Islam is a religion that was established in the 7th century by the Prophet Muhammad who was commissioned as a Messenger of God. It is also the modern or latest version of the message sent by God through some prophets, e.g. Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Not only is it associated with the mental aspect, however, it also impacts every part of life, from eating and sleeping to working and playing. It can be, therefore, considered a way of life.
Meanwhile, one's lifestyle has recently come to have great meaning especially in the developed countries. Methods to assess lifestyle are suggested by some authorities such as Breslow and Morimoto. Accordingly, we have tried to investigate whether Muslims, the followers of Islam, have a desirable lifestyle as defined in today's terms, i.e. the cultural dependence of the lifestyle formation.
As a result, Muslims seeking to live in accordance with the doctrine of Islam may have a relatively good lifestyle. Islam may also be associated with the relief from the mental stress and give Muslims a guideline to live a happier life.
Islam; lifestyle; cultural dependence; health; Middle East
Man’s quest to know about his origin has led him to search his roots and the best source for him has been religious scriptures. The greatest miracle is the Holy Quraan. There is an elegant description of origin, development and step by step developmental stages of intra-uterine life in Quraan. Muslims had this knowledge in 7th century and the Prophet Muhammad’s Ahadeeth (sayings, deeds, approvals narrated by authentic narrators) had explained almost everything about natal and even postnatal events. These findings once presented to experts in the field of Anatomy and Embryology surprised them and they believed that the knowledge given to the Prophet Muhammad was indeed divine. Who else would provide this knowledge to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) except the Creator Himself.
Modern embryology is a fairly recent development which has its beginning with the invention of microscope in the 17th century. However the concept of the human being developing in stages was not recognised until much later. But the scientists then and most Muslim and non-Muslim scholars do not even know that the holy Quran and Sunnah [words, deeds, approvals of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) collected by authentic narrators] had provided a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum. Actually information in the Quran and Hadith corrected many superstitious and vague ideas about human development that were prevalent before.
ISLAMIC BIOETHICS DERIVES FROM A COMBINATION OF PRINCIPLES, duties and rights, and, to a certain extent, a call to virtue. In Islam, bioethical decision-making is carried out within a framework of values derived from revelation and tradition. It is intimately linked to the broad ethical teachings of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus to the interpretation of Islamic law. In this way, Islam has the flexibility to respond to new biomedical technologies. Islamic bioethics emphasizes prevention and teaches that the patient must be treated with respect and compassion and that the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of the illness experience be taken into account. Because Islam shares many foundational values with Judaism and Christianity, the informed Canadian physician will find Islamic bioethics quite familiar. Canadian Muslims come from varied backgrounds and have varying degrees of religious observance. Physicians need to recognize this diversity and avoid a stereotypical approach to Muslim patients.
The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet MuhammadPBUH). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.
Miswak; oral hygiene; salvadora
Growing usage of animals in the research projects has drawn more attention to their welfare and ethics surrounding this practice. Dissemination of information about the existing ethical consideration and alternatives in animal experiments has two important functions; first, it increases the researcher's awareness of the possible methods of using animals in the experiment, and second, to ensure that potential users are aware of the established alternatives. For example, legislations enacted in many countries during the 1980s state that laboratory animal applications should be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible according to principles of the 3Rs. Thus, scientists around the world tried to apply the 3Rs in their biomedical researches regarding welfare of the laboratory animals. However, the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims, and also Hadiths contain the obligatory ways to keep and treat animals since their revelations. According to Islamic viewpoint, animals represent Allah's ability and wisdom, and humans must pay attention to their health and living conditions. Several Islamic manuscripts state that animals have their own position in the creation hierarchy and humans are responsible for supplying minimal facilities and their welfare. This paper has tried to review ethical consideration in animal experiments and regarding Islamic resources in this case to encourage providing comprehensive ethical regulations in animal experiments which its establishment could be beneficial for animal ethics committees or research institutes.
Animals; Ethics; Research; Welfare
Virtuous physicians seem to have become a rarity in modern day medical practice. Many patients and physicians feel that the profession of medicine is not living up to its own standards and expectations. It is the contention of the author that the Muslim physician, guided by the two primary sources of Islamic Law, the Qur’an and the Sunna, will possess the necessary character traits of a good physician. In this article I argue that the Muslim physician who abides by the Qur’an will live a contented life, will be trusted by his/her patients and community, and will be in line with the recently enacted Western principles of medical ethics.
