The overexpression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 is an established prognostic factor and treatment target in gastric cancer. However, the roles of other FGFRs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the correlations of the expression of FGFR1-4 with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes in gastric cancer. Tumor samples were obtained from 222 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent gastrectomy between 2003 and 2007. The expression of each FGFR was measured in the tumors by immunohistochemical analysis. The overexpression of FGFR1, FGFR2 or FGFR4 was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression, including depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pathological stage and distant metastasis or recurrent disease. Patients exhibiting overexpression of FGFR1, FGFR2 or FGFR4 had a significantly poorer disease-specific survival (DSS; P<0.001, P=0.008 and P<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the co-overexpression of all three FGFRs was significantly associated with a poorer DSS compared to the expression of none or only one of the FGFRs (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively) and it was found to be an independent prognostic factor (HR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.02–2.85, P=0.041). In conclusion, high expression of FGFR1, FGFR2 or FGFR4 was associated with tumor progression and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer. Similar to FGFR2, FGFR1 and FGFR4 may be considered as prognostic factors and treatment targets in gastric cancer.
fibroblast growth factor receptor; gastric cancer; immunohistochemical analysis
FGFR3 mutations are common in low grade urothelial carcinoma and represent a potential therapeutic target in this disease. Their incidence and functional role in high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC), which displays an increased propensity for recurrence and muscularis propria invasion, is less well defined. We developed a mass spectrometry based genotyping assay to define the incidence of FGFR3 mutations in a large clinically annotated set of urothelial carcinomas. FGFR3 mutations were found in 17% of HGUC versus 84% of low-grade lesions. Retrospective pathologic review of the class of FGFR3 mutant HGUC revealed unique histologic features characterized by a bulky, exophytic component with branching papillary architecture as well as irregular nuclei with a koilocytoid appearance. The predictive value of this histologic appearance was confirmed using a prospective set of 49 additional HGUC. Prospective histologic review was able to correctly predict for the presence of an FGFR3 mutation in 13 of 24 HGUC specimens that exhibited the distinct morphology (54%). All 25 specimens lacking the defined histologic features were FGFR3 wild-type for a negative predictive value of 100%. Macrodissection of individual tumors confirmed the presence of the FGFR3 mutant allele in non-invasive and invasive, low and high-grade regions of individual tumors and in the lymph node metastases of patients whose tumors possessed the characteristic morphologic signature, suggesting that FGFR3 mutations are not restricted to the more clinically indolent regions of HGUCs. These data suggest that histologic screening of HGUC followed by confirmatory genotyping can be used to enrich for the population of HGUC most likely to harbor activating mutations in the FGFR3 receptor tyrosine kinase. Histologic review could thus aid in the development of targeted inhibitors of FGFR3 by facilitating the identification of the subset of patients most likely to harbor activating mutations in the FGFR3 gene.
fibroblast growth factor receptor-3; FGFR3; urothelial carcinoma; morphology
While fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is frequently mutated or overexpressed in nonmuscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC), the prevalence of FGFR3 protein expression and mutation remains unknown in muscle-invasive disease. FGFR3 protein and mRNA expression, mutational status, and copy number variation were retrospectively analyzed in 231 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary UCs, 33 metastases, and 14 paired primary and metastatic tumors using the following methods: immunohistochemistry, NanoString nCounterTM, OncoMap or Affymetrix OncoScanTM array, and Gain and Loss of Analysis of DNA and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer software. FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining was present in 29% of primary UCs and 49% of metastases and did not impact overall survival (P = 0.89, primary tumors; P = 0.78, metastases). FGFR3 mutations were observed in 2% of primary tumors and 9% of metastases. Mutant tumors expressed higher levels of FGFR3 mRNA than wild-type tumors (P < 0.001). FGFR3 copy number gain and loss were rare events in primary and metastatic tumors (0.8% each; 3.0% and 12.3%, respectively). FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining is present in one third of primary muscle-invasive UCs and half of metastases, while FGFR3 mutations and copy number changes are relatively uncommon.
Biomarker; bladder cancer; FGFR3; metastatic urothelial carcinoma; muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma; targeted therapy
We have previously reported activating mutations of the gene coding for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) in invasive cervical carcinoma. To further analyze the role of FGFR3 in cervical tumor progression, we extended our study to screen a total of 75 invasive tumors and 80 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (40 low-grade and 40 high-grade lesions).
Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) followed by DNA sequencing, we found FGFR3 mutation (S249C in all cases) in 5% of invasive cervical carcinomas and no mutation in intraepithelial lesions. These results suggest that, unlike in bladder carcinoma, FGFR3 mutation does not or rarely occur in non invasive lesions. Compared to patients with wildtype FGFR3 tumor, patients with S249C FGFR3 mutated tumors were older (mean age 64 vs. 49.4 years, P = 0.02), and were more likely to be associated with a non-16/18 HPV type in their tumor. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that FGFR3 mutated tumors were associated with higher FGFR3b mRNA expression levels compared to wildtype FGFR3 tumors. Supervised analysis of Affymetrix expression data identified a significant number of genes specifically differentially expressed in tumors with respect to FGFR3 mutation status.
This study suggest that tumors with FGFR3 mutation appear to have distinctive clinical and biological characteristics that may help in defining a population of patients for FGFR3 mutation screening.
To evaluate the prognostic value of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) protein expression in patients with advanced-stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, delineate the functional role of FGFR4 in ovarian cancer progression, and evaluate the feasibility of targeting FGFR4 in serous ovarian cancer treatment.
Immunolocalization of FGFR4 was performed on 183 ovarian tumor samples. The collected FGFR4 expression data were correlated with overall survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The effects of FGFR4 silencing on ovarian cancer cell growth, survival, invasiveness, apoptosis and FGF1-mediated signaling pathway activation were evaluated by transfecting cells with FGFR4-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). An orthotopic mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of injection of FGFR4-specific siRNAs and FGFR4 trap protein encapsulated in nanoliposomes on ovarian tumor growth in vivo.
Overexpression of FGFR4 protein was significantly associated with decreased overall survival durations. FGFR4 silencing significantly decreased the proliferation, survival, and invasiveness and increased apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Also, downregulation of FGFR4 significantly abrogated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), and WNT signaling pathways, which are activated by FGF1. Targeting FGFR4 with the FGFR4-specific siRNAs and FGFR4 trap protein significantly decreased ovarian tumor growth in vivo.
FGFR4 is a prognostic marker for advanced-stage, high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Silencing FGFR4 and inhibiting ligand-receptor binding significantly decrease ovarian tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that targeting ovarian cancer cells with high levels of FGFR4 protein expression is a new therapeutic modality for this disease and will improve survival of it.
serous ovarian carcinoma; FGFR4; FGF1; nanoliposomes; FGF trap
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET) facilitate breast cancer (BC) metastasis; however, stable molecular changes that result as a consequence of these processes remain poorly defined. Therefore, with the hope of targeting unique aspects of metastatic tumor outgrowth, we sought to identify molecular markers that could identify tumor cells that had completed the EMT:MET cycle.
An in vivo reporter system for epithelial cadherin (E-cad) expression was used to quantify its regulation in metastatic BC cells during primary and metastatic tumor growth. Exogenous addition of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was used to induce EMT in an in situ model of BC. Microarray analysis was employed to examine gene expression changes in cells chronically treated with and withdrawn from TGF-β1, thus completing one full EMT:MET cycle. Changes in fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 (FGFR1) isoform expression were validated using PCR analyses of patient-derived tumor tissues versus matched normal tissues. FGFR1 gene expression was manipulated using short hairpin RNA depletion and cDNA rescue. Preclinical pharmacological inhibition of FGFR kinase was employed using the orally available compound BGJ-398.
Metastatic BC cells undergo spontaneous downregulation of E-cad during primary tumor growth, and its expression subsequently returns following initiation of metastatic outgrowth. Exogenous exposure to TGF-β1 was sufficient to drive the metastasis of an otherwise in situ model of BC and was similarly associated with a depletion and return of E-cad expression during metastatic progression. BC cells treated and withdrawn from TGF-β stably upregulate a truncated FGFR1-β splice variant that lacks the outermost extracellular immunoglobulin domain. Identification of this FGFR1 splice variant was verified in metastatic human BC cell lines and patient-derived tumor samples. Expression of FGFR1-β was also dominant in a model of metastatic outgrowth where depletion of FGFR1 and pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR kinase activity both inhibited pulmonary tumor outgrowth. Highlighting the dichotomous nature of FGFR splice variants and recombinant expression of full-length FGFR1-α also blocked pulmonary tumor outgrowth.
The results of our study strongly suggest that FGFR1-β is required for the pulmonary outgrowth of metastatic BC. Moreover, FGFR1 isoform expression can be used as a predictive biomarker for therapeutic application of its kinase inhibitors.
Previous evidence suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] protects against several cancers. However, little is known regarding urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). We analyzed the association between plasma 25(OH)D3 and overall risk of UBC, as well as according to stage and FGFR3 molecular subphenotypes.
Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 in 1125 cases with UBC and 1028 control subjects were determined by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. FGFR3 mutational status and expression in tumor tissue were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were further stratified by tumor invasiveness and grade, FGFR3 expression, and smoking status. Cell proliferation was measured in human UBC cell lines cultured with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
A statistically significantly increased risk of UBC was observed among subjects presenting the lowest concentrations of 25(OH)D3 (ORadj = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.82; P = .006), showing a dose–response effect (P
trend = .004). The association was stronger for patients with muscle-invasive tumors, especially among low-FGFR3 expressers (ORadj = 5.94; 95% CI = 1.72 to 20.45; P = .005). The biological plausibility of these associations is supported by the fact that, in vitro, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates FGFR3 expression in UBC cell lines with low levels of wild-type FGFR3.
These findings support a role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of UBC and show that 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with FGFR3 expression in the tumor. Because FGFR3 mutation and overexpression are markers of better outcome, our findings suggest that individuals with low levels of plasma 25(OH)D3 may be at high risk of more aggressive forms of UBC.
The molecular characteristics and the clinical disease course of bladder cancer (BC) in young patients remain largely unresolved. All patients are monitored according to an intensive surveillance protocol and we aim to gain more insight into the molecular pathways of bladder tumors in young patients that could ultimately contribute to patient stratification, improve patient quality of life and reduce associated costs. We also determined whether a biomarker-based surveillance could be feasible.
We report a unique case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with recurrent non-muscle invasive bladder tumors occurring at a high frequency and analyzed multiple tumors (maximal pTaG2) and urine samples of this patient. Analysis included FGFR3 mutation detection, FGFR3 and TP53 immunohistochemistry, mircosatellite analysis of markers on chromosomes 8, 9, 10, 11 and 17 and a genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism-array (SNP). All analyzed tumors contained a mutation in FGFR3 and were associated with FGFR3 overexpression. None of the tumors showed overexpression of TP53. We found a deletion on chromosome 9 in the primary tumor and this was confirmed by the SNP-array that showed regions of loss on chromosome 9. Detection of all recurrences was possible by urinary FGFR3 mutation analysis.
Our findings would suggest that the BC disease course is determined by not only a patient's age, but also by the molecular characteristics of a tumor. This young patient contained typical genetic changes found in tumors of older patients and implies a clinical disease course comparable to older patients. We demonstrate that FGFR3 mutation analysis on voided urine is a simple non-invasive method and could serve as a feasible follow-up approach for this young patient presenting with an FGFR3 mutant tumor.
Mutations in FGFR3 have been shown to occur in tumors of the upper urothelial tract and may be indicative of a good prognosis. In bladder tumors, the combination of FGFR3 mutation status and Ki-67 level has been used to define a tumor’s molecular grade and predict survival. Pathological evaluation of upper urothelial tumors is currently the best predictor of prognosis, but suffers from variability in pathological assessments. This study investigated the association with prognosis of FGFR3 mutations alone and in combination with Ki-67 in this patient population.
Genomic DNA was isolated from tumor samples of 80 patients with upper urothelial cancer. The presence of mutation in FGFR3 was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ki-67 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis evaluated the relationship of FGFR3 mutations and Ki-67 levels with survival.
FGFR3 mutations were identified in 40% of tumors and were predominantly associated with noninvasive tumors. Overall survival was higher in patients with FGFR3 mutant tumors (P = 0.02) and in molecular grade 1 tumors as determined by FGFR3 and Ki-67 (P = 0.02).
In this study, we confirm the occurrence of FGFR3 mutations in tumors of the upper urothelial tract and its association with a good prognosis. Both FGFR3 and molecular grading are predictors of overall survival. Molecular grading can help to assess the prognosis of patients with upper urinary tract cancer and may represent a new tool for managing this population of patients.
upper tract; urothelial carcinoma; ureter; renal pelvis; Ki-67; survival
Advanced cholangiocarcinoma continues to harbor a difficult prognosis and therapeutic options have been limited. During the course of a clinical trial of whole genomic sequencing seeking druggable targets, we examined six patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Integrated genome-wide and whole transcriptome sequence analyses were performed on tumors from six patients with advanced, sporadic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (SIC) to identify potential therapeutically actionable events. Among the somatic events captured in our analysis, we uncovered two novel therapeutically relevant genomic contexts that when acted upon, resulted in preliminary evidence of anti-tumor activity. Genome-wide structural analysis of sequence data revealed recurrent translocation events involving the FGFR2 locus in three of six assessed patients. These observations and supporting evidence triggered the use of FGFR inhibitors in these patients. In one example, preliminary anti-tumor activity of pazopanib (in vitro FGFR2 IC50≈350 nM) was noted in a patient with an FGFR2-TACC3 fusion. After progression on pazopanib, the same patient also had stable disease on ponatinib, a pan-FGFR inhibitor (in vitro, FGFR2 IC50≈8 nM). In an independent non-FGFR2 translocation patient, exome and transcriptome analysis revealed an allele specific somatic nonsense mutation (E384X) in ERRFI1, a direct negative regulator of EGFR activation. Rapid and robust disease regression was noted in this ERRFI1 inactivated tumor when treated with erlotinib, an EGFR kinase inhibitor. FGFR2 fusions and ERRFI mutations may represent novel targets in sporadic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and trials should be characterized in larger cohorts of patients with these aberrations.
Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer that affects the bile ducts. Unfortunately, many patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma have disease that cannot be treated with surgery or has spread to other parts of the body, thus severely limiting treatment options. New advances in drug treatment have enabled treatment of these cancers with “targeted therapy” that exploits an error in the normal functioning of a tumor cell, compared to other cells in the body, thus allowing only tumor cells to be killed by the drug. We sought to identify changes in the genetic material of cholangiocarcinoma patient tumors in order to identify potential errors in cellular functioning by utilizing cutting edge genetic sequencing technology. We identified three patient tumors possessing an FGFR2 gene that was aberrantly fused to another gene. Two of these patients were able to receive targeted therapy for FGFR2 with resulting tumor shrinkage. A fourth tumor contained an error in a gene that controls a very important cellular mechanism in cancer, termed epidermal growth factor pathway (EGFR). This patient received therapy targeting this mechanism and also demonstrated response to treatment. Thus, we have been able to utilize cutting edge technology with targeted drug treatment to personalize medical treatment for cancer in cholangiocarcinoma patients.
Fifty percent of patients with muscle–invasive bladder cancer (MI-BC) die from their disease and current chemotherapy treatment only marginally increases survival. Novel therapies targeting receptor tyrosine kinases or activated oncogenes may improve outcome. Hence, it is necessary to stratify patients based on mutations in relevant oncogenes. Patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMI-BC) have excellent survival, however two-thirds develop recurrences. Tumor specific mutations can be used to detect recurrences in urine assays, presenting a more patient-friendly diagnostic procedure than cystoscopy.
To address these issues, we developed a mutation assay for the simultaneous detection of 19 possible mutations in the HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS genes. With this assay and mutation assays for the FGFR3 and PIK3CA oncogenes, we screened primary bladder tumors of 257 patients and 184 recurrences from 54 patients. Additionally, in primary tumors p53 expression was obtained by immunohistochemistry. Of primary tumors 64% were mutant for FGFR3, 11% for RAS, 24% for PIK3CA, and 26% for p53. FGFR3 mutations were mutually exclusive with RAS mutations (p = 0.001) and co-occurred with PIK3CA mutations (p = 0.016). P53 overexpression was mutually exclusive with PIK3CA and FGFR3 mutations (p≤0.029). Mutations in the RAS and PIK3CA genes were not predictors for recurrence-free, progression-free and disease-specific survival. In patients presenting with NMI-BC grade 3 and MI-BC, 33 and 36% of the primary tumors were mutant. In patients with low-grade NMI-BC, 88% of the primary tumors carried a mutation and 88% of the recurrences were mutant.
The mutation assays present a companion diagnostic to define patients for targeted therapies. In addition, the assays are a potential biomarker to detect recurrences during surveillance. We showed that 88% of patients presenting with low-grade NMI-BC are eligible for such a follow-up. This may contribute to a reduction in the number of cystoscopical examinations.
Aberrant kinase activation resulting from mutation, amplification, or translocation can drive growth and survival in a subset of human cancer. FGFR2 is amplified in breast and gastric cancer, and we report here the first characterization of FGFR2 gene amplification in colorectal cancer in the NCI-H716 colorectal cancer cell line. FGFR2 is highly expressed and activated in NCI-H716 cells, and FGFR selective small molecule inhibitors or FGFR2 shRNA strongly inhibited cell viability in vitro, indicating “addiction” of NCI-H716 cells to FGFR2. NCI-H716 growth in a xenograft model was also inhibited by an FGFR small molecule inhibitor. FGFR2 was required for activation of multiple downstream signaling proteins including AKT, ERK, S6RP and NFKB. Inhibition of downstream kinases such as AKT or ERK alone had modest effects on proliferation, whereas combined inhibition of AKT and ERK signaling resulted in a loss of viability similar to FGFR2 inhibition. We identified elevated FGFR2 expression in a small subset of primary colorectal cancer, however FGFR2 amplification was not observed. Although FGFR2 amplification is not common in primary colon cancer or lymph node and liver metastases, other subsets of colorectal cancer such as ascites, from which the NCI-H716 cell line was derived, have yet to be tested. These results suggest that emerging FGFR inhibitor therapeutics may have efficacy in a subset of colon cancer driven by FGFR2 amplification.
