Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitis, emphysema and irreversible airflow limitation. These changes are thought to be due to oxidative stress and an imbalance of proteases and antiproteases. Quercetin, a plant flavonoid, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. We hypothesized that quercetin reduces lung inflammation and improves lung function in elastase/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed mice which show typical features of COPD, including airways inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and emphysema.
Mice treated with elastase and LPS once a week for 4 weeks were subsequently administered 0.5 mg of quercetin dihydrate or 50% propylene glycol (vehicle) by gavage for 10 days. Lungs were examined for elastance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Effects of quercetin on MMP transcription and activity were examined in LPS-exposed murine macrophages.
Quercetin-treated, elastase/LPS-exposed mice showed improved elastic recoil and decreased alveolar chord length compared to vehicle-treated controls. Quercetin-treated mice showed decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a measure of lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress. Quercetin also reduced lung inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and muc5AC. Quercetin treatment decreased the expression and activity of MMP9 and MMP12 in vivo and in vitro, while increasing expression of the histone deacetylase Sirt-1 and suppressing MMP promoter H4 acetylation. Finally, co-treatment with the Sirt-1 inhibitor sirtinol blocked the effects of quercetin on the lung phenotype.
Quercetin prevents progression of emphysema in elastase/LPS-treated mice by reducing oxidative stress, lung inflammation and expression of MMP9 and MMP12.
This study compared the effect of adjunctive low dose doxycycline and licorice on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
In this in vivo, experimental study 39 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were selected. Samples of GCF were collected from three deepest pockets and MMP-8 concentration was measured. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 13). Groups were treated with doxycycline, licorice and placebo. Sampling and measurement of MMP-8 was repeated after 6 weeks. Data was analyzed by t-paired and ANOVA test. P > 0.001 was considered significant.
The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in doxycycline and licorice group in comparison with the placebo group and the difference was statistically significant (P value > 0.001). The decrease in mean of MMP-8 concentration was higher in licorice group than doxycycline group, but the difference was not statistically significant.
The present study showed that licorice extract can prevent the production of MMPs by host cells and can be as useful as antibiotics like doxycycline to cure periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. It must be added that no side-effects were observed in usage of licorice extract.
Chronic periodontitis; doxycycline; gingival crevicular fluid; licorice; matrix metalloproteinase enzymes-8
Salmeterol and fluticasone combination (SFC) has anti-inflammatory effects and improves clinical symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of SFC remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses of COPD, as well as the relationship of the inflammatory factors with the levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Foxp3+Tregs) after SFC therapy.
Twenty-one patients with moderate or severe COPD received treatment with 50/500 μg of SFC twice a day for 12 weeks. Before and after treatment, the patients were evaluated using the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale and by conducting a 6-min walk test. The number of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in induced sputum were counted. Levels of cytokines, including pre-inflammatory IL-8, TNF-α, IL-17A and cytokine IL-10, in the sputum supernatant and peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. The proportion of Foxp3+Tregs in the total CD4+ T cell of the peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. The relationship between IL-17A levels and the percentage of Foxp3+Tregs was analyzed by statistical analysis.
After treatment with SFC, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s as a percentage of predicted values (FEV1%) and the 6-min walk distance in the COPD patients significantly increased, while dyspnea scores decreased. The total number of cells, neutrophils, and the percentage of neutrophils in induced sputum reduced notably, while the proportion of monocytes was significantly increased. Levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-17A in the sputum supernatant and in the blood were markedly lowered, while IL-10 levels were unchanged. The proportion of Foxp3+Tregs in the total CD4+T cell population in the peripheral blood was drastically higher than that before treatment. The level of IL-17A was negatively correlated with the proportion of Foxp3+Tregs in CD4+T cells.
SFC can reduce the levels of inflammatory factors and improve symptoms of COPD. The levels of inflammatory factors are associated with the variation of Foxp3+Tregs in COPD.
This study was registered with http://www.chictr.org (Chinese Clinical Trial Register) as follows: ChiCTR-TNC-10001270
T-lymphocytes; inflammatory mediators; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; salmeterol and fluticasone propionate
Moraxella catarrhalis causes approximately 10% of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and also colonizes the lower airway in stable patients. Little is known about the effects of colonization by M. catarrhalis on airway inflammation and protease-antiprotease balance, and how these changes compare to those seen during exacerbations. Since COPD is a progressive inflammatory disease, elucidating the effects of bacterial colonization and exacerbation on airway inflammation is relevant to understanding disease progression in COPD. Our aims were (1) Analyze changes in airway inflammation in colonization and exacerbation of COPD due to M. catarrhalis; (2) Explore protease-antiprotease balance in colonization and exacerbation due to M. catarrhalis. Our hypothesis were (1) Acquisition of a new strain of M. catarrhalis in COPD increases airway inflammation from baseline and alters the protease-antiprotease balance towards a more proteolytic environment; (2) These changes are greater during exacerbations associated with M. catarrhalis as compared to colonization.
