Tiling array and novel sequencing technologies have made available the transcription profile of the entire human genome. However, the extent of transcription and the function of genetic elements that occur outside of protein-coding genes, particularly those involved in disease, are still a matter of debate. In this review, we focus on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are involved in cancer. We define lncRNAs and present a cancer-oriented list of lncRNAs, list some tools (for example, public databases) that classify lncRNAs or that scan genome spans of interest to find whether known lncRNAs reside there, and describe some of the functions of lncRNAs and the possible genetic mechanisms that underlie lncRNA expression changes in cancer, as well as current and potential future applications of lncRNA research in the treatment of cancer.
long non-coding RNAs; cancer; online databases; function
Recent large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that transcription is spread throughout the mammalian genomes, yielding large numbers of transcripts, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with little or no protein-coding capacity. Dozens of lncRNAs have been identified as biologically significant. In many cases, lncRNAs act as key molecules in the regulation of processes such as chromatin remodeling, transcription, and post-transcriptional processing. Several lncRNAs (e.g., MALAT1, HOTAIR, and ANRIL) are associated with human diseases, including cancer. Those lncRNAs associated with cancer are often aberrantly expressed. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate cancer development are unclear, recent studies have revealed that such aberrant expression of lncRNAs affects the progression of cancers. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding the roles of lncRNAs in cancer biology.
large non-coding RNA; cancer; disease; MALAT1; HOTAIR; ANRIL
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as a key group of non-coding RNAs have gained widely attention. Though lncRNAs have been functionally annotated and systematic explored in higher mammals, few are under systematical identification and annotation. Owing to the expression specificity, known lncRNAs expressed in embryonic brain tissues remain still limited. Considering a large number of lncRNAs are only transcribed in brain tissues, studies of lncRNAs in developmental brain are therefore of special interest. Here, publicly available RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data in embryonic brain are integrated to identify thousands of embryonic brain lncRNAs by a customized pipeline. A significant proportion of novel transcripts have not been annotated by available genomic resources. The putative embryonic brain lncRNAs are shorter in length, less spliced and show less conservation than known genes. The expression of putative lncRNAs is in one tenth on average of known coding genes, while comparable with known lncRNAs. From chromatin data, putative embryonic brain lncRNAs are associated with active chromatin marks, comparable with known lncRNAs. Embryonic brain expressed lncRNAs are also indicated to have expression though not evident in adult brain. Gene Ontology analysis of putative embryonic brain lncRNAs suggests that they are associated with brain development. The putative lncRNAs are shown to be related to possible cis-regulatory roles in imprinting even themselves are deemed to be imprinted lncRNAs. Re-analysis of one knockdown data suggests that four regulators are associated with lncRNAs. Taken together, the identification and systematic analysis of putative lncRNAs would provide novel insights into uncharacterized mouse non-coding regions and the relationships with mammalian embryonic brain development.
Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proposed to be the largest transcript class in the mouse and human transcriptomes. Two important questions are whether all lncRNAs are functional and how they could exert a function. Several lncRNAs have been shown to function through their product, but this is not the only possible mode of action. In this review we focus on a role for the process of lncRNA transcription, independent of the lncRNA product, in regulating protein-coding-gene activity in cis. We discuss examples where lncRNA transcription leads to gene silencing or activation, and describe strategies to determine if the lncRNA product or its transcription causes the regulatory effect.
Gene expression regulation; Histone modifications; lincRNA; lncRNA; Silencing; Transcriptional interference
A significant portion of the genome is transcribed as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), several of which are known to control gene expression. The repertoire and regulation of lncRNAs in disease-relevant tissues, however, has not been systematically explored. We report a comprehensive strand-specific transcriptome map of human pancreatic islets and β-cells, and uncover >1100 intergenic and antisense islet-cell lncRNA genes. We find islet lncRNAs that are dynamically regulated, and show that they are an integral component of the β-cell differentiation and maturation program. We sequenced the mouse islet transcriptome, and identify lncRNA orthologs that are regulated like their human counterparts. Depletion of HI-LNC25, a β-cell specific lncRNA, downregulated GLIS3 mRNA, thus exemplifying a gene regulatory function of islet lncRNAs. Finally, selected islet lncRNAs were dysregulated in type 2 diabetes or mapped to genetic loci underlying diabetes susceptibility. These findings reveal a new class of islet-cell genes relevant to β-cell programming and diabetes pathophysiology.
