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1.  Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups 
The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups.
Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected.
Author Summary
Nowadays, many approved vaccines with different components (such as purified vero cell rabies vaccine [PVRV], purified chick embryo cell vaccine [PCECV], and Human diploid cell vaccine [HDCV]) and many regimens with different vaccination schedules (Zagreb, Essen) are being used in the world. Thus, we compared the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Our data showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV with Zagreb or Essen regimen in four age groups. However, compared with the other three age groups, young children aged less than 5 years have more systemic adverse events (AEs), and lower rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 post-immunization. These findings highlight that it is important for young children, a population with more than 50% of human rabies deaths, to find the most optimal vaccine and vaccination schedule in the future.
PMCID: PMC4270726  PMID: 25522244
2.  Evaluation of a new five-injection, two-site,intradermal schedule for purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine: A randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India 
Human rabies is an ongoing significant public health problem inmany developing countries, with India reporting the highest incidence of rabies-related deaths (∼20,000 per year). Many people living in India cannot afford the standard IM postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with cell-culture vaccines, which are administered using a 5-dose regimen developed in Essen, Germany. A potentially less expensive intradermal (ID) regimen, based on the Essen regimen, has been developed at the Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bangalore, India.
The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and local and systemic tolerability of the KIMS-1D regimen with those of the standard Essen IM regimen in healthy adult volunteers in India.
This randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial was conductedat the Antirabies Clinic, Medical College, KIMS. Healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) using the KIMS-1D regimen (0.1 mL injected ID at 2 body sites on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 [“2-2-2-2-2”]) or the Essen IM regimen (1 mL injected IM at 1 body site on the same days Subjects were followed up for 365 days by the treating physician and encouraged to voluntarily report any adverse events (AEs). Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations were measured before the first injection on day 0 (baseline) and on days 14, 28, 90, 180, and 365, using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.
Ninety-one subjects were enrolled and included in the tolerabilityand immunogenicity analyses. The ID group comprised 45 subjects (26 men, 19 women; mean [SD] age, 20.84 [1.48] years); the IM group, 46 subjects (28 men, 18 women; mean [SD] age, 21.02 [1.16] years). The most common local AEs were pain at the injection site (2/225 [0.9%] in the ID group and 10/230 [4.3%] in the IM group; P < 0.006) and itching at the injection site (5/225 [2.2%] in the ID group and none in the IM group; P = 0.026). All of the AEs were transient and resolved without the need for medication. All subjects had serum RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/mL—considered protective by the World Health Organization—at all follow-up visits. However, the mean RVNA concentrations in the IM group were significantly higher compared with those in the ID group from days 14 to 365 (all, P < 0.001).
In this study in healthy volunteers, PEP with PCECV administered using the KIMS-ID regimen was well tolerated and immunologically efficacious for 365 days. Adequate RVNA levels were maintained with the KIMS-ID regimen from days 14 to 365, although these levels were significantly lower than those achieved in the group receiving the Essen IM regimen (all, P < 0.001).
PMCID: PMC3964532  PMID: 24672132
rabies; intradermal rabies vaccination; KIMS-ID regimen; randomizedcontrolled trial
3.  Evaluation of a one week intradermal regimen for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: Results of a randomized, open label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2012;8(8):1077-1081.
The currently recommended intradermal regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis spreads over a month period which many times lead to low compliance from the patients. There is a need to introduce and evaluate short course regimens to overcome this problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a “new one week intradermal regimen” for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. A total of 80 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled and allocated randomly either to purified chick embryo cell (PCECV) rabies vaccine or purified verocell rabies vaccine (PVRV), 40 in each group. Each subject received intradermally one of the vaccines, using the one week regimen (4–4-4). Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 28,180 and 365 for estimation of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentration. The sera samples were analyzed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). All subjects in both the groups had adequate RVNA concentration of ≥ 0.5 IU/mL from day 14 to till day 180 and the difference of geometric mean concentrations between the two groups was not significant (p > 0.606). Further to assess the immunological memory produced by this new regimen, a “single visit four site” intradermal booster vaccination was given to those who did not have adequate RVNA concentration on day 365. This resulted in a quick and enhanced RVNA concentration in these subjects thus denoting a successful anamnestic response. The incidence of adverse events was 8.3% in PCECV group and 1.6% in PVRV group (p = 0.001) and the regimen was well tolerated without any dropouts. In conclusion, the new “one week intradermal regimen” is immunogenic and safe for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and needs to be further evaluated in persons exposed to rabies.
PMCID: PMC3551879  PMID: 22699446
rabies; purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine; purified vero cell rabies vaccine; randomized controlled trial; intradermal rabies vaccination
4.  A comparison of the tolerability of two dilution volumes (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL) of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine administered intramuscularly to healthy adult volunteers: A randomized, intraindividual, assessor-blind study 
Background: The current recommendation of the manufacturer for administering purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) is to reconstitute the contents with 1.0 mL of water for injection (WFI). However, it has been debated whether a lower volume of WFI (0.5 mL) is likely to cause less pain.
Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the tolerability of PCECV administered IM at a volume of 0.5 mL versus 1.0 mL of diluent and to determine the immunogenicity of the vaccine when administered according to the World Health Organization-recommended preexposure prophylaxis regimen for rabies immunization.
Methods: This comparative, intraindividual, assessor-blind study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Topiwala National Medical College and Bai Yamunabai Laxman Nair Charitable Hospital Mumbai, India). Healthy volunteers aged 18 to 50 years received, by randomized sequence, 3 IM injections of PCECV, diluted in 0.5 mL or 1.0 mL of WFI, on study days 0, 7, and 28. Tolerability was assessed at 30 minutes and 24 hours after injection and included assessments for local and systemic reactions. For immunogenicity assessment, rabies virus-neutralizing antibody 0RVNA) titers were assayed at baseline and on day 49 (ie, 3 weeks after the third injection).
Results: Twenty-six subjects (24 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 22.4 [2.4] years; mean [SD] body weight, 59.0 [11.3] kg) entered the study. Twenty-five subjects were included in the tolerability assessment; 24 in the immunogenicity assessment. No statistically significant differences were found between dilutions in the frequency of local and systemic reactions. Most reactions were mild. All subjects developed RVNA titers >0.5 IU/mL (indicative of protection) by day 49.
Conclusions: In this population of healthy volunteers, a full antigenic dose of PCECV in a dilution of 0.5 mL WFI is as well tolerated locally and systemically as in a dilution of 1.0 mL. All subjects developed levels of RVNA far exceeding 0.5 IU/mL, which is indicative of protection against rabies.
PMCID: PMC4052956  PMID: 24936103
rabies vaccine; purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine; tolerability; volunteer; immunogenicity
5.  Cellular immune response following pre-exposure and postexposure rabies vaccination by intradermal and intramuscular routes 
Immunization against rabies in humans induces protective neutralizing antibodies; however, the induction of type 1 or type 2 cytokine mediated cellular immune responses following rabies vaccination is not understood. Hence, the present study investigated cellular cytokine responses in vaccinated individuals.
Materials and Methods
The study groups included healthy rabies antigen naive controls (n=10), individuals who received intradermal primary (n=10) or booster pre-exposure vaccination (n=20) and subjects who received postexposure rabies vaccination either by intradermal (n=18) or intramuscular (n=20) routes. The antigen specific cellular responses were analyzed by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a rabies vaccine antigen in the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay. These responses were compared to the rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers that were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.
We observed that cellular and humoral immune responses to primary intradermal rabies vaccination could be greatly enhanced by a booster vaccine; and both type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses were significantly elevated. The magnitude of type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses did not differ significantly among the intramuscular and intradermal routes of postexposure vaccination. The number of cells producing IFN-γ and IL-4 correlated significantly with the levels of RVNA.
Both type 1 and type 2 cellular cytokine responses are strongly induced after rabies vaccination and directly correlate with levels of RVNA titers. The neutralizing antibody as well as the type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses may be important for vaccine induced protective responses against rabies.
PMCID: PMC4313111  PMID: 25649188
Rabies; Rabies prophylaxis; Rabies vaccines; IFN gamma; IL4; Immune response
6.  Safety and immunogenicity study of a new purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine Vaxirab-N (Pitman–Moore strain) manufactured in India 
Zydus Cadila Health care, India developed a new purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV, Vaxirab-N; 1 mL) by adapting Pitman–Moore strain of virus on to the chick embryo fibroblast cell line in 2006. During 2007–10, a series of safety and immunogenicity studies were conducted as per ICH-GCP guidelines after obtaining permission from Drug Controller General of India. In the first study, Vaxirab-N was administered to 35 healthy adult volunteers by intramuscular (IM) route using pre exposure regimen. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RvnAb) of 7.5 IU/mL on day 35. In the second study, Vaxirab-N was administered to 35 healthy adult volunteers using simulated post- exposure prophylaxis regimen by IM route. A GMC of 6.3 IU/mL on day 14, 13.2 IU/mL on day 28 and 8.6 IU/mL on day 90 was obtained. In the third study, Vaxirab-N administered by intradermal (ID) route using Updated Thai Red Cross (TRC) regimen in 36 healthy adult volunteers showed GMC of 7.8 IU/mL on day 14, 11.5 IU/mL on day 28 and 6.0 IU/mL on day 90. The 4th study was multi centric and Vaxirab-N was administered to 129 animal bite cases by IM route using post-exposure Essen regimen. The GMC following this schedule was 8.2 IU/mL on day 14, 13.01 IU/mL on day 28, 7.92 IU/mL on day 90 and 3.72 IU/mL on day 180. Mild to moderate adverse events were reported to Vaxirab-N but no serious adverse events were reported in any of these studies. In conclusion, Vaxirab-N developed by Zydus Cadila was found to be safe and immunogenic by both intramuscular and intradermal route and is recommended for rabies prophylaxis (CTRI No. 2010/091/000055 and 2010/091/000509).