Thirty-nine consecutive COPD patients with 76 acquisitions of a new strain of M. catarrhalis over a 6-year period were identified in a prospective study. Seventy-six pre-acquisition sputum supernatant samples, obtained just before acquisition of M catarrhalis, and 76 acquisition samples (34 were associated with exacerbation, 42 with colonization) were analyzed for IL-8, TNF-α, Neutrophil Elastase (NE) and Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). Changes were compared in paired samples from each patient.
IL-8, TNF-α and NE were significantly elevated after acquisition of M. catarrhalis, compared to pre-acquisition samples (p =< 0.001 for all three). These changes were present in colonization (p = 0.015 for IL-8; p =< 0.001 for TNF-α and NE) as well as in exacerbation (p =< 0.001 for all three), compared to pre-acquisition levels. SLPI was significantly lower after acquisition (p =< 0.001), in colonization (p =< 0.001) as well as in exacerbation (p = 0.004), compared to pre-acquisition levels. SLPI levels correlated negatively with NE levels (R2 = 0.07; p = 0.001).
Acquisition of M. catarrhalis in COPD causes increased airway inflammation and worsening protease-antiprotease imbalance during exacerbations and also in colonization, even in the absence of increased symptoms. These effects could contribute to progression of airway disease in COPD.
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 play a key role in the pathogenesis of in-stent restenosis. We investigated the effect of a short-term therapy of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, with or without doxycycline, an MMP inhibitor, after coronary stenting on inflammatory biomarkers and neointimal hyperplasia.
Materials and Methods
A total of 75 patients (86 lesions) treated with bare metal stents were randomized into three groups: 1) combination therapy (200 mg celecoxib and 20 mg doxycycline, both twice daily), 2) celecoxib (200 mg twice daily) only, and 3) non-therapy control. Celecoxib and doxycycline were administered for 3 weeks after coronary stenting. The primary endpoint was neointimal volume obstruction by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at 6 months. The secondary endpoints included clinical outcomes, angiographic data, and changes in blood levels of inflammatory biomarkers.
Follow-up IVUS revealed no significant difference in the neointimal volume obstruction among the three treatment groups. There was no difference in cardiac deaths, myocardial infarctions, target lesion revascularization or stent thrombosis among the groups. Blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand, and MMP-9 varied widely 48 hours and 3 weeks after coronary stenting, however, they did not show any significant difference among the groups.
Our study failed to demonstrate any beneficial effects of the short-term therapy with celecoxib and doxycycline or with celecoxib alone in the suppression of inflammatory biomarkers or in the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. Large scale randomized trials are necessary to define the role of anti-inflammatory therapy in the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia.
Celecoxib; coronary artery disease; coronary stent; neointimal hyperplasia; inflammation
Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with twice daily (BID) inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). This study evaluated whether daily PM mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI) was equally effective compared to twice daily dosing.
In a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 911 subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD managed without ICS received MF-DPI 800 μg QD PM, MF-DPI 400 μg BID, or placebo. The change from baseline in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), total COPD symptom scores, and health status as well as the percentage of subjects with a COPD exacerbation were assessed. Adverse events were recorded.
Mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler 800 μg QD PM and 400 μg BID significantly increased postbronchodilator FEV1 from baseline (50 mL and 53 mL, respectively, versus a 19 mL decrease for placebo; P < 0.001). The percentage of subjects exacerbating was significantly lower in the pooled MF-DPI groups than in the placebo group (P = 0.043). Subjects receiving MF-DPI 400 μg BID reported a statistically significant (19%) reduction in COPD symptom scores compared with placebo (P < 0.001). Health status as measured with St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) improved significantly in all domains (Total, Activity, Impacts, and Symptoms) in the pooled MF-DPI groups versus placebo (P ≤ 0.031). MF-DPI treatment was well tolerated.
Once-daily MF-DPI improved lung function and health status in subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD and was comparable to BID MF-DPI.
The primary aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing doxycycline to suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
Ex-vivo treatment of AVM tissues: Intact AVM tissues were treated with doxycycline for 48 hours. Active and total MMP-9 in the medium were measured. Pilot trial: AVM patients received either doxycycline (100 mg) or placebo twice a day for one week prior to AVM resection. Active and total MMP-9 in BVM tissues were measured.