Medical ethics; Islam; Qur’an; Islamic medical ethics
Chronic feeding and sleep schedule disturbances are stressors that exert damaging effects on the organism. Practicing Muslims in Saudi Arabia go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. Modern era Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns, namely abstaining from food and water and increasing daytime sleep, and staying awake and receiving food and water till dawn.
Strict Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia may influence metabolism, sleep and circadian cortisol secretion.
Young, male Ramadan practitioners were evaluated before and two weeks into the Ramadan. Blood samples were collected at 9.00 am and 9.00 pm for measurements of metabolic parameters and cortisol. Saliva was collected serially during the day for cortisol determinations.
Ramadan practitioners had relative metabolic stability or changes expected by the pattern of feeding. However, the cortisol circadian rhythm was abolished and circulating insulin levels and HOMA index were increased during this period.
The flattening of the cortisol rhythm is typical of conditions associated with chronic stress or endogenous hypercortisolism and associated with insulin resistance.
Modern Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia are associated with evening hypercortisolism and increased insulin resistance. These changes might contribute to the high prevalence of chronic stress-related conditions, such as central obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2, and their cardiovascular sequelae observed in the Kingdom.
The current study aimed to examine the changes following a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep hygiene practices, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms in youth.
Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing) sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate) completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and wore Actical® monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks) and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks) the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention.
Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F = 0.8) enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p = 0.005) from a baseline mean (SD) of 4.70 (0.41) to 4.95 (0.31) post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43) to 4.47 (2.37); p < 0.001] and SDSC scores [53.4 (9.0) to 39.2 (9.2); p < 0.001]. PDSS scores improved from a baseline of 16.5 (6.0) to 11.3 (6.0) post- intervention (p < 0.001). BMI z-scores with a baseline of 0.79 (1.18) decreased significantly (p = 0.001) post-intervention to 0.66 (1.19). Despite these improvements, sleep duration as estimated by Actical accelerometry did not change. There was however a significant decrease in daytime sedentary/light energy expenditure.
Our findings suggest the F.E.R.R.E.T sleep hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819
Sleep; Sleep hygiene; Sleep quality; Obesity; Accelerometry
Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep–wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework.
gender; night work; domestic work; sleep; women
This article describes the combined clinical experience of a multidisciplinary group of professionals on the sleep disturbances of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) focusing on sleep hygiene interventions. Such practical and comprehensive information is not available in the literature. Severe, persistent sleep difficulties are frequently associated with this condition but few health professionals are familiar with both FASD and sleep disorders. The sleep promotion techniques used for typical children are less suitable for children with FASD who need individually designed interventions. The types, causes, and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the modification of environment, scheduling and preparation for sleep, and sleep health for their caregivers are discussed. It is our hope that parents and also researchers, who are interested in the sleep disorders of children with FASD, will benefit from this presentation and that this discussion will stimulate much needed evidence-based research.
This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands.
Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0.
Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1) discussions were polarized, 2) opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3) the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants.
Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality).
To relate diverse aspects of genetics and its applications to concepts in the Glorious Qur’an and the ḥadīth.
The author compared passages from the Glorious Qur’an and ḥadīth with modern concepts in genetics, such as recessive inheritance, genetic counseling, genetic variation, cytoplasmic inheritance, sex chromosomes, genetics-environment interactions, gender determination, and the hypothesis of “pairing in the universe.”
A fresh understanding of Islamic scripture reveals references to principles of genetics that predate contemporary discoveries. This highlights the need for further exploration of possible links between science and religion.