PMCID: PMC4181025  PMID: 24030586
PCEC vaccine; Pitman–Moore strain; clinical trials; post-exposure prophylaxis; rabies; rabies vaccines
7.  Long-term booster schedules with AS03A-adjuvanted heterologous H5N1 vaccines induces rapid and broad immune responses in Asian adults 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:142.
The pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1 should not be overlooked, and the continued development of vaccines against these highly pathogenic viruses is a public health priority.
This open-label extension booster study followed a Phase III study of 1206 adults who had received two 3.75 μg doses of primary AS03A-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted H5N1 split-virus vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004; clade 1) (NCT00449670). The aim of the extension study was to evaluate different timings for heterologous AS03A-adjuvanted booster vaccination (A/Indonesia/5/2005; clade 2.1) given at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each booster vaccination and the persistence of immune responses against the primary vaccine strain (A/Vietnam) and the booster strain (A/Indonesia) was evaluated up to Month 48 post-primary vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed.
After booster vaccination given at Month 6, HI antibody responses to primary vaccine, and booster vaccine strains were markedly higher with one dose of AS03A-H5N1 booster vaccine in the AS03A-adjuvanted primary vaccine group compared with two doses of booster vaccine in the non-adjuvanted primary vaccine group. HI antibody responses were robust against the primary and booster vaccine strains 21 days after boosting at Month 12 or 36. At Month 48, in subjects boosted at Month 6, 12, or 36, HI antibody titers of ≥1:40 against the booster strain persisted in 39.2%, 61.2%, and 95.6% of subjects, respectively. Neutralizing antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses also showed that AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccination elicited robust immune responses within 21 days of boosting at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. The booster vaccine was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were raised.
In Asian adults primed with two doses of AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, strong cross-clade anamnestic antibody responses were observed after one dose of AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccine given at Month 6, 12, or 36 after priming, suggesting that AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccines may provide highly flexible prime–boost schedules. Although immunogenicity decreased with time, vaccinated populations could potentially be protected for up to three years after vaccination, which is likely to far exceed the peak of the a pandemic.
PMCID: PMC4008266  PMID: 24628789
H5N1; Pandemic influenza; AS03A-adjuvant; Prime–boost
8.  Assessing the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of human rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route 
Human Vaccines  2010;6(7):562-565.
The metadata of 10 published studies and 3 vaccine trial reports comprising of 19 vaccine cohorts from four countries conducted over a period of 23 years (1986–2009) was used for metaanalysis. The vaccines studied were purified chick embryo cell vaccine (Rabipur, India and Germany), purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Verorab, France; Indirab, India) and human diploid cell vaccine (MIRV, France). The potency of these vaccines varied from 0.55 IU to 2.32 IU per intradermal dose of 0.1 ml per site. The vaccines were administered to 1,011 subjects comprising of 19 cohorts and using five different ID regimens. The immunogenicity was measured by assays of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titres using rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) [15 cohorts] and mouse neutralization test (MNT) [4 cohorts]. The statistical analysis of the data was done by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity. It was revealed that, there was no significant linear relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route (p > 0.230 and p > 0.568).
PMCID: PMC3322518  PMID: 20523131
rabies vaccines; intradermal route; antigenicity; immunogenicity; metaanalysis
9.  Persistence of Rabies Antibody 5 Years after Postexposure Prophylaxis with Vero Cell Antirabies Vaccine and Antibody Response to a Single Booster Dose▿ 
This study was done to investigate the antibody response to a Vero cell antirabies vaccine, the persistence of antibody for 5 years, and the effect of a booster dose after this interval. From August 2005 to February 2011, a total of 195 patients were enrolled into our study due to an animal bite. The Essen intramuscular (i.m.) regimen, which is recommended by the WHO for modern vaccines used in postexposure treatment, was adopted in this study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 7, day 14, day 45, year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5, and year 5 plus 14 days. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titration of neutralizing antibodies with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was expressed as the seroconversion rate (SCR). A secondary quantitative evaluation criterion, other than the seroconversion level, was the geometric mean titer (GMT). Of the 195 enrolled patients, 168 (86.4%) of them completed the whole study. No serious adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported during vaccination, the 5-year follow-up period, or revaccination. On day 14, the rabies antibody GMT value was 8.87 IU/ml in the vaccinees. During the next 5 years, the SCR in the ChengDa vaccine group gradually decreased to 34.0% at year 5, down from 90.5% at year 1. There was a significant booster effect: the GMT was 15.22 IU/ml on year 5 plus 14 days. Our findings demonstrate that the ChengDa rabies vaccine offers an alternative with a high degree of efficacy and yet limited side effects and ensures that the exposed patient will be on the safe side of the risk of rabies by the 14th day. Moreover, when followed by a booster dose 5 years later, it could boost the immunity. A further booster is effective in inducing a good neutralizing antibody response even after an interval of 5 years.
PMCID: PMC3165231  PMID: 21752947
10.  Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:991.
Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity.
This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster.
Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy.
HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher anti-HBs seropositivity at 15–18 years of age. Overall booster response rate was 92.5% and indicated that intact immunogenicity persisted at least 15 years after primary HBV vaccination in infancy. Booster vaccination of HBV did not confer additional protection against HBsAg carriage in our study.
PMCID: PMC4246462  PMID: 25248369
HBV booster; Adolescents; Anamnestic response; Infant HBV vaccination
11.  Antibody Response to a Human Diploid Cell Rabies Vaccine 
Applied Microbiology  1974;27(3):553-561.
An experimentally killed rabies virus vaccine prepared in a human diploid cell strain (WI-38)—Wyeth rabies vaccine (WRV)—was used by various injection schedules in two separate studies to define more closely in human volunteer subjects an effective vaccination schedule for pre- or postexposure immunization, particularly for donors of rabies-hyperimmune plasma. To permit valid comparisons between our results and those of other workers, antibody levels achieved were expressed in terms of international units (IU) per milliliter of serum. Antibody response of previously nonvaccinated persons were only modest after a single dose of WRV, never reaching a level higher than 0.80 IU/ml over a 56-day testing period. Moreover, antibody was not detected at 0.16 IU/ml before the 14th day, either after a single dose or after two doses given 3 days apart. The best response followed four doses of WRV given within 4 weeks. This schedule resulted in the highest rate of seroconversion to the ≥6 IU/ml antibody level required of potential rabies-immune plasma donors. Giving the first vaccine dose in aluminum hydroxide diluent did not enhance the antibody response. There was a definite suggestion in the various injection schedules that higher and more sustained antibody levels were reached when the interval between the first and second vaccine doses was longest. The greater immunogenicity of WRV as compared with duck embryo vaccine was best demonstrated by the fact that a single booster dose of duck embryo vaccine to previously vaccinated individuals resulted in only a sevenfold antibody rise during the following 56 days, whereas a booster dose of WRV elicited a 69-fold rise. Al(OH)3 in the first dose of WRV had no effect, but the enhancing effect of a longer interval between vaccine doses was noted once again; 20 of 20 subjects who received three doses of WRV with 4 weeks between doses developed good levels of rabies antibody, and 19 exceeded 6 IU/ml.
PMCID: PMC380083  PMID: 4856855
12.  Prophylactic immunization of humans against rabies by intradermal inoculation of human diploid cell culture vaccine. 
The antirabies human diploid cell vaccine produced by 1'Institute Merieux, Lyon, France, was administered intradermally to 35 high-risk volunteers using 0.2-ml amounts and various immunization schedules. Three groups never before vaccinated against rabies developed virus-neutralizing antibodies, the titer of which was dose dependent. A single injection stimulated the formation of antibodies. Four inoculations induced the highest antibody levels and the longest persistence of antibody. The administration of a single intradermal booster inoculation was sufficient, even in the case of low-persisting antibody, to elicit a rapid increase of antibodies to high levels. A primary inoculation course of two injections induced a sufficient antibody level which, in case of exposure, could apparently be rapidly elevated by a 0.2-ml intradermal booster inoculation. Adverse side reactions were observed in 7 of 14 individuals after a 1- or 1.5-year intradermal booster inoculation. We therefore suggest that the intramuscular and subcutaneous routes continue to be used for primary vaccinations and that the highly effective intradermal route be restricted to booster inoculations. This is the first long term study of this vaccine and should be a guideline for the pre-exposure treatment of high-risk personnel.
PMCID: PMC274241  PMID: 1254722
13.  Booster vaccination of pre-school children with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine 
Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur—MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children.
Methods: Healthy children aged 5–6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1–3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed.
Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1–3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98–100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported.
Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children.
PMCID: PMC3426082  PMID: 22327497
pre-school; MMRV; diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine; Italy; 2 + 1 schedule
14.  Prevention of Rectal SHIV Transmission in Macaques by Daily or Intermittent Prophylaxis with Emtricitabine and Tenofovir  
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(2):e28.
In the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread globally, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to limit its transmission. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs could prove to be an effective intervention strategy if highly efficacious and cost-effective PrEP modalities are identified. We evaluated daily and intermittent PrEP regimens of increasing antiviral activity in a macaque model that closely resembles human transmission.
Methods and Findings
We used a repeat-exposure macaque model with 14 weekly rectal virus challenges. Three drug treatments were given once daily, each to a different group of six rhesus macaques. Group 1 was treated subcutaneously with a human-equivalent dose of emtricitabine (FTC), group 2 received orally the human-equivalent dosing of both FTC and tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and group 3 received subcutaneously a similar dosing of FTC and a higher dose of tenofovir. A fourth group of six rhesus macaques (group 4) received intermittently a PrEP regimen similar to group 3 only 2 h before and 24 h after each weekly virus challenge. Results were compared to 18 control macaques that did not receive any drug treatment. The risk of infection in macaques treated in groups 1 and 2 was 3.8- and 7.8-fold lower than in untreated macaques (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively). All six macaques in group 3 were protected. Breakthrough infections had blunted acute viremias; drug resistance was seen in two of six animals. All six animals in group 4 that received intermittent PrEP were protected.