Ex-vivo treatment of AVM tissues: Doxycycline at 10 and 100 μg/ml significantly decreased MMP-9 levels in AVM tissues ex-vivo (total: control vs 10 vs 100 μg/ml = 100 ± 6 vs 60 ± 16 vs 61 ± 9%; active: 100 ± 8 vs 48 ± 16 vs 59 ± 10%). Pilot trial: 10 patients received doxycycline, and 4 patients received placebo. There was a trend for both MMP-9 levels to be lower in the doxycycline group than in the placebo group (total: 2.18 ± 1.94 vs 3.26 ± 3.58, P = .50; active: 0.48 ± 0.48 vs 0.95 ± 1.01 ng/100 μg protein, P = .25).
A clinically relevant concentration of doxycycline decreased MMP-9 in ex-vivo AVM tissues. Furthermore, there was a trend that oral doxycycline for as short as one week resulted in a decrease in MMP-9 in AVM tissues. Further studies are warranted to justify a clinical trial to test effects of doxycycline on MMP-9 expression in AVM tissues.
To explore the acute systemic inflammatory and anabolic effects of cycling in hospital admitted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in patients with clinically stable disease.
Cross-sectional comparative study.
University Hospital Gasthuisberg, a tertiary care setting.
16 patients with clinically stable COPD (no acute exacerbation in the past 12 weeks; median age: 73 years (IQR: 60 to 75); median forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1): 45% predicted (IQR: 33 to 58)) and 14 patients who were admitted to a hospital due an acute exacerbation of COPD (median age: 65 years (IQR: 59 to 74); median FEV1 to on day 8 of hospital stay: 41% predicted (IQR: 33 to 54)).
Measurements and results:
Circulating levels of C reactive protein, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and insulin-like growth factor I were determined before, at the end and 2 and 30 minutes after a symptom-limited peak cycling test and before, at the end and 2 and 30 minutes after a symptom-limited constant-work-rate cycling test at 70% of the peak load. Non-significant changes in the circulating markers of inflammation and anabolism were found during or up to 30 minutes after ceasing the peak or constant-work-rate cycling exercise tests. The systemic responses of the hospitalized patients with COPD did not differ from those with clinically stable disease.
High-intensity cycling exercises did not increase the circulating levels of inflammatory markers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, irrespective of their clinical stability.
C reactive protein; interleukin 6; interleukin 8; insulin-like growth factor 1
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma may overlap and converge in older people (overlap syndrome). It was hypothesized that patients with overlap syndrome may have different clinical characteristics such as sputum eosinophilia, and better responsiveness to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS).
Sixty-three patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] ≤80%) underwent pulmonary function tests, including reversibility of airflow limitation, arterial blood gas analysis, analysis of inflammatory cells in induced sputum, and chest high-resolution computed tomography. The inclusion criteria for COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms included having asthmatic symptoms such as episodic breathlessness, wheezing, cough, and chest tightness worsening at night or in the early morning (COPD with asthma group). The clinical features of COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms were compared with those of COPD patients without asthmatic symptoms (COPD without asthma group).
The increases in FEV1 in response to treatment with ICS were significantly higher in the COPD with asthma group. The peripheral eosinophil counts and sputum eosinophil counts were significantly higher. The prevalence of patients with bronchial wall thickening on chest high-resolution computed tomography was significantly higher. A significant correlation was observed between the increases in FEV1 in response to treatment with ICS and sputum eosinophil counts, and between the increases in FEV1 in response to treatment with ICS and the grade of bronchial wall thickening. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed 82.4% sensitivity and 84.8% specificity of sputum eosinophil count for detecting COPD with asthma, using 2.5% as the cutoff value.
COPD patients with asthmatic symptoms had some clinical features. ICS should be considered earlier as a potential treatment in such patients. High sputum eosinophil counts and bronchial wall thickening on chest high-resolution computed tomography might therefore be a good predictor of response to ICS.
COPD; asthma; HRCT; inhaled corticosteroid; pulmonary function
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and structural alterations (ie, tissue remodeling) throughout the conducting airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular degrading enzymes that play a critical role in inflammatory cell infiltration and tissue remodeling, but the influence of the agents that are used for the treatment of COPD on the production of MMPs is not well understood.
The present study aimed to examine the influence of tiotropium bromide hydrate (TBH) on the production of MMPs from lung fibroblasts (LFs) induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in vitro.
LFs, at a concentration of 5 × 105 cells·mL−1, were stimulated with TGF-β in the presence of various concentrations of TBH. MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels in culture supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and MMP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The influence of TBH on TGF-β signaling pathways was also analyzed by examining Smad activation and signaling protein phosphorylation by ELISA.