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are activated by mutation and overexpressed in bladder cancers (BCs), and FGFR inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials in BC patients. However, BC cells display marked heterogeneity in their responses to FGFR inhibitors, and the biological mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are not well defined. Here we used a novel inhibitor of FGFRs 1–3 and RNAi to determine the effects of inhibiting FGFR1 or FGFR3 in a panel of human BC cell lines. We observed that FGFR1 was expressed in BC cells that also expressed the “mesenchymal” markers ZEB1 and vimentin, whereas FGFR3 expression was restricted to the E-cadherin- and p63-positive “epithelial” subset. Sensitivity to the growth-inhibitory effects of BGJ-398 was also restricted to the “epithelial” BC cells and it correlated directly with FGFR3 mRNA levels but not with the presence of activating FGFR3 mutations. In contrast, BGJ-398 did not strongly inhibit proliferation but did block invasion in the “mesenchymal” BC cells in vitro. Similarly, BGJ-398 did not inhibit primary tumor growth but blocked the production of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the formation of lymph node and distant metastases in mice bearing orthotopically implanted “mesenchymal” UM-UC3 cells. Together, our data demonstrate that FGFR1 and FGFR3 have largely non-overlapping roles in regulating invasion/metastasis and proliferation in distinct “mesenchymal” and “epithelial” subsets of human BC cells. The results suggest that the tumor EMT phenotype will be an important determinant of the biological effects of FGFR inhibitors in patients.
Objectives: The central issue in this study is to investigate the expression of Sex determining region Y-BOX2 (SOX2) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), evaluate their clinicopathological variables and prognostic significance in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: Specimens from 222 SCLC patients and 53 adjacent normal lung tissues were detected by the immunohistochemistry for SOX2 and FGFR1 expression. The relationship between the expression of both markers and survival status was determined. Results: Overexpression of SOX2 and FGFR1 were revealed in SCLC tumors than in normal tissues (P<0.05). SOX2 expression was associated with clinical stage (P=0.014) and lymph node status (P=0.041). Besides, FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in ever smokers (P=0.030) and late stage SCLC (P=0.005). SOX2, FGFR1 and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and Recurrence-free survival (RFS) by multivariate analysis. In stage I patients, only overexpression of SOX2, but not of FGFR1, predicted poor OS (0.027) and RFS (P=0.013). According to the expression of SOX2 and FGFR1, patients were categorized into three groups. Patients with elevated expression of both markers belonged to the group with the shortest RFS (P<0.0001) and OS (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Increased expression of SOX2 and FGFR1 may be available as poor prognostic indicators in SCLC patients.
SOX2; FGFR1; small cell lung cancer; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
Activating mutations of Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) have been described in approximately 75% of low-grade papillary bladder tumors. In muscle invasive disease, FGFR3 mutations are found in 20% of tumors, but overexpression of FGFR3 is observed in about half of cases. Therefore, FGFR3 is a particularly promising target for therapy in bladder cancer. Up to now most drugs tested for inhibition of FGFR3 have been small molecule, multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. More recently, a specific inhibitory monoclonal antibody targeting FGFR3 (R3Mab) has been described and tested pre-clinically. In this study, we have evaluated mutation and expression status of FGFR3 in 19 urothelial cancer cell lines and a cohort of 170 American bladder cancer patients. We demonstrated inhibitory activity of R3Mab on tumor growth and corresponding cell signaling in three different orthotopic xenografts of bladder cancer. Our results provide the pre-clinical proof of principle necessary to translate FGFR3 inhibition with R3Mab into clinical trials in patients with bladder cancer.
bladder cancer; FGFR3; targeted therapy; orthotopic xenograft model; monoclonal antibody
Activating mutations of FGFR3 are frequently identified in superficial urothelial carcinoma (UC) and increased expression of FGFR1 and FGFR3 are common in both superficial and invasive UC.
The effects of inhibition of receptor activity by three small molecule inhibitors (PD173074, TKI-258 and SU5402) were investigated in a panel of bladder tumour cell lines with known FGFR expression levels and FGFR3 mutation status.