Study on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been promoted by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). However, it is still not trivial to identify lncRNAs from the RNA-Seq data and it remains a challenge to uncover their functions.
We present a computational pipeline for detecting novel lncRNAs from the RNA-Seq data. First, the genome-guided transcriptome reconstruction is used to generate initially assembled transcripts. The possible partial transcripts and artefacts are filtered according to the quantified expression level. After that, novel lncRNAs are detected by further filtering known transcripts and those with high protein coding potential, using a newly developed program called lncRScan. We applied our pipeline to a mouse Klf1 knockout dataset, and discussed the plausible functions of the novel lncRNAs we detected by differential expression analysis. We identified 308 novel lncRNA candidates, which have shorter transcript length, fewer exons, shorter putative open reading frame, compared with known protein-coding transcripts. Of the lncRNAs, 52 large intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) show lower expression level than the protein-coding ones and 13 lncRNAs represent significant differential expression between the wild-type and Klf1 knockout conditions.
Our method can predict a set of novel lncRNAs from the RNA-Seq data. Some of the lncRNAs are showed differentially expressed between the wild-type and Klf1 knockout strains, suggested that those novel lncRNAs can be given high priority in further functional studies.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcribed from intergenic and intronic regions of the human genome constitute a broad class of cellular transcripts that are under intensive investigation. While only a handful of lncRNAs have been characterized, their involvement in fundamental cellular processes that control gene expression highlights a central role in cell homeostasis. Not surprisingly, aberrant expression of regulatory lncRNAs has been increasingly documented in different types of cancer, where they can mediate both oncogenic or tumor suppressor effects. Interaction with chromatin remodeling complexes that promote silencing of specific genes or modulation of splicing factor proteins seem to be two general modes of lncRNA regulation, but it is conceivable that additional mechanisms of action are yet to be unveiled. LncRNAs show greater tissue specificity compared to protein-coding mRNAs making them attractive in the search of novel diagnostics/prognostics cancer biomarkers in body fluid samples. In fact, lncRNA prostate cancer antigen 3 can be detected in urine samples and has been shown to improve diagnosis of prostate cancer. We suggest that an unbiased screening of the presence of RNAs in easily accessible body fluids such as serum and urine might reveal novel circulating lncRNAs as potential biomarkers in many types of cancer. Annotation and functional characterization of the lncRNA complement of the cancer transcriptome will conceivably provide new venues for early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
long non-coding RNA; cancer; diagnostics; expression signature
Here, we present LNCipedia (http://www.lncipedia.org), a novel database for human long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts and genes. LncRNAs constitute a large and diverse class of non-coding RNA genes. Although several lncRNAs have been functionally annotated, the majority remains to be characterized. Different high-throughput methods to identify new lncRNAs (including RNA sequencing and annotation of chromatin-state maps) have been applied in various studies resulting in multiple unrelated lncRNA data sets. LNCipedia offers 21 488 annotated human lncRNA transcripts obtained from different sources. In addition to basic transcript information and gene structure, several statistics are determined for each entry in the database, such as secondary structure information, protein coding potential and microRNA binding sites. Our analyses suggest that, much like microRNAs, many lncRNAs have a significant secondary structure, in-line with their presumed association with proteins or protein complexes. Available literature on specific lncRNAs is linked, and users or authors can submit articles through a web interface. Protein coding potential is assessed by two different prediction algorithms: Coding Potential Calculator and HMMER. In addition, a novel strategy has been integrated for detecting potentially coding lncRNAs by automatically re-analysing the large body of publicly available mass spectrometry data in the PRIDE database. LNCipedia is publicly available and allows users to query and download lncRNA sequences and structures based on different search criteria. The database may serve as a resource to initiate small- and large-scale lncRNA studies. As an example, the LNCipedia content was used to develop a custom microarray for expression profiling of all available lncRNAs.
Recently, the attention of the research community has been focused on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their physiological/pathological implications. As the number of experiments increase in a rapid rate and transcriptional units are better annotated, databases indexing lncRNA properties and function gradually become essential tools to this process. Aim of DIANA-LncBase (www.microrna.gr/LncBase) is to reinforce researchers’ attempts and unravel microRNA (miRNA)–lncRNA putative functional interactions. This study provides, for the first time, a comprehensive annotation of miRNA targets on lncRNAs. DIANA-LncBase hosts transcriptome-wide experimentally verified and computationally predicted miRNA recognition elements (MREs) on human and mouse lncRNAs. The analysis performed includes an integration of most of the available lncRNA resources, relevant high-throughput HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP experimental data as well as state-of-the-art in silico target predictions. The experimentally supported entries available in DIANA-LncBase correspond to >5000 interactions, while the computationally predicted interactions exceed 10 million. DIANA-LncBase hosts detailed information for each miRNA–lncRNA pair, such as external links, graphic plots of transcripts’ genomic location, representation of the binding sites, lncRNA tissue expression as well as MREs conservation and prediction scores.