TBH at more than 15 pg·mL−1 inhibited the production of MMP-1 and MMP-2, but not tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, from LFs, after TGF-β stimulation. TBH also suppressed MMP mRNA expression through the inhibition of Smad activation and signaling protein, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylation.
These results may suggest that TBH suppresses MMP production from LFs, through interference of TGF-β-mediated signaling pathways and results in favorable modification of the clinical status of COPD.
tiotropium bromide; matrix metalloproteinases; lung fibroblast; TGF-β; inhibition; in vitro
Idiopatiic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease of dysregulated fibrogenesis with abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) activity, angiogenesis, and profibrotic milieu wherein MMPs inhibition appears to be target-based therapy. We evaluated the role of doxycycline as a nonspecific inhibitor of MMPs in IPF patients.
Materials and Methods
Patients of IPF diagnosed on the basis of ATS-ERS consensus criteria were put on oral doxycycline in an open prospective trial. They were followed up for long term with spirometry, 6 min walk test (6MWT), St. Georges respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and repeat bronchoscopy while on doxycycline monotherapy for over 24 weeks. Both the initial and follow-up broncho alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from IPF patients (n = 6) and control subjects (n = 6) were looked for MMP-9, -3, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Additionally, doxycycline's action on MMP activities in vitro was tested in BALF of IPF patients.
Doxycycline intervention showed significant improvement in IPF patients in terms of change in 6MWT, SGRQ, FVC, and quality of life. The level of MMP-9, -3, TIMP-1 and VEGF in the BALF were found significantly higher in the IPF patients compared to the controls while doxycycline therapy reduced those parameters nearer to control value. Doxycycline also showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in the in vitro MMPs activities in BALF.
Doxycycline shows significant prospect in the treatment of IPF through its anti MMPs activities. This is the first report on a case series of long-term doxycycline monotherapy in IPF patients.
Broncho alveolar lavage fluid; doxycycline; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; matrix metalloproteinase; vascular endothelial growth factor
Doxycycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic, has certain anti-angiogenic properties and can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs/gelatinases). We investigated the effects of doxycycline on choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and regulation of MMP-2/-9 and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF).
Doxycycline was orally administered to rats at 500, 50, 5, and 0.5 mg/kg/day, using non-treated animals as controls. Experimental CNV was induced with laser 7 days after doxycycline treatment started. At seven days post-induction, animals were euthanized, and eyes collected. RPE/choroid flat-mounts were labeled with isolectin IB4 to determine CNV lesion volumes using confocal microscopy and Volocity® software. MMP-2, MMP-9 and PEDF protein levels were determined by ELISA. MMP catalytic activity was determined in solution using fluorogenic gelatin and peptide substrates, by gelatin zymography in SDS-PAGE and by in situ DQ-gelatin zymography in RPE/choroid sections.
CNV complex lesion volumes decreased with doxycycline in a dose-response relationship. A dosage of 500 mg/kg/day caused a 70% inhibition of CNV complex volume compared to control animals. Doxycycline elevated PEDF levels in plasma, and did not affect the plasma pro- and active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. However, the in vitro enzymatic activities of purified MMP-2 and MMP-9 declined significantly with doxycycline. MMP-2, MMP-9 and gelatinolytic activities in situ increased early in CNV lesion development. Doxycycline treatments and exogenous additions inhibited gelatinolytic activities in CNV lesions.
Doxycycline effectively hampered the progression of experimental CNV. The results suggest that orally administrated doxycycline can reach the choroid to attenuate proteolytic enzymes that remodel Bruch's membrane and promote the anti-angiogenic PEDF to inhibit neovascularization.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is secreted by tumor cells plays a key role in angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is produced by inflammatory cells, such as stromal granulocytes (PMN), remodels the extracellular matrix and is known to promote angiogenesis indirectly by interacting with VEGF. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PMN-derived MMP-9, its interaction with VEGF, and the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy targeting MMP-9 with oral Doxycycline and VEGF with Bevacizumab in pancreatic cancer (PDAC).
Inhibitors to MMP-9 (Doxycycline) and VEGF (Bevacizumab) were used alone or in combination in an in vitro angiogenesis assay to test their effect on angiogenesis caused by MMP-9, VEGF, PMN and PDAC cells. In an in vivo model of xenografted PDAC, treatment effects after 14 days under monotherapy with oral Doxycycline or Bevacizumab and a combination of both were evaluated.