Qur’an; ḥadīth; genetics; genetic counseling; recessiveness; cytoplasmic inheritance; epigenetics; gender determination
It is well documented that the quality and quantity of prior sleep influences future sleep. For instance, nocturnal sleep restriction leads to an increase in slow wave sleep (SWS) (i.e. SWS rebound) during a subsequent sleep period. However, few studies have examined how prior napping affects daytime sleep architecture. Becuase daytime naps are recommended for management of disrupted sleep, understanding the impact of napping on subsequent sleep may be important. We monitored sleep-wake patterns for one week with actigraphy followed by a 75-minute polysomnographically-recorded nap. We found that greater nap frequency was correlated with increased Stage 1 and decreased SWS. We categorized subjects based on nap frequency during the prior week (0 naps, 1 to 2 naps, and 3 to 4 naps) and found differences in Stage 1, Stage 2, and SWS between groups. Subjects who took no naps had the greatest amount of SWS, those who took 1 to 2 naps had the most Stage 2 sleep, and those who took 3 to 4 naps had the most Stage 1. While correlations were not found between nap frequency and nocturnal sleep measures, frequent napping was associated with increased subjective sleepiness. Therefore, frequent napping appears to be associated with lighter daytime sleep and increased sleepiness during the day. Speculatively, low levels of daytime sleepiness and increased SWS in non-nappers may help explain why these individuals choose not to nap.
Sleep architecture; Napping; Slow Wave Sleep; Sleepiness
All animals in which sleep has been studied express signs of sleep-like behaviour, suggesting that sleep must have some fundamental functions that are sustained by natural selection. Those functions, however, are still not clear. Here, we examine the ecological relevance of sleep from the perspective of behavioural trade-offs that might affect fitness. Specifically, we highlight the advantage of using food-caching animals as a system in which a conflict might occur between engaging in sleep for memory/learning and hypothermia/torpor to conserve energy. We briefly review the evidence for the importance of sleep for memory, the importance of memory for food-caching animals and the conflicts that might occur between sleep and energy conservation in these animals. We suggest that the food-caching paradigm represents a naturalistic and experimentally practical system that provides the opportunity for a new direction in sleep research that will expand our understanding of sleep, especially within the context of ecological and evolutionary processes.
hypothermia; food caching; birds; mammals; synaptic plasticity; torpor
The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and
enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in
Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011
children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of
time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found
to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr a day at the TV or the
computer, being tired in school, and having difficulties both in waking up and in
sleeping. Discussing sleep and media habits with schoolchildren and their parents
regarding matters of optimal sleep and of how media habits affect sleep and learning is
seen to be an important task of the school health service.
sleep length; television; computer; school-aged children; adolescents; school health service
Sleep Medicine has only recently been recognized as a specialty of medicine. Its development is based on an increasing amount of knowledge concerning the physiology of sleep, circadian biology and the pathophysiology of sleep disorders. This review chronicles the major advances in sleep science over the past 70 years and the development of the primary organizations responsible for the emergence of Sleep Medicine as a specialty, sleep disorders as a public health concern and sleep science as an important area of research.
Sleep medicine; history; sleep disorders; sleep research
Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders.
The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India.
Subject and Methods:
Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. The study was carried out during Oct. to Dec. 2011 with population consisted of total 150 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0.
In this study, out of 150 medical students, 26/150 (17.3%) students had abnormal levels of daytime sleepiness while 20/150 (13.3%) were border line. Sleep quality in females was better than the male.
Disorders related to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and alcohol ingestion affected sleep and there was high level of daytime sleepiness. Sleep difficulties resulted in irritability and affected lifestyle and interpersonal relationships.
Medical students; Sleep disorders; Sleep habits; Sleep quality
The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among demographics, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. As hypothesized, medical students’ sleep quality was significantly worse than a healthy adult normative sample (t = 5.13, p < .001). Poor sleep quality in medical students was predicted by several demographic and sleep hygiene variables, and future research directions are proposed.
Disrupted sleep patterns are a significant problem in the elderly, leading to increased cognitive dysfunction and risk of nursing home placement. A cost-effective and unobtrusive way to remotely monitor changing sleep patterns over time would enable improved management of this important health problem. We have developed an algorithm to derive sleep parameters such as bed time, rise time, sleep latency, and nap time from passive infrared sensors distributed around the home. We evaluated this algorithm using 404 days of data collected in the homes of 8 elderly community-dwelling elders. Data from this algorithm were highly correlated to ground truth measures (bed mats) and were surprisingly robust to variability in sensor layout and sleep habits.
This clinical case report shows how important it is for a psychiatrist to have a knowledge of the cultural and religious context of the patient, in order to understand fully his or her complaints. Culture and religion, in fact, are not neutral, but convey symbols, meanings, and myths that should be properly explored to shed light on the patient’s inner world. Patient D was a 19-year-old Muslim Italo-Tunisian girl, who consulted a psychiatrist for anxiety and panic attacks, and reported being possessed by djinns (ie, “evil creatures”, as described in the Qur’an). A culturally informed interview was carried out, together with administration of psychometric scales, including the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness. Based on her scores and the results of this multidimensional assessment, patient D was treated with transcultural psychotherapy and fluoxetine. After a year of follow-up, she reported no further episodes of panic disorder. For proper assessment and treatment, a combined anthropological, sociological, and psychopathological approach was necessary.