This model suggests that single drugs for daily PrEP can be protective but a combination of antiretroviral drugs may be required to increase the level of protection. Short but potent intermittent PrEP can provide protection comparable to that of daily PrEP in this SHIV/macaque model. These findings support PrEP trials for HIV prevention in humans and identify promising PrEP modalities.
Using a repeat-exposure macaque model, Walid Heneine and colleagues find that pre-exposure prophylaxis with combination antiretroviral drugs provides protection against rectal challenge with a SHIV virus.
Editors' Summary
Each year, some 2.5 million people become newly infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. A vaccine that protects people against HIV infection is not likely to become available for at least several years. Condoms can prevent infection, but they are not 100% effective, and people do not always use them. Until a vaccine becomes available, other methods of preventing HIV could save many thousands of lives.
One possibility for preventing HIV is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In this approach, people who are likely to be exposed to the virus could take medicine to prevent them from becoming infected, in the same way that medication to protect against malaria is often taken by people traveling to high-risk areas.
Why Was This Study Done?
PrEP has never been shown to be effective against sexual transmission of HIV in humans. Studies of PrEP in people at risk for HIV are currently in progress or being planned, but it is not clear which medications or dosing schedules should be used. The researchers in this study wanted to explore several possible ways of giving PrEP in monkeys in order to learn more about how to design strategies for testing PrEP in humans.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers simulated human exposure to HIV by exposing rhesus macaques (a type of monkey) to SHIV, a monkey virus (SIV) that has been modified to contain the same outer protein as HIV. They exposed the macaques to repeated low doses of SHIV given rectally once per week, to simulate a common route of HIV transmission in humans. They used five groups of macaques that were all given the same viral exposure, but received different PrEP regimens: one group of six animals received only the anti-HIV drug emtricitabine (FTC), by injection under the skin every day; another six received FTC in combination with an oral form of the anti-HIV drug tenofovir every day, both by mouth; six received by injection FTC in combination with a higher tenofovir dose every day, and six also received by injection FTC in combination with the high-dose tenofovir, but the treatment was given only before and after the weekly viral exposure instead of every day. For comparison, the fifth group of nine macaques (plus another nine from a previous study) received no anti-HIV medications.
The researchers found that the macaques in any of the four treatment groups were less likely to become infected than those in the comparison group. In particular, all of the macaques receiving both FTC and high-dose tenofovir, whether daily or only around the time of exposure, were protected from infection. Macaques that did become infected in the other treatment groups had lower levels of virus in their blood than those that became infected in the comparison group, but some that became infected in the treatment groups went on to develop virus that was resistant to FTC.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results show that PrEP can be effective in this animal model, and that higher doses and combination treatments may be more effective than single drugs or lower doses. The results also suggest that PrEP might work if taken only around the time of exposure and therefore might not need to be taken every day in order to be effective. Further, by reducing the levels of HIV in people who do become infected, PrEP might reduce the chance that these people will transmit HIV to others before realizing that they themselves are infected. However, this study also demonstrates that partially effective PrEP can result in infection with drug-resistant virus, which might make treatment difficult. Also, the doses of tenofovir used to achieve maximum protection in these macaques may be higher than would be safe in humans. Carefully designed human studies will be needed to determine which, if any, PrEP strategies will be effective in practice.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is conducting several trials of PrEP
The AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition and the UCLA Program in Global Health provide information at PreP Watch
The UCSF Center for HIV Information's HIV InSite includes resources on HIV prevention and treatment
PMCID: PMC2225435  PMID: 18254653
15.  A Simplified 4-Site Economical Intradermal Post-Exposure Rabies Vaccine Regimen: A Randomised Controlled Comparison with Standard Methods 
The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID) vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods.
Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90); or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available.
All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method.
This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be introduced without further studies.
Trial Registration ISRCTN 30087513
Author Summary
All human deaths from rabies result from failure to give adequate prophylaxis. After a rabid animal bite, immediate wound cleaning, rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin injections effectively prevent fatal infection. Immunoglobulin is very rarely available in developing countries, where prevention relies on efficacious vaccine. WHO approved vaccines are prohibitively expensive, but 2 economical regimens (injecting small amounts of vaccine intradermally, into the skin, at 2 or 8 sites on the first day of the course) have been used for many years in a few places. Practical or perceived difficulties have restricted widespread uptake of economical methods. These could largely be overcome by introducing a new, simpler regimen, involving 4 site injections on the first day. We vaccinated volunteers to compare the antibody levels induced by the 4-site intradermal regimen with those induced by the current 2-site and 8-site regimens and the “gold standard” intramuscular regimen favoured internationally. All the economical intradermal regimens were at least as immunogenic as the intramuscular method. The results provide sufficient evidence that the 4-site regimen meets the criteria necessary for its recommendation for use wherever the cost of vaccine is prohibitive and especially where 2 or more patients are treated on the same day.