In vitro, PMN-derived MMP-9 had a direct and strong proangiogenic effect that was independent and additive to PDAC-derived VEGF. Complete inhibition of angiogenesis required the inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9. In vivo, co-localization of MMP-9, PMN and vasculature was observed. MMP inhibition with oral Doxycycline alone resulted in a significant decrease in PDAC growth and mean vascular density comparable to VEGF inhibition alone.
PMN derived MMP-9 acts as a potent, direct and VEGF independent angiogenic factor in the context of PDAC. MMP-9 inhibition is as effective as VEGF inhibition. Targeting MMP-9 in addition to VEGF is therefore likely to be important for successful anti-angiogenic treatment in pancreatic cancer.
VEGF; MMP-9; Neutrophil granulocyte; Pancreatic cancer
BACKGROUND--Nedocromil sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is effective in the treatment of asthma. Its efficacy in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been investigated. METHODS--Fifty four non-allergic patients with COPD were randomised to 10 weeks of treatment with placebo or nedocromil sodium (4 x 8 mg/day) in a double blind study. RESULTS--Nedocromil sodium treatment had no effect on airway responsiveness to histamine, methacholine, and adenosine-5'-monophosphate, pulmonary function, and symptom scores. Both patients and clinicians favoured treatment with nedocromil sodium, however, and the number of dropouts (because of exacerbations) was fewer during treatment with the drug. CONCLUSIONS--Longer trials will be necessary to assess if nedocromil sodium can reduce the frequency of exacerbations and the decrease in pulmonary function, eventually leading to a better quality of life in patients with COPD.
The ability to objectively differentiate exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from day-to-day symptom variations would be an important development in clinical practice and research. We assessed the ability of domiciliary pulse oximetry to achieve this.
40 patients with moderate-severe COPD collected daily data on changes in symptoms, heart-rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and peak-expiratory flow (PEF) over a total of 2705 days. 31 patients had data suitable for baseline analysis, and 13 patients experienced an exacerbation. Data were expressed as multiples of the standard deviation (SD) observed from each patient when stable.
In stable COPD, the SD for HR, SpO2 and PEF were approximately 5 min-1, 1% and 10l min-1. There were detectable changes in all three variables just prior to exacerbation onset, greatest 2-3 days following symptom onset. A composite Oximetry Score (mean magnitude of SpO2 fall and HR rise) distinguished exacerbation onset from symptom variation (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve, AUC = 0.832, 95%CI 0.735-0.929, p = 0.003). In the presence of symptoms, a change in Score of ≥1 (average of ≥1SD change in both HR and SpO2) was 71% sensitive and 74% specific for exacerbation onset.
We have defined normal variation of pulse oximetry variables in a small sample of patients with COPD. A composite HR and SpO2 score distinguished exacerbation onset from symptom variation, potentially facilitating prompt therapy and providing validation of such events in clinical trials.
Exercise limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and exertional dyspnea are key features of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed the effects of glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237), a once-daily, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, on exercise tolerance in patients with moderate to severe COPD.
Patients were randomized to a cross-over design of once-daily NVA237 50 μg or placebo for 3 weeks, with a 14-day washout. Exercise endurance, inspiratory capacity (IC) during exercise, IC and expiratory volumes from spirometry, plethysmographic lung volumes, leg discomfort and dyspnea under exercise (Borg scales), and transition dyspnea index were measured on Days 1 and 21 of treatment. The primary endpoint was endurance time during a submaximal constant-load cycle ergometry test on Day 21.
A total of 108 patients were randomized to different treatment groups (mean age, 60.5 years; mean post-bronchodilator, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] 57.1% predicted). Ninety-five patients completed the study. On Day 21, a 21% difference in endurance time was observed between patients treated with NVA237 and those treated with placebo (P < 0.001); the effect was also significant from Day 1, with an increase of 10%. Dynamic IC at exercise isotime and trough FEV1 showed significant and clinically relevant improvements from Day 1 of treatment that were maintained throughout the study. This was accompanied by inverse decreases in residual volume and functional residual capacity. NVA237 was superior to placebo (P < 0.05) in decreasing leg discomfort (Borg CR10 scale) on Day 21 and exertional dyspnea on Days 1 and 21 (transition dyspnea index and Borg CR10 scale at isotime). The safety profile of NVA237 was similar to that of the placebo.
NVA237 50 μg once daily produced immediate and significant improvement in exercise tolerance from Day 1. This was accompanied by sustained reductions in lung hyperinflation (indicated by sustained and significant improvements in IC at isotime), and meaningful improvements in trough FEV1 and dyspnea. Improvements in exercise endurance increased over time, suggesting that mechanisms beyond improved lung function may be involved in enhanced exercise tolerance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01154127).