Islam; Qur’an; djinns; panic attack disorder; ethnopsychiatry
Because of their influence on psychological adaptation, biological rhythms associated with sleep have received growing attention during the last two decades. We are presenting an outline of (1) the ultradian rhythms of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and of slow wave sleep (SWS), (2) the circadian rhythms of sleep/wake, body temperature and melatonine secretion, and (3) the infradian rhythms of the menstrual cycle and seasonal affective disorders emphasizing their importance in psychological adaptation. Particular attention is given to the consequences of the desynchronization of the circadian phase of sleeping and waking with that of core body temperature observed in the cases of abrupt time zone changes, shift work and some forms of insomnia and depression. New methods of intervention, such as the use of exposure to bright lights are discussed. A case is made for increased attention to a new form of hygiene, that of the biological rhythms associated with sleeping and waking.
A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents’ sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and night-to-night variability in sleep duration and assessing the links between these dimensions of sleep and adjustment in Mexican American youth. Participants were 469 Mexican American adolescents (50.5% female) and their mothers and fathers. Data on family socio-cultural characteristics and youth adjustment were collected in home interviews with youth, mothers, and fathers, and, during 7 evening telephone interviews, adolescents reported on nighttime sleep and daytime napping for the prior 24-hour period. Night-to night variability and napping were more strongly linked to youth depressive symptoms and risky behavior than was average nighttime sleep, whereas nighttime sleep predicted lower body mass index. Lower parental acculturation and fathers’ familism values predicted more healthful sleep, and higher levels of family income, parental education and neighborhood crime predicted less healthful sleep. In addition to illuminating the significance of socio-cultural influences on youths’ sleep, this study contributes to the literature by documenting the multidimensionality of sleep patterns and their links with adjustment in an understudied population.
The purpose of this study was to review evidence from the last 5 years (2006-2011) regarding a relationship between sleep duration and childhood overweight/obesity.
Among the 25 studies selected from PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases, all indicated significant associations between short sleep duration and childhood overweight/obesity. Studies explored a range of pediatric populations, methodologies, and potential contributing factors.
Childhood sleep duration may be a modifiable risk factor in preventing obesity. In addition to identifying and assessing patients’ sleep habits, nurses play important roles as educators regarding the importance of adequate sleep and promoting it in children.
Obesity; overweight; pediatric; sleep; sleep deprivation; sleep duration
Sleep has preoccupied and fascinated many civilizations since the dawn of mankind. Here, we critically review the various elements pertaining to sleep in the context of early Islamic religion and culture. The many principles of sleep hygiene, wellbeing and health associated with adequate sleep, and the understanding of sleep as a dynamic state are all apparent from such explorative process of Islamic tradition.
sleep; Islam; Qur’an; fasting; Hadith; Ramadan
An important function of sleep is the consolidation of memories, and features of sleep, such as rapid eye movement (REM) or sleep spindles, have been shown to correlate with improvements in discrete memory domains. Because of the methodological difficulties in modulating sleep, however, a causal link between specific sleep features and human memory consolidation is lacking. Here, we experimentally manipulated specific sleep features during a daytime nap via direct pharmacological intervention. Using zolpidem (ambien), a short-acting GABAA agonist hypnotic, we show increased sleep spindle density and decreased REM sleep, compared to placebo and sodium oxybate (xyrem). Naps with increased spindles produced significantly better verbal memory and significantly worse perceptual learning, but did not affect motor learning. The experimental spindles were similar to control spindles in amplitude and frequency suggesting that the experimental intervention enhanced normal sleep processes. Furthermore, using statistical methods, we demonstrate for the first time a critical role of spindles in human hippocampal memory performance. The gains in memory consolidation exceed sleep alone or control conditions, and demonstrate the potential for targeted, exceptional memory enhancement in healthy adults with pharmacologically modified sleep.
zolpidem; placebo; sleep spindles; REM; verbal declarative memory; perceptual learning; motor learning