Emerging evidence showed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes and dysregulated lncRNAs are involved in many complex human diseases, including cancer. Although a few lncRNAs’ functions in cancer have been characterized, the detailed regulatory mechanisms of majority of lncRNAs in cancer initiation and progression remain largely unknown. In this review, we summarized recent progress on the mechanisms and functions of lncRNAs in cancer, especially focusing on the oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles of the newly identified lncRNAs, and the pathways these novel molecules might be involved in. Their potentials as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in cancer are also discussed in this paper.
Although recent data suggest that some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert widespread effects on gene expression and organelle formation, lncRNAs as a group constitute a sizable but poorly characterized fraction of the human transcriptome. We investigated whether some human lncRNA sequences were fortuitously represented on commonly used microarrays, then used this annotation to assess lncRNA expression in human brain. A computational and annotation pipeline was developed to identify lncRNA transcripts represented on Affymetrix U133 arrays. A previously published dataset derived from human nucleus accumbens (hNAcc) was then examined for potential lncRNA expression. Twenty-three lncRNAs were determined to be represented on U133 arrays. Of these, dataset analysis revealed that five lncRNAs were consistently detected in samples of hNAcc. Strikingly, the abundance of these lncRNAs was upregulated in human heroin abusers compared to matched drug-free control subjects, a finding confirmed by quantitative PCR. This study presents a paradigm for examining existing Affymetrix datasets for the detection and potential regulation of lncRNA expression, including changes associated with human disease. The finding that all detected lncRNAs were upregulated in heroin abusers is consonant with the proposed role of lncRNAs as mediators of widespread changes in gene expression as occurs in drug abuse.
MIAT; MALAT1; MEG3; NEAT1; lncRNA; nucleus accumbens
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies.
lncRNAs; leukemia; hematologic malignancies
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), representing a large proportion of non-coding transcripts across the human genome, are evolutionally conserved and biologically functional. At least one-third of the phenotype-related loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are mapped to non-coding intervals. However, the relationships between phenotype-related loci and lncRNAs are largely unknown. Utilizing the 1000 Genomes data, we compared single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the sequences of lncRNA and protein-coding genes as defined in the Ensembl database. We further annotated the phenotype-related SNPs reported by GWAS at lncRNA intervals. Because prostate cancer (PCa) risk-related loci were enriched in lncRNAs, we then performed meta-analysis of two existing GWAS for discovery and an additional sample set for replication, revealing PCa risk-related loci at lncRNA regions. The SNP density in regions of lncRNA was similar to that in protein-coding regions, but they were less polymorphic than surrounding regions. Among the 1998 phenotype-related SNPs identified by GWAS, 52 loci were located directly in lncRNA intervals with a 1.5-fold enrichment compared with the entire genome. More than a 5-fold enrichment was observed for eight PCa risk-related loci in lncRNA genes. We also identified a new PCa risk-related SNP rs3787016 in an lncRNA region at 19q13 (per allele odds ratio = 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.11–1.27) with P value of 7.22 × 10−7. lncRNAs may be important for interpreting and mining GWAS data. However, the catalog of lncRNAs needs to be better characterized in order to fully evaluate the relationship of phenotype-related loci with lncRNAs.
AIM: To investigate the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in gastric cancer.
METHODS: Two publicly available human exon arrays for gastric cancer and data for the corresponding normal tissue were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We re-annotated the probes of the human exon arrays and retained the probes uniquely mapping to lncRNAs at the gene level. LncRNA expression profiles were generated by using robust multi-array average method in affymetrix power tools. The normalized data were then analyzed with a Bioconductor package linear models for microarray data and genes with adjusted P-values below 0.01 were considered differentially expressed. An independent data set was used to validate the results.