PMCID: PMC2292256  PMID: 18431444
16.  Using Serology to Assist with Complicated Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for Rabies and Australian Bat Lyssavirus 
Australia uses a protocol combining human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), with the aim of achieving an antibody titre of ≥0.5 IU/ml, as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, as soon as possible.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We present the course of PEP administration and serological testing for four men with complex requirements. Following dog bites in Thailand, two men (62 years old, 25 years old) received no HRIG and had delayed vaccine courses: 23 days between dose two and three, and 18 days between dose one and two, respectively. Both seroconverted following dose four. Another 62-year-old male, who was HIV-positive (normal CD4 count), also suffered a dog bite and had delayed care receiving IM rabies vaccine on days six and nine in Thailand. Back in Australia, he received three single and one double dose IM vaccines followed by another double dose of vaccine, delivered intradermally and subcutaneously, before seroconverting. A 23-year-old male with a history of allergies received simultaneous HRIG and vaccine following potential ABLV exposure, and developed rash, facial oedema and throat tingling, which was treated with a parenteral antihistamine and tapering dose of steroids. Serology showed he seroconverted following dose four.
These cases show that PEP can be complicated by exposures in tourist settings where reliable prophylaxis may not be available, where treatment is delayed or deviates from World Health Organization recommendations. Due to the potentially short incubation time of rabies/ABLV, timely prophylaxis after a potential exposure is needed to ensure a prompt and adequate immune response, particularly in patients who are immune-suppressed or who have not received HRIG. Serology should be used to confirm an adequate response to PEP when treatment is delayed or where a concurrent immunosuppressing medical condition or therapy exists.
Author Summary
In Australia, the administration of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) occurs for potentially exposed returned travellers from endemic regions or for potential local exposure to Australian Bat Lyssavirus. For Australian tourists, delays in commencing PEP or not receiving HRIG or all recommended doses of vaccine are common. We report a case series where serology provided information in four patients with delayed, incomplete, or complicated PEP treatment. Three of these patients reported a dog bite in Thailand and the fourth was scratched by a bat and had bat urine enter his eye in Australia. Management was complicated by lack of HRIG administration, delays in the recommended timeframe for receipt of vaccine doses, and immunosuppression caused by co-administration of steroids and by HIV infection with a normal CD4 count. All patients seroconverted but this was delayed in some cases, and in the HIV-positive subject required a double dose of vaccine delivered intradermally and subcutaneously. In complex or non-standard PEP delivery, including delayed treatment and immunosuppression due to steroid treatment, HIV or another immunosuppressing medical condition, serology can be used to guide further treatment and should be used to confirm seroconversion.
PMCID: PMC3584984  PMID: 23469301
17.  Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Immunogenicity 
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal  2013;33(Suppl 2 Optimum Dosing of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine For Infants 0 A Landscape Analysis of Evidence Supportin g Different Schedules):S119-S129.
Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants.
We conducted a systematic literature review of PCV immunogenicity published from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011). Studies included for analysis evaluated ≥2 doses of 7-valent or higher product (excluding Aventis-Pasteur PCV11) administered to nonhigh-risk infants ≤6 months of age. Impact of PCV schedule on geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) and proportion of subjects over 0.35 mcg/mL were assessed at various time points; the GMC 1 month postdose 3 (for various dosing regimens) for serotypes 1, 5, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F was assessed in detail using random effects linear regression, adjusted for product, acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/whole-cell diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis coadministration, laboratory method, age at first dose and geographic region.
From 61 studies, we evaluated 13 two-dose (2+0) and 65 three-dose primary schedules (3+0) without a booster dose, 11 “2+1” (2 primary plus booster) and 42 “3+1” schedules. The GMC after the primary series was higher following 3-dose schedules compared with 2-dose schedules for all serotypes except for serotype 1. Pre- and postbooster GMCs were generally similar regardless of whether 2 or 3 primary doses were given. GMCs were significantly higher for all serotypes when dose 3 was administered in the second year (2+1) compared with ≤6 months of age (3+0).
While giving the third dose in the second year of life produces a higher antibody response than when given as part of the primary series in the first 6 months, the lower GMC between the 2-dose primary series and booster may result in less disease protection for infants in that interval than those who completed the 3-dose primary series. Theoretical advantages of higher antibodies induced by giving the third dose in the second year of life, such as increased protection against serotype 1 disease, longer duration of protection or more rapid induction of herd effects, need to be evaluated in practice.
PMCID: PMC3940378  PMID: 24336054
pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; immunogenicity; immunization schedule
18.  Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Impact of Age on Booster Responses to the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Children in India 
In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥95.2% (early booster) and ≥93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥96.7% and ≥93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ≥8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥88.6% and ≥96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥71.4% and ≥90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ≥8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have been registered at under registration no. NCT01030822 and NCT00814710; a protocol summary is available at [study ID 112909]).
PMCID: PMC4178567  PMID: 25008901
19.  Persistence of immunity from 1 year of age after one or two doses of hepatitis A vaccine given to children in Argentina 
This study was done to determine the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A vaccine in children, providing needed clinical data on the flexibility of booster administration.