All inhibitors prevented activation of FGFR3, and inhibited downstream MAPK pathway signalling. Response was related to FGFR3 and/or FGFR1 expression levels. Cell lines with the highest levels of FGFR expression showed the greatest response and little or no effect was measured in normal human urothelial cells or in UC cell lines with activating RAS gene mutations. In sensitive cell lines, the drugs induced cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. IC50 values for PD173074 and TKI-258 were in the nanomolar concentration range compared with micromolar concentrations for SU5402. PD173074 showed the greatest effects in vitro and in vivo significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous bladder tumour xenografts.
These results indicate that inhibition of FGFR1 and wild-type or mutant FGFR3 may represent a useful therapeutic approach in patients with both non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive UC.
FGFR3; FGFR1; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; urothelial carcinoma; PD173074; TKI-258
Gene amplification is an important mechanism for activating oncogenes in malignant tumors. Although amplification of HER2, C-MYC, CCND1 and FGFR1 has been reported in breast cancers, their role in the progression of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma is unclear. To investigate this question we compared the amplification frequencies of these genes in pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), DCIS associated with invasive carcinoma, and invasive carcinoma.
We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization of the selected genes on tissue microarrays composed of 179 pure DCIS and 438 invasive carcinomas. Two hundred and sixteen of the latter had DCIS components, and in those cases we compared gene amplification in the intraductal and invasive components of each carcinoma.
The rate of amplification of FGFR1 was higher in invasive carcinomas than in the pure DCIS, but the opposite was true for HER2 amplification. These findings applied consistently to high-grade tumors, but not to low/intermediate-grade tumors. The amplification status of HER2, C-MYC, CCND1 and FGFR1 was generally similar in the matched invasive and DCIS components of the same tumors. However, FGFR1 amplification was more common in the invasive components than in the DCIS components. In survival analyses, FGFR1 amplification was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-free survival for all patients with invasive carcinoma and for the hormone receptor-positive subgroup.
Amplification of HER2, C-MYC and CCND1 seems to play a role in the early development of breast cancer, but not in its progression. However, the increased frequency of FGFR1 amplification in invasive carcinomas compared with pure DCIS and in the invasive components of individual tumors, and its association with decreased disease-free survival, suggests a role for FGFR1 amplification in the progression of breast cancer including in situ-to-invasive transition, as well as initiation.
It is known that FGFR2 gene variations confer a risk for breast cancer. FGFR2 and FGF10, the main ligand of FGFR2, are both overexpressed in 5–10% of breast tumors. In our study, we sequenced the most important coding regions of FGFR2 in somatic tumor tissue of 140 sporadic breast cancer patients and performed MLPA analysis to detect copy number variations in FGFR2 and FGF10. We identified one somatic heterozygous missense mutation, p.K660N (c.1980G>C), within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 in tumor tissue of a sporadic breast cancer patient, which is likely mediated by the FGFR2-IIIb isoform. The presence of wild type and mutated alleles in equal quantities suggests that the mutation has driven clonal amplification of mutant cells. We have analyzed the tyrosine kinase activity of p.K660N and another recently described somatic breast cancer mutation in FGFR2, p.R203C, after expression in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of both mutant proteins is strongly increased resulting in elevated phosphorylation and activity of downstream effectors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of functional analysis of somatic breast cancer mutations in FGFR2 providing evidence for the activating nature of FGFR2-mediated signalling in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Despite advances in modern therapy, patients with relapsed or metastatic disease have a very poor clinical prognosis. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is involved in normal myogenesis and muscle regeneration, but not commonly expressed in differentiated muscle tissues. Amplification and mutational activation of FGFR4 has been reported in RMS and promotes tumor progression. Therefore, FGFR4 is a tractable therapeutic target for patients with RMS. In this study, we used a chimeric Ba/F3 TEL-FGFR4 construct to test five tyrosine kinase inhibitors reported to specifically inhibit FGFRs in the nanomolar range. We found ponatinib (AP24534) to be the most potent FGFR4 inhibitor with an IC50 in the nanomolar range. Ponatinib inhibited the growth of RMS cells expressing wild-type or mutated FGFR4 through increased apoptosis. Phosphorylation of wild-type and mutated FGFR4 as well as its downstream target STAT3 was also suppressed by ponatinib. Finally, ponatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth in a RMS mouse model expressing mutated FGFR4. Therefore, our data suggests that ponatinib is a potentially effective therapeutic agent for RMS tumors that are driven by a dysregulated FGFR4 signaling pathway.
AIM: To investigate fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) protein expression in Chinese patients with resectable gastric cancer (GC) and the association with clinicopathological characteristics and survival.