COPD; dyspnea; FEV1; exercise tolerance; LAMA; NVA237
Exercise training improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tiotropium 18 μg once daily induces sustained bronchodilation throughout the day and reduces hyperinflation, one of the pathophysiological factors contributing to exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.
To determine whether tiotropium enhances the effects of exercise training in patients with COPD.
Multicenter, 25 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.
Twelve Italian Pulmonary Units practicing pulmonary rehabilitation.
Patients and intervention
Two hundred thirty four COPD patients (196 males; mean age: 67.4 ± 7.6; forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1): 41.4 ± 13.0% predicted) were randomised to tiotropium 18 μg or placebo inhalation capsules taken once daily. Both groups underwent a 8 week pulmonary rehabilitation program (PR) consisting of 3 exercise training session per week.
Baseline, at the end of PR and after 12 weeks, patients completed pulmonary function testing, six minute walking test (6MWT), the Baseline and Transition Dyspnea Index (BDI and TDI), and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
Relative to placebo, tiotropium had larger trough and post-study drug FEV1 responses on all test days. At the end of and 12 weeks following PR, patients on tiotropium showed no statistically significant differences in 6MWT compared to patients on placebo. Compared to the period immediately prior to PR, the mean improvement in 6MWT was only 29.7 meters (7.1%) for the combined cohort. Mean TDI focal scores at the end of PR were 3.60 for tiotropium and 2.25 for placebo (p < 0.01). At 12 weeks after PR, TDI focal scores were 2.71 for tiotropium and 2.11 for placebo (p = 0.16). Reduction in all four SGRQ component scores, indicating an improvement in health-related quality of life, was observed for the tiotropium group over the duration of the study compared to placebo but the differences were not statistically significant. During the study period, there were fewer exacerbations and exacerbation days in the tiotropium group.
Although significant improvements were observed with perceived dyspnea, compared to placebo, the addition of tiotropium to pulmonary rehabilitation did not improve the 6MWT.
bronchodilators; pulmonary rehabilitation; health-related quality of life; hyperinflation; dyspnea
Genetic factors play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but are poorly understood. A number of candidate genes have been proposed on the basis of the pathogenesis of COPD. These include the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes which play a role in tissue remodelling and fit in with the protease - antiprotease imbalance theory for the cause of COPD. Previous genetic studies of MMPs in COPD have had inadequate coverage of the genes, and have reported conflicting associations of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP haplotypes, plausibly due to under-powered studies.
To address these issues we genotyped 26 SNPs, providing comprehensive coverage of reported SNP variation, in MMPs- 1, 9 and 12 from 977 COPD patients and 876 non-diseased smokers of European descent and evaluated their association with disease singly and in haplotype combinations. We used logistic regression to adjust for age, gender, centre and smoking history.
Haplotypes of two SNPs in MMP-12 (rs652438 and rs2276109), showed an association with severe/very severe disease, corresponding to GOLD Stages III and IV.
Those with the common A-A haplotype for these two SNPs were at greater risk of developing severe/very severe disease (p = 0.0039) while possession of the minor G variants at either SNP locus had a protective effect (adjusted odds ratio of 0.76; 95% CI 0.61 - 0.94). The A-A haplotype was also associated with significantly lower predicted FEV1 (42.62% versus 44.79%; p = 0.0129). This implicates haplotypes of MMP-12 as modifiers of disease severity.
This randomized, double-blind, Phase IIIb study evaluated the 24-hour bronchodilatory efficacy of aclidinium bromide versus placebo and tiotropium in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Patients received aclidinium 400 μg twice daily (morning and evening), tiotropium 18 μg once daily (morning), or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second area under the curve for the 24-hour period post-morning dose (FEV1 AUC0–24) at week 6. Secondary and additional endpoints included FEV1 AUC12–24, COPD symptoms (EXAcerbations of chronic pulmonary disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS] total score and additional symptoms questionnaire), and safety. Results: Overall, 414 patients were randomized and treated (FEV1 1.63 L [55.8% predicted]). Compared with placebo, FEV1 AUC0–24 and FEV1 AUC12–24 were significantly increased from baseline with aclidinium (Δ = 150 mL and 160 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) and tiotropium (Δ = 140 mL and 123 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) at week 6. Significant improvements in E-RS total scores over 6 weeks were numerically greater with aclidinium (p < 0.0001) than tiotropium (p < 0.05) versus placebo. Only aclidinium significantly reduced the severity of early-morning cough, wheeze, shortness of breath, and phlegm, and of nighttime symptoms versus placebo (p < 0.05). Adverse-event (AE) incidence (28%) was similar between treatments. Few anticholinergic AEs (<1.5%) or serious AEs (<3%) occurred in any group. Conclusions: Aclidinium provided significant 24-hour bronchodilation versus placebo from day 1 with comparable efficacy to tiotropium after 6 weeks. Improvements in COPD symptoms were consistently numerically greater with aclidinium versus tiotropium. Aclidinium was generally well tolerated.