RESULTS: With the computational pipeline established to re-annotate over 6.5 million probes of the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array, we identified 136053 probes uniquely mapping to lncRNAs at the gene level. These probes correspond to 9294 lncRNAs, covering nearly 76% of the GENCODE lncRNA data set. By analyzing GSE27342 consisting of 80 paired gastric cancer and normal adjacent tissue samples, we identified 88 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in gastric cancer, some of which have been reported to play a role in cancer, such as LINC00152, taurine upregulated 1, urothelial cancer associated 1, Pvt1 oncogene, small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 and LINC00261. In the validation data set GSE33335, 59% of these differentially expressed lncRNAs showed significant expression changes (adjusted P-value < 0.01) with the same direction.
CONCLUSION: We identified a set of lncRNAs differentially expressed in gastric cancer, providing useful information for discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.
Long non-coding RNA; Gastric cancer; Microarray analysis; Data mining
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) study has gradually become one of the hot topics in the field of RNA biology. One lncRNA which has attracted attention is LOC285194, a lncRNA demonstrated the potential tumor-suppressor role in osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of LOC285194 in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to investigate the relationship between this lncRNA levels and existing clinicopathologic parameters and patient survival.
The expression of LOC285194 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in pairs of tumorous and adjacent normal tissues of 81 colorectal cancer patients with a follow-up of 5 years, as well as in three colorectal cancer cell lines and normal intestinal mucous cell line. Then, we analyzed the potential relationship between this lncRNA levels in tumor tissues and existing clinicopathological features of CRC, and clinical outcome.
The relative expression levels of LOC285194 was significantly lower in tumor tissues (p < 0.001) and colorectal cancer cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissues and normal intestinal mucous cell line. In addition, low expression of LOC285194 was correlated with larger tumor size (p = 0.015), higher tumor stage (p = 0.034), and more distant metastasis (p = 0.046). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low LOC285194 expression had a poor disease free survival (p = 0.010). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that decreased expression of LOC285194 was an independent predictor of disease-specific survival.
Our data indicate that LOC285194 might be a novel prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer and may be a potential target for diagnosis and gene therapy.
Colorectal cancer; Long non-coding RNAs; LOC285194; Survival
Advances in vertebrate genomics have uncovered thousands of loci encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). While progress has been made in elucidating the regulatory functions of lncRNAs, little is known about their origins and evolution. Here we explore the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to the makeup and regulation of lncRNAs in human, mouse, and zebrafish. Surprisingly, TEs occur in more than two thirds of mature lncRNA transcripts and account for a substantial portion of total lncRNA sequence (∼30% in human), whereas they seldom occur in protein-coding transcripts. While TEs contribute less to lncRNA exons than expected, several TE families are strongly enriched in lncRNAs. There is also substantial interspecific variation in the coverage and types of TEs embedded in lncRNAs, partially reflecting differences in the TE landscapes of the genomes surveyed. In human, TE sequences in lncRNAs evolve under greater evolutionary constraint than their non–TE sequences, than their intronic TEs, or than random DNA. Consistent with functional constraint, we found that TEs contribute signals essential for the biogenesis of many lncRNAs, including ∼30,000 unique sites for transcription initiation, splicing, or polyadenylation in human. In addition, we identified ∼35,000 TEs marked as open chromatin located within 10 kb upstream of lncRNA genes. The density of these marks in one cell type correlate with elevated expression of the downstream lncRNA in the same cell type, suggesting that these TEs contribute to cis-regulation. These global trends are recapitulated in several lncRNAs with established functions. Finally a subset of TEs embedded in lncRNAs are subject to RNA editing and predicted to form secondary structures likely important for function. In conclusion, TEs are nearly ubiquitous in lncRNAs and have played an important role in the lineage-specific diversification of vertebrate lncRNA repertoires.
An unexpected layer of complexity in the genomes of humans and other vertebrates lies in the abundance of genes that do not appear to encode proteins but produce a variety of non-coding RNAs. In particular, the human genome is currently predicted to contain 5,000–10,000 independent gene units generating long (>200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). While there is growing evidence that a large fraction of these lncRNAs have cellular functions, notably to regulate protein-coding gene expression, almost nothing is known on the processes underlying the evolutionary origins and diversification of lncRNA genes. Here we show that transposable elements, through their capacity to move and spread in genomes in a lineage-specific fashion, as well as their ability to introduce regulatory sequences upon chromosomal insertion, represent a major force shaping the lncRNA repertoire of humans, mice, and zebrafish. Not only do TEs make up a substantial fraction of mature lncRNA transcripts, they are also enriched in the vicinity of lncRNA genes, where they frequently contribute to their transcriptional regulation. Through specific examples we provide evidence that some TE sequences embedded in lncRNAs are critical for the biogenesis of lncRNAs and likely important for their function.
