In contrast, men with unfavourable pathological findings had significantly worse 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS, at 4.3%, 29.1% and 52.3%, respectively (all P < 0.001).
In multivariable logistic regression, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of > 10 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38 – 3.62, P = 0.001), advanced clinical stage (≥ cT2b; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.55 – 4.21, P < 0.001), Gleason pattern 9 or 10 at biopsy (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.59 – 4.09, P < 0.001), increasing number of cores positive with high-grade cancer (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.34, P = 0.04) and > 50% positive core involvement (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17 – 4.35, P = 0.015) were predictive of unfavourable pathology.
Men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy are at high risk for biochemical recurrence, metastasis and death after RP; men with high Gleason sum and advanced pathological stage (pT3b or N1) have the worst prognosis.
Among men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy, a PSA concentration of > 10 ng/mL, clinical stage ≥ T2b, Gleason pattern 9 or 10, increasing number of cores with high-grade cancer and > 50% core involvement are predictive of unfavourable pathology.