24-hour; bronchodilation; long-acting muscarinic antagonist; nighttime; symptoms
BACKGROUND--The acute response to bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is modest; it has, however, been suggested that these patients may benefit from long term treatment. METHODS--To investigate the efficacy of salmeterol in smokers with moderate to severe COPD a double blind, randomised, crossover comparison was performed between salmeterol (50 micrograms twice daily) and placebo in 63 patients with stable COPD (mean age 65 years). Prior to inclusion, all patients had a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of < 60% of predicted and an improvement in FEV1 of < 15% following 400 micrograms inhaled salbutamol. Patients received four weeks of therapy with each of the treatment regimens. Assessment of efficacy was made with recording of morning and evening peak expiratory flow rates (PEF), respiratory symptoms, and use of rescue salbutamol. FEV1 was measured before and after nebulised salbutamol prior to randomisation and at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS--Morning PEF values were higher during the salmeterol than during the placebo period, although the mean treatment difference was small (12 l/min (95% confidence limits 6 to 17)). No difference in mean evening PEF values was found. Diurnal variation in PEF, assessed as the difference between the morning PEF and that of the previous evening, was more pronounced during the placebo than during the salmeterol period. The mean spirometric values (including reversibility in FEV1) obtained at the end of the two treatment periods were similar. Compared with placebo, treatment with salmeterol was associated with lower daytime and night time symptom scores and less use of rescue salbutamol both during the day and the night. The patients rated the treatment with salmeterol better than treatment with placebo. CONCLUSIONS--This study shows that, compared with placebo, treatment with salmeterol produces an improvement in respiratory symptoms and morning PEF values in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Treatment with long acting beta agonists may therefore result in an improvement in functional status, even in patients suffering from apparently nonreversible obstructive pulmonary disease.
Obesity is a state of subclinical inflammation resulting in loss of function of insulin receptors and decreased insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of the inflammatory enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), for 6 months in rodent models restores insulin receptor function and insulin sensitivity.
This 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled proof-of-concept study was performed to determine if the MMP inhibitor (MMPI), doxycycline, decreased global markers of inflammation and enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity in obese people with type 2 diabetes (DM2). The study included non-DM2 controls (n = 15), and DM2 subjects randomized to PL (n = 13) or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily (MMPI; n = 11). All participants were evaluated on Day 1; MMPI and PL groups were also evaluated after 84 days of treatment.
There was a significant decrease in inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (P < 0.05) and myeloperoxidase (P = 0.01) in the MMPI but not PL group. The MMPI also significantly increased skeletal muscle activated/total insulin signaling mediators: 3’phosphoinositide kinase-1 (PDK1) (p < 0.03), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) (p < 0.004), and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) (p < 0.03).
This study demonstrated short term treatment of people with diabetes with an MMPI resulted in decreased inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity. Larger, longer studies are warranted to determine if doxycycline can improve glucose control in people with diabetes.
Diabetes; Doxycycline; Insulin sensitivity; Matrix metalloproteinases; Myeloperoxidase
Roflumilast is a targeted oral once‐daily administered phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor with clinical efficacy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results from in vitro studies with roflumilast indicate that it has anti‐inflammatory properties that may be applicable for the treatment of COPD.
In a crossover study, 38 patients with COPD (mean (SD) age 63.1 (7.0) years, post‐bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 61.0 (12.6)% predicted) received 500 μg roflumilast or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Induced sputum samples were collected before and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Differential and absolute cell counts were determined in whole sputum samples. Markers of inflammation were determined in sputum supernatants and blood. Spirometry was performed weekly.
Roflumilast significantly reduced the absolute number of neutrophils and eosinophils/g sputum compared with placebo by 35.5% (95% CI 15.6% to 50.7%; p = 0.002) and 50.0% (95% CI 26.8% to 65.8%; p<0.001), respectively. The relative proportion of sputum neutrophils and eosinophils was not affected by treatment (p>0.05). Levels of soluble interleukin‐8, neutrophil elastase, eosinophil cationic protein and α2‐macroglobulin in sputum and the release of tumour necrosis factor α from blood cells were significantly reduced by roflumilast compared with placebo treatment (p<0.05 for all). Post‐bronchodilator FEV1 improved significantly during roflumilast compared with placebo treatment with a mean difference between treatments of 68.7 ml (95% CI 12.9 to 124.5; p = 0.018).