Participants had received one dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim™ 80 U Pediatric) at 12–23 months of age or two doses of the same vaccine at 12 and 18 months of age prior to enrolment. Anti-hepatitis A antibody concentrations were measured at the first, second, and third year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A in participant families were assessed and family socioeconomic data were collected.
A series of 546 participants were enrolled. Of 467 (85.5%) participants completing 3 years of follow-up, 365 had received a single vaccine dose and 94 had received two vaccine doses. Seropositivity (anti-HAV ≥ 10 mIU/mL) at 3 years was 99.7% after one dose and 100% after two doses. At one year, geometric mean concentrations were higher after two doses (1433.9 mIU/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1108–1855) than one (209.7 mIU/mL, 95% CI 190.6–230.6). Geometric mean concentrations decreased in both groups during the study, but remained well above 10 mIU/mL through the third year. The geometric mean of 3-year to one-year anti-hepatitis A concentration ratios was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70–0.79) following one dose and 0.57 (95% CI 0.47–0.70) following two doses. The greatest decrease in geometric mean concentrations occurred during the third year, ie, 21.2% in the one-dose group and 40.8% in the two-dose group. Six participants became seronegative during follow-up and responded strongly to a booster dose. Anti-hepatitis A concentrations increased in 135 children (34.9%) in the second year and 50 (13.7%) in the third year; none lived in a family with a case of hepatitis A. Three confirmed cases of hepatitis A occurred in family members. Participants belonged to a middle-income, urban/suburban population with good sanitation facilities and water supplies.
A single dose of hepatitis A vaccine at 12–23 months of age resulted in hepatitis A seropositivity in all but one vaccinee after 3 years. Increased anti-hepatitis A serum concentrations suggested exposure to wild-type hepatitis A virus in this middle-class socioeconomic environment. Continuing surveillance is required to confirm the effectiveness of a single-dose hepatitis A vaccination; however, the results of the first three years are encouraging.
PMCID: PMC3846818  PMID: 24367232
hepatitis A vaccine; single dose; antibody persistence; immunization programs
20.  Intramuscular vs intradermal route for hepatitis B booster vaccine in celiac children 
AIM: To compare intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) booster doses, which have been used in healthy and high risk subjects, such as healthcare workers, haemodialysis patients, human immunodeficiency virus patients, and renal transplant recipients unresponsive to initial hepatitis B vaccination, in celiac individuals.
METHODS: We conducted our study on 58 celiac patients, vaccinated in the first year of life, whose blood analysis had showed the absence of protective hepatitis B virus (HBV) antibodies. All patients had received the last vaccine injection at least one year before study enrolment and they had been on a gluten free diet for at least 1 year. In all patients we randomly performed an HBV vaccine booster dose by ID or IM route. Thirty celiac patients were revaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix B) 2 μg by the ID route, while 28 celiac patients were revaccinated with Engerix B 10 μg by the IM route. Four weeks after every booster dose, the anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibody titer was measured by an enzyme-linked immune-adsorbent assay. We performed a maximum of three booster doses in patients with no anti-HBs antibodies after the first or the second vaccine dose. The cut off value for a negative anti-HBs antibody titer was 10 IU/L. Patients with values between 10 and 100 IU/L were considered "low responders" while patients with an antibody titer higher than 1000 IU/L were considered "high responders".
RESULTS: No significant difference in age, gender, duration of illness, and years of gluten intake was found between the two groups. We found a high percentage of "responders" after the first booster dose (ID = 76.7%, IM = 78.6%) and a greater increase after the third dose (ID = 90%, IM = 96.4%) of vaccine in both groups. Moreover we found a significantly higher number of high responders (with an anti-HBs antibody titer > 1000 IU/L) in the ID (40%) than in the IM (7.1%) group, and this difference was evident after the first booster dose of vaccination (P < 0.01). No side effects were recorded in performing delivery of the vaccine by either the ID or IM route.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that both ID and IM routes are effective and safe options to administer a booster dose of HBV vaccine in celiac patients. However the ID route seems to achieve a greater number of high responders and to have a better cost/benefit ratio.
PMCID: PMC3484341  PMID: 23155313
Hepatitis B virus; Non responders; Intradermal route; Intramuscular route; Celiac disease
21.  Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:297.
Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib).
This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua). Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind) or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind) co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months.
One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ≥97.3% and ≥93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses.
Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs.
Trial registration NCT00332566
PMCID: PMC2967556  PMID: 20950456
22.  Safety and immunogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Nigerian children 
In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15–21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15–21 and 17–23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ≥8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ≥8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D.
PMCID: PMC4130271  PMID: 24356787
PHiD-CV; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; safety; reactogenicity; immunogenicity; Nigeria; booster; catch-up
23.  Design of a phase III multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in children across diverse transmission settings in Africa 
Malaria Journal  2011;10:224.
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative are working in partnership to develop a malaria vaccine to protect infants and children living in malaria endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, which can be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The RTS,S/AS candidate vaccine has been evaluated in multiple phase I/II studies and shown to have a favourable safety profile and to be well-tolerated in both adults and children. This paper details the design of the phase III multicentre efficacy trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine candidate, which is pivotal for licensure and policy decision-making.