METHODS: One hundred and seventy-five GC patients who underwent curative surgical procedures were enrolled in this study. The protein expression of FGFR4 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) GC tissues was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Patient clinicopathological data and survival information were also collected and χ2 statistical analysis was performed to analyze FGFR4 protein expression in the subgroups with differing clinicopathological characteristics including; gender, age, tumor location, differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis stage, macroscopic type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis, neural invasion and vascular invasion. Furthermore, some common molecular markers of GC in our cancer center, including p53, p27, topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) were also determined by IHC and their association with FGFR4 protein expression evaluated. The probability of survival for different subgroups with different clinicopathological characteristics was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves plotted using the log rank test.
RESULTS: Seventy seven cases (44%) were found to have high expression of FGFR4 protein. Significantly different FGFR4 expression was observed between gastric cancers with differing expression of Topo IIα (log rank χ2 = 9.4760, P = 0.0236). No significant differences were observed between subgroups defined by any of the other clinicopathological characteristics. The median survival time of the FGFR4 high expression (77 cases) and low expression groups (98 cases) was 27 mo and 39 mo, respectively. The five-year survival rates and median survival times of gastric cancers with high FGFR4 expression were worse than those with low expression (30.8% vs 39.2%, 27 mo vs 39 mo), respectively, however, no significant difference was observed in survival time (log rank χ2 = 1.0477, P = 0.3060). Survival analysis revealed that high expression of FGFR4 was a predictor of poor outcome in GC patients if the tumor was small (less than or equal to 3 cm in size) (log rank χ2 = 5.5033, P = 0.0190), well differentiated (log rank χ2 = 7.9757, P = 0.0047), and of T1 or T2 stage invasion depth (log rank χ2 = 4.8827, P = 0.0271).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that high tumor expression of FGFR4 protein is not an independent risk factor for GC cancer initiation, but is a useful prognostic marker for GC patients when the tumor is relatively small, well differentiated, or in the early stages of invasion.
Gastric cancer; Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4; Protein expression; Clinicopathological characteristics; Prognosis
Mutations in multiple oncogenes including KRAS, CTNNB1, PIK3CA and FGFR2 have been identified in endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the clinicopathological features associated with patterns of mutation in these genes, a necessary step in planning targeted therapies for endometrial cancer. 466 endometrioid endometrial tumors were tested for mutations in FGFR2, KRAS, CTNNB1, and PIK3CA. The relationships between mutation status, tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) and clinicopathological features including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Mutations were identified in FGFR2 (48/466); KRAS (87/464); CTNNB1 (88/454) and PIK3CA (104/464). KRAS and FGFR2 mutations were significantly more common, and CTNNB1 mutations less common, in MSI positive tumors. KRAS and FGFR2 occurred in a near mutually exclusive pattern (p = 0.05) and, surprisingly, mutations in KRAS and CTNNB1 also occurred in a near mutually exclusive pattern (p = 0.0002). Multivariate analysis revealed that mutation in KRAS and FGFR2 showed a trend (p = 0.06) towards longer and shorter DFS, respectively. In the 386 patients with early stage disease (stage I and II), FGFR2 mutation was significantly associated with shorter DFS (HR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.35–7.77; p = 0.008) and OS (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.09–3.65; p = 0.025) and KRAS was associated with longer DFS (HR = 0.23; 95% CI 0.05–0.97; p = 0.045). In conclusion, although KRAS and FGFR2 mutations share similar activation of the MAPK pathway, our data suggest very different roles in tumor biology. This has implications for the implementation of anti-FGFR or anti-MEK biologic therapies.
Increased expression of FGFR-4 and its ligands have been linked to lethal prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, a germline polymorphism in the FGFR-4 gene, resulting in arginine at codon 388 (Arg388) instead of glycine (Gly388), is associated with aggressive disease. The FGFR-4 Arg388 variant results in increased receptor stability, sustained receptor activation and increased motility and invasion compared to Gly388. However, the impact of sustained signaling on cellular signal transduction pathways is unknown.
Expression microarray analysis of immortalized prostatic epithelial cells lines expressing FGFR-4 Arg388 or Gly388 was used to establish a gene signature associated with FGFR-4 Arg388 expression. Transient transfection of reporters and inhibitors were used to establish the pathways activated by FGFR-4 Arg388 expression. The impact of pathway knockdown in vitro and in an orthotopic model was assessed using inhibitors and/or shRNA.
Expression of the FGFR-4 Arg388 protein leads to increased activity of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway, increased activity of serum response factor (SRF) and AP1 and transcription of multiple genes which are correlated with aggressive clinical behavior in PCa. Increased expression of SRF is associated with biochemical recurrence in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Consistent with these observations, knockdown of FGFR-4 Arg388 in PCa cells decreases proliferation and invasion in vitro and primary tumor growth and metastasis in vivo.