Ventricular septal defects (VSD) are the most common form of congenital heart disease, which is the leading non-infectious cause of death in children; nevertheless, the exact cause of VSD is not yet fully understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play key roles in various biological processes, such as imprinting control, circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation, immune responses and chromosome dynamics. Notably, a growing number of lncRNAs have been implicated in disease etiology, although an association with VSD has not been reported. In the present study, we conducted an integrated analysis of dysregulated lncRNAs, focusing specifically on the identification and characterization of lncRNAs potentially involving in initiation of VSD. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of cardiac tissues from VSD-affected and normal hearts was performed using a second-generation lncRNA microarray, which covers the vast majority of expressed RefSeq transcripts (29,241 lncRNAs and 30,215 coding transcripts). In total, 880 lncRNAs were upregulated and 628 were downregulated in VSD. Furthermore, our established filtering pipeline indicated an association of two lncRNAs, ENST00000513542 and RP11-473L15.2, with VSD. This dysregulation of the lncRNA profile provides a novel insight into the etiology of VSD and furthermore, illustrates the intricate relationship between coding and ncRNA transcripts in cardiac development. These data may offer a background/reference resource for future functional studies of lncRNAs related to VSD.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a heterogeneous class of RNAs that are generally defined as non-protein-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that lncRNAs can be involved in various critical biological processes, such as chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, and protein transport and trafficking. Moreover, lncRNAs are dysregulated in a number of complex human diseases, including coronary artery diseases, autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and various cancers, which indicates their important roles in these diseases. Here, we reviewed the current understanding of lncRNAs, including their definition and subclassification, regulatory functions, and potential roles in different types of complex human diseases.
non-coding RNA; long non-coding RNA; complex human disease
A major fraction of the transcriptome of higher organisms comprised an extensive repertoire of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) which express in a cell type and development stage-specific manner. While lncRNAs are a proven component of epigenetic gene expression modulation, epigenetic regulation of lncRNA itself remains poorly understood. Here we have analysed pan-genomic DNA methylation and histone modification marks (H3K4me3, H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3) associated with transcription start site (TSS) of lncRNA in four different cell types and three different tissue types representing various cellular stages. We observe that histone marks associated with active transcription H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 along with the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 have similar distribution pattern around TSS irrespective of cell types. Also, the density of these marks correlates well with expression of protein-coding and lncRNA genes. In contrast, the lncRNA genes harbour higher methylation density around TSS than protein-coding genes regardless of their expression status. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation along with the other repressive histone mark H3K9me3 does not seem to play a role in lncRNA expression. Thus, our observation suggests that epigenetic regulation of lncRNA shares common features with mRNA except the role of DNA methylation which is markedly dissimilar.
CRNDE is the gene symbol for Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed (non-protein-coding), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene that expresses multiple splice variants and displays a very tissue-specific pattern of expression. CRNDE was initially identified as a lncRNA whose expression is highly elevated in colorectal cancer, but it is also upregulated in many other solid tumors and in leukemias. Indeed, CRNDE is the most upregulated lncRNA in gliomas and here, as in other cancers, it is associated with a “stemness” signature. CRNDE is expressed in specific regions within the human and mouse brain; the mouse ortholog is high in induced pluripotent stem cells and increases further during neuronal differentiation. We suggest that CRNDE is a multifunctional lncRNA whose different splice forms provide specific functional scaffolds for regulatory complexes, such as the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and CoREST chromatin-modifying complexes, which CRNDE helps pilot to target genes.
CRNDE; lncRNA; IRX5; cancer; neurogenesis; 4933436C20Rik; multipotency; glioma
Among thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) only a small subset is functionally characterized and the functional annotation of lncRNAs on the genomic scale remains inadequate. In this study we computationally characterized two functionally different parts of human lncRNAs transcriptome based on their ability to bind the polycomb repressive complex, PRC2. This classification is enabled by the fact that while all lncRNAs constitute a diverse set of sequences, the classes of PRC2-binding and PRC2 non-binding lncRNAs possess characteristic combinations of sequence-structure patterns and, therefore, can be separated within the feature space. Based on the specific combination of features, we built several machine-learning classifiers and identified the SVM-based classifier as the best performing. We further showed that the SVM-based classifier is able to generalize on the independent data sets. We observed that this classifier, trained on the human lncRNAs, can predict up to 59.4% of PRC2-binding lncRNAs in mice. This suggests that, despite the low degree of sequence conservation, many lncRNAs play functionally conserved biological roles.