The phase III trial is a randomized, controlled, multicentre, participant- and observer-blind study on-going in 11 centres associated with different malaria transmission settings in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A minimum of 6,000 children in each of two age categories (6-12 weeks, 5-17 months) have been enrolled. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to one of three study groups: (1) primary vaccination with RTS,S/AS01 and booster dose of RTS,S/AS01; (2) primary vaccination with RTS,S/AS01 and a control vaccine at time of booster; (3) primary vaccination with control vaccine and a control vaccine at time of booster. Primary vaccination comprises three doses at monthly intervals; the booster dose is administered at 18 months post-primary course. Subjects will be followed to study month 32. The co-primary objectives are the evaluation of efficacy over one year post-dose 3 against clinical malaria when primary immunization is delivered at: (1) 6-12 weeks of age, with co-administration of DTPwHepB/Hib antigens and OPV; (2) 5-17 months of age. Secondary objectives include evaluation of vaccine efficacy against severe malaria, anaemia, malaria hospitalization, fatal malaria, all-cause mortality and other serious illnesses including sepsis and pneumonia. Efficacy of the vaccine against clinical malaria under different transmission settings, the evolution of efficacy over time and the potential benefit of a booster will be evaluated. In addition, the effect of RTS,S/AS01 vaccination on growth, and the safety and immunogenicity in HIV-infected and malnourished children will be assessed. Safety of the primary course of immunization and the booster dose will be documented in both age categories.
This pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine in African children was designed and implemented by the Clinical Trials Partnership Committee. The study will provide efficacy and safety data to fulfil regulatory requirements, together with data on a broad range of endpoints that will facilitate the evaluation of the public health impact of the vaccine and will aid policy and implementation decisions.
Trial registration NCT00866619
PMCID: PMC3199907  PMID: 21816029
24.  Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children 
Background: Primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was previously shown to be immunogenic and well tolerated in Malian children. Data on booster vaccination with a fourth consecutive dose of PHiD-CV are available for Europe, Asia and Latin America but are lacking for Africa. The present study evaluated further the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a fourth consecutive (booster) dose of PHiD-CV.
Results: Low incidences of AEs with grade 3 intensity (2.1% of subjects) were observed. There were no reports of large swelling reactions and serious adverse events. One month post-booster vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 97.8% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, and at least 97.1% of subjects had opsonophagocytic activity ≥ 8. From pre- to post-booster, a 12.3-fold increase in anti-protein D geometric mean concentration was observed.
Methods: This phase III, open-label study was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and June 2010. The study population consisted of Malian children previously primed (3 doses) with PHiD-CV in study NCT00678301 receiving a fourth consecutive (booster) dose of PHiD-CV in the second year of life. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) with grade 3 intensity (primary objective) or of any intensity (secondary objective), and the immunogenicity (secondary objective) of the PHiD-CV booster dose were assessed.
Conclusion: A booster dose of PHiD-CV was well tolerated when administered to Malian children in the second year of life and was highly immunogenic for all 10 vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D. ( identifier: NCT00985465)
PMCID: PMC3859761  PMID: 23291945
PHiD-CV; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; safety; reactogenicity; immunogenicity; Mali; booster; antibody persistence
25.  Long-term persistence of immunity after vaccination of pre-adolescents with low doses of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(8):1685-1690.
Background and aims: Recent studies have shown no detectable antibodies and no response to a challenge dose of vaccine 10–20 y after receiving low doses (2.5–5 µg) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine during first months of life. Little information is available on long-term persistence of immunity after vaccinating pre-adolescents with low doses of hepatitis B vaccine.
Materials and Methods: This randomized trial was initiated in 1996 with the main objective to assess the persistence of antibodies and immune memory 5, 10 and 15 y after vaccinating 8–10 y-old children with three doses of Recombivax 2.5 µg, as well as the short and long-term effect of a booster dose given at different intervals.
Results: The results of 560 subjects were included in this analysis. All subjects had a seroprotective antibody titer (≥ 10 IU/L) one month post-primary vaccination; 5, 10 and 15 y post-vaccination 95%, 95% and 87% had detectable antibodies, and 82%, 86%, and 68% had a seroprotective antibody titer; GMTs were 73 IU/L, 89 IU/L, and 28 IU/L, respectively. More than 99.4% of subjects had an anamnestic response to a challenge dose of vaccine given 5, 10, or 15 y post-vaccination. Five and ten years post-booster dose 97% and 95% of subjects still have a seroprotective anti-HBs titer with GMTs 16–18-fold higher when compared with those observed 5–10 y post-primary vaccination.
Conclusions: Virtually all children vaccinated at the age of 8–10 y with low doses of hepatitis B vaccine still have an excellent immune memory up to age of 25 y. The results of this study do not support the use of booster doses.
PMCID: PMC3906266  PMID: 23744506
hepatitis B; immunity; long term; persistence; vaccination

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