These studies define a signal transduction pathway downstream of FGFR-4 Arg388 that acts via ERK and SRF to promote prostate cancer progression.
prostate cancer; fibroblast growth factor receptor; serum response factor; MAP kinase; invasion
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignancy with features of skeletal muscle, and the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood. Survival for high risk groups is ~30% at 5 years and there are no durable therapies tailored to its genetic aberrations. During genetic modeling of the common RMS variants, embryonal (eRMS) and alveolar (aRMS), we noted that the RTK FGFR4 was upregulated as an early event in aRMS. Herein, we evaluated the expression of FGFR4 in eRMS compared to aRMS, and whether FGFR4 had similar or distinct roles in their tumorigenesis.
Human RMS cell lines and tumor tissue were analyzed for FGFR4 expression by immunoblot and IHC. Genetic and pharmacologic loss-of-function of FGFR4 using virally-transduced shRNAs and the FGFR small molecule inhibitor PD173074, respectively, were used to study the role of FGFR4 in RMS cell lines in vitro and xenografts in vivo. Expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2L1 was also examined.
FGFR4 is expressed in both RMS subtypes, but protein expression is higher in aRMS. The signature aRMS gene fusion product, PAX3-FOXO1, induced FGFR4 expression in primary human myoblasts. In eRMS, FGFR4 loss-of-function reduced cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft formation in vivo. In aRMS, it diminished cell survival in vitro. In myoblasts and aRMS, FGFR4 was necessary and sufficient for expression of BCL2L1, while in eRMS, this induction was not observed, suggesting differential FGFR4 signaling.
These studies define dichotomous roles for FGFR4 in RMS subtypes, and support further study of FGFR4 as a therapeutic target.
FGFR4; PAX3-FOXO1; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Pediatric cancers
TP53 and FGFR3 mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancers. FGFR3 mutations are most frequent in low-grade low-stage tumours, whereas TP53 mutations are most frequent in high-grade high-stage tumours. Several studies have reported FGFR3 and TP53 mutations to be mutually exclusive events, whereas others have reported them to be independent. We carried out a meta-analysis of published findings for FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer (535 tumours, 6 publications) and additional unpublished data for 382 tumours. TP53 and FGFR3 mutations were not independent events for all tumours considered together (OR = 0.25 [0.18–0.37], p = 0.0001) or for pT1 tumours alone (OR = 0.47 [0.28–0.79], p = 0.0009). However, if the analysis was restricted to pTa tumours or to muscle-invasive tumours alone, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events (OR = 0.56 [0.23–1.36] (p = 0.12) and OR = 0.99 [0.37–2.7] (p = 0.35), respectively). After stratification of the tumours by stage and grade, no dependence was detected in the five tumour groups considered (pTaG1 and pTaG2 together, pTaG3, pT1G2, pT1G3, pT2-4). These differences in findings can be attributed to the putative existence of two different pathways of tumour progression in bladder cancer: the CIS pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are rare, and the Ta pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are frequent. TP53 mutations occur at the earliest stage of the CIS pathway, whereas they occur would much later in the Ta pathway, at the T1G3 or muscle-invasive stage.
Evolution of unresponsiveness to homeostasis-promoting signals from the microenvironment is a hallmark of malignant tumor cells. In Dunning R3327 model rat prostate tumors that are comprised of distinct stromal and epithelial compartments, progression from non-malignant, androgen-responsive tumors to malignancy is characterized by loss of compartmentation coincident with a loss of resident epithelial cell FGFR2IIIb that receives instructive signals from stromal FGF7 and FGF10. Restoration of FGFR2IIIb to malignant tumor cells restores responsiveness to stromal cells, restores distinct stromal and epithelial compartments and retards malignant progression. Cultured stromal cells from two compartment tumors are comprised of smooth muscle α−actin-positive cells that express predominantly FGFR3 and fibroblast-like cells devoid of α−actin and FGFR3. Here we show that it is primarily the smooth muscle cell-like α−actin-expressing stromal cells that survive, morphologically differentiate and delay tumor incidence and size in the presence of malignant cells in which FGFR2IIIb has been restored. Expression of FGFR3 by transfection in the fibroblast-like stromal cells conferred ability to respond similar to the smooth muscle cell-like stromal cells in which FGFR3 is normally resident. These results highlight the importance of the two-way communication back and forth between stroma and epithelium that is mediated by signaling within the FGFR family during progression to malignancy.
cell-cell communication; Dunning tumors; tumor microenvironment; prostate cancer; receptor tyrosine kinases; stromal-epithelial interactions; tissue homeostasis