Mounting evidence suggests a major role for epigenetic feedback in Plasmodium falciparum transcriptional regulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic remodeling. We therefore set out to investigate putative roles for lncRNAs in P. falciparum transcriptional regulation.
We used a high-resolution DNA tiling microarray to survey transcriptional activity across 22.6% of the P. falciparum strain 3D7 genome. We identified 872 protein-coding genes and 60 putative P. falciparum lncRNAs under developmental regulation during the parasite's pathogenic human blood stage. Further characterization of lncRNA candidates led to the discovery of an intriguing family of lncRNA telomere-associated repetitive element transcripts, termed lncRNA-TARE. We have quantified lncRNA-TARE expression at 15 distinct chromosome ends and mapped putative transcriptional start and termination sites of lncRNA-TARE loci. Remarkably, we observed coordinated and stage-specific expression of lncRNA-TARE on all chromosome ends tested, and two dominant transcripts of approximately 1.5 kb and 3.1 kb transcribed towards the telomere.
We have characterized a family of 22 telomere-associated lncRNAs in P. falciparum. Homologous lncRNA-TARE loci are coordinately expressed after parasite DNA replication, and are poised to play an important role in P. falciparum telomere maintenance, virulence gene regulation, and potentially other processes of parasite chromosome end biology. Further study of lncRNA-TARE and other promising lncRNA candidates may provide mechanistic insight into P. falciparum transcriptional regulation.
Emerging evidence from these studies suggested that the male germ cell transcriptome is more complex than previously envisioned. In addition to protein-coding genes, the transcriptome also encodes a significant number of nonprotein-coding transcripts. These noncoding (nc) RNAs appear to be involved in a variety of cellular activities, ranging from simple housekeeping to complex regulatory functions. A class of ncR-NAs known as long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) were recently shown to be expressed in a developmentally regulated manner during brain and embryonic stem cell development. This protocol aims to predict and identify potential lncRNA candidates using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) data. We also illustrate how to validate the potential lncRNAs by expression analyses using real-time PCR and Northern Blot. Potential lncRNA candidates in male germ cells are identified using our previously established male germ cell SAGE database (GermSAGE).
Long noncoding RNA; Male germ cells; Development; SAGE
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers. In this study, we described lncRNAs profiles in 6 pairs of human renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) and the corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissues (NT) by microarray.
With abundant and varied probes accounting 33,045 LncRNAs in our microarray, the number of lncRNAs that expressed at a certain level could be detected is 17157. From the data we found there were thousands of lncRNAs that differentially expressed (≥2 fold-change) in RCCC tissues compared with NT and 916 lncRNAs differentially expressed in five or more of six RCCC samples. Compared with NT, many lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated in RCCC. Our data showed that down-regulated lncRNAs were more common than up-regulated ones. ENST00000456816, X91348, BC029135, NR_024418 were evaluated by qPCR in sixty-three pairs of RCCC and NT samples. The four lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in RCCC compared with matched histologically normal renal tissues.
Our study is the first one to determine genome-wide lncRNAs expression patterns in RCCC by microarray. The results displayed that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in RCCC compared with NT samples, which revealed that lncRNAs differentially expressed in tumor tissues and normal tissues may exert a partial or key role in tumor development. Taken together, this study may provide potential targets for future treatment of RCCC and novel insights into cancer biology.
Background and Purpose
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a significant role in cellular physiology. We evaluated the effect of focal ischemia on the expression of 8,314 lncRNAs in rat cerebral cortex using microarrays.
Ischemia was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Genomic and transcriptomic correlates of the stroke-responsive lncRNAs and the transcription factor binding sties in their promoters were evaluated with bioinformatics.
359 lncRNAs were upregulated (>2-fold) and 84 were downregulated (<0.5 fold) at 3h to 12h of reperfusion following MCAO compared to sham. 62 stroke-responsive lncRNAs showed >90% sequence homology with exons of protein-coding genes. Promoters of stroke-responsive lncRNA genes and their homologous protein-coding genes showed highly overlapping transcription factor binding sites. Despite presence of ORFs, lncRNAs did not form any product when subjected to in vitro translation.
Stroke significantly alters cerebral lncRNA expression profiles.
Stroke; Noncoding RNA; Transcription Factor; exon mimicry