PDE4 inhibition by roflumilast treatment for 4 weeks reduced the number of neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as soluble markers of neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammatory activity in induced sputum samples of patients with COPD. This anti‐inflammatory effect may in part explain the concomitant improvement in post‐bronchodilator FEV1.
Roflumilast is an oral, selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The addition of roflumilast to long-acting bronchodilators improves lung function in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. The present study investigated drug-drug interaction effects between inhaled formoterol and oral roflumilast.
This was a single-centre (investigational clinic), open, randomised, multiple-dose, parallel-group study. In Regimen A, healthy men were treated with roflumilast (500 μg tablet once daily; Day 2-18) and concomitant formoterol (24 μg twice daily; Day 12-18). In Regimen B, healthy men were treated with formoterol (24 μg twice daily; Day 2-18) and concomitant roflumilast (500 μg once daily; Day 9-18). Steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of roflumilast, roflumilast N-oxide and/or formoterol (Cmax and AUC0-τ) as well as pharmacodynamics - blood pressure, transthoracic impedance cardiography (ZCG), 12-lead digital electrocardiography, peripheral blood eosinophils, and serum glucose and potassium concentrations - were evaluated through Day 1 (baseline), Day 8 (Regimen B: formoterol alone) or Day 11 (Regimen A: roflumilast alone), and Day 18 (Regimen A and B: roflumilast plus formoterol). Blood and urine samples were taken for safety assessment at screening, pharmacokinetic profiling days and Day 19. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study.
Of the 27 subjects enrolled, 24 were evaluable (12 in each regimen). No relevant pharmacokinetic interactions occurred. Neither roflumilast nor formoterol were associated with significant changes in cardiovascular parameters as measured by ZCG, and these parameters were not affected during concomitant administration. Formoterol was associated with a slight increase in heart rate and a corresponding shortening of the QT interval, without changes in the heart rate-corrected QTc interval. There were small effects on the other pharmacodynamic assessments when roflumilast and formoterol were administered individually, but no interactions or safety concerns were seen after concomitant administration. No severe or serious adverse events were reported, and no adverse events led to premature study discontinuation.
No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions were found when oral roflumilast was administered concomitantly with inhaled formoterol, including no effect on cardiac repolarisation. Roflumilast was well tolerated.
Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for obstruction of airflow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or an imbalance between MMPs and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs), is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. We investigated whether the MMPs expression or the imbalance between MMPs and TIMP-1 is associated with the amount of cigarette smoking and the FEV1 value, in the lung parenchyma of 26 subjects (6 non-smokers and 20 cigarette smokers). First, we performed zymographic analysis to identify the profile of the MMPs, which revealed gelatinolytic bands mainly equivalent to MMP-9 in the smokers. We then measured, using enzyme immunoassay, the concentrations of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1. Correlation analysis revealed that both the MMP-9 concentrations and the molar ratios of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 (MMP-9/TIMP-1) were correlated with the amount of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, MMP-9 concentrations were inversely correlated with FEV1. In conclusion, this study shows that MMP-9 expression in human lung parenchyma is associated with cigarette smoking and also with the obstruction of airflow, suggesting that MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the cigarette smoke-induced obstruction of airflow known as the characteristic of COPD.
Bacterial meningitis is characterized by an inflammatory reaction to the invading pathogens that can ultimately lead to sensorineural hearing loss, permanent brain injury, or death. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) are key mediators that promote inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain injury in bacterial meningitis. Doxycycline is a clinically used antibiotic with anti-inflammatory effects that lead to reduced cytokine release and the inhibition of MMPs. Here, doxycycline inhibited TACE with a 50% inhibitory dose of 74 μM in vitro and reduced the amount of tumor necrosis factor alpha released into the cerebrospinal fluid by 90% in vivo. In an infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis, a single dose of doxycycline (30 mg/kg) given as adjuvant therapy in addition to ceftriaxone 18 h after infection significantly reduced the mortality, the blood-brain barrier disruption, and the extent of cortical brain injury. Adjuvant doxycycline (30 mg/kg given subcutaneously once daily for 4 days) also attenuated hearing loss, as assessed by auditory brainstem response audiometry, and neuronal death in the cochlear spiral ganglion at 3 weeks after infection. Thus, doxycycline, probably as a result of its anti-inflammatory properties, had broad beneficial effects in the brain and the cochlea and improved survival in this model of pneumococcal meningitis in infant rats.