PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (209773)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Pharmacoeconomics Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy provided to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in 2011.
Methods. E-mails requesting syllabi and information about courses covering pharmacoeconomic topics were sent to all US colleges and schools of pharmacy from which PharmD students had graduated in 2011 (n=103).
Results. Of 87 responding pharmacy colleges and schools, 85 provided pharmacoeconomics education in 2011. The number of hours dedicated to pharmacoeconomic-related topics varied from 2 to 60 per year (mean=20).
Conclusions. Pharmacoeconomics education is provided at almost all US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, variation in the number of teaching hours and topics covered demonstrates a lack of standardization in the PharmD curriculum. Pharmacy administrators and educators should invest more resources and tools to standardize training in this area.
doi:10.5688/ajpe777145
PMCID: PMC3776899  PMID: 24052648
pharmacoeconomics; pharmacy education; curriculum
2.  Mental Health and Psychiatric Pharmacy Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives
To describe the extent of psychiatric pharmacy instruction in US pharmacy curricula, including course and faculty characteristics and mental health topics taught in clinical therapeutics-based courses.
Methods
An 11-item survey instrument (54% response) was developed and mailed to 91 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Over 75% of colleges and schools employed a psychiatric pharmacist; however, less than 50% of faculty teaching psychiatric pharmacy content were psychiatric pharmacy specialists as defined in the study. All colleges and schools included psychiatric topics as part of a therapeutics-based course with an average of 9.5% of course content devoted to these topics. About 25% of colleges and schools offered elective didactic courses in psychiatric pharmacy. Only 2 schools required a psychiatric pharmacy advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE), but about 92% offered elective APPEs. The mean number of hours spent on lecture- and case-based instruction across all colleges and schools was highest for depression and lowest for personality disorders.
Conclusions
There is a need for colleges and schools of pharmacy to better identify and standardize the minimal acceptable level of didactic instruction in psychiatric pharmacy as well as the minimal level of specialty qualifications for faculty members who teach this subject.
PMCID: PMC1847556  PMID: 17429504
psychiatric pharmacy; pharmacy education; curriculum; mental health
3.  Teaching the Science of Safety in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
This paper provides baseline information on integrating the science of safety into the professional degree curriculum at colleges and schools of pharmacy. A multi-method examination was conducted that included a literature review, key informant interviews of 30 individuals, and in-depth case studies of 5 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Educators believe that they are devoting adequate time to science of safety topics and doing a good job teaching students to identify, understand, report, manage, and communicate medication risk. Areas perceived to be in need of improvement include educating pharmacy students about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) role in product safety, how to work with the FDA in post-marketing surveillance and other FDA safety initiatives, teaching students methods to improve safety, and educating students to practice in interprofessional teams. The report makes 10 recommendations to help pharmacy school graduates be more effective in protecting patients from preventable drug-related problems.
PMCID: PMC3138345  PMID: 21769153
safety; curriculum; pharmacy education; FDA; quality
4.  Science of Safety Topic Coverage in Experiential Education in US and Taiwan Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To compare the science of safety (SoS) topic coverage and associated student competencies in the experiential education curricula of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Taiwan.
Methods. The experiential education director, assistant director, or coordinator at a random sample of 34 US colleges and schools of pharmacy and all 7 Taiwan schools of pharmacy were interviewed and then asked to complete an Internet-based survey instrument.
Results. Faculty members in both countries perceived that experiential curricula were focused on the postmarketing phase of the SoS, and that there is a need for the pharmacy experiential curricula to be standardized in order to fill SoS coverage gaps. Inter-country differences in experiential SoS coverage were noted in topics included for safety biomarkers that signal potential for drug-induced problems and pharmacogenomics.
Conclusions. Experiential SoS topic coverage and student ability gaps were perceived within and between US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510202
PMCID: PMC3279028  PMID: 22345721
science of safety; experiential education; survey research; international
5.  Incorporation of Institute of Medicine Competency Recommendations Within Doctor of Pharmacy Curricula 
Objectives. To determine the extent of implementation of Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for 5 core competencies within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. A survey instrument that used IOM language to define each of the recommended competencies (patient-centered care, interdisciplinary teaming, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics) was sent to 115 US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Evidence-based practice and patient-centered care were the most widely implemented of the 5 core competencies (in 87% and 84% of colleges and schools, respectively), while informatics, interdisciplinary teaming, and quality improvement were implemented to a lesser extent (at 36%, 34%, and 29% of colleges and schools, respectively).
Conclusions. Significant progress has been made by colleges and schools of pharmacy for inclusion of IOM competencies relating to evidence-based practice and patient-centered care within curricula. However, the areas of informatics, interdisciplinary teaming, and quality improvement are lagging in inclusion.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76583
PMCID: PMC3386034  PMID: 22761524
Institute of Medicine; competency; curriculum
6.  Status of PharmD/PhD Programs in Colleges of Pharmacy: The University of Tennessee Dual PharmD/PhD Program 
Objectives
To describe the University of Tennessee PharmD/PhD program and assess the prevalence and characteristics of PharmD/PhD programs in the United States.
Methods
Survey instruments were mailed in May 2004 to UT dual-degree program participants and deans of US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
University of Tennessee PharmD/PhD students completed more than 30 hours of graduate credit before obtaining their PharmD and 72.2% agreed or strongly agreed that the program met their professional goals. More than 40% of US pharmacy colleges and schools have or plan to have PharmD/PhD programs. A wide variation exists in the level of integration, PhD concentrations offered, entrance requirements, and student benefits. Most schools with PharmD/PhD programs had few students enrolled in the program, but attrition rates were low (<20%) for 69% of the schools.
Conclusions
Dual-degree programs attract and retain pharmacy students in research programs and 47.6% of graduates entered academia and industry.
PMCID: PMC1636914  PMID: 17149422
dual-degree programs; faculty shortage; pharmacy education; PharmD/PhD; graduate education
7.  The Prevalence and Characteristics of Dual PharmD/MPH Programs Offered at US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess the prevalence and characteristics of curriculum in dual doctor of pharmacy (PharmD)/master of public health (MPH) degree programs offered by US pharmacy programs.
Methods. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed online to faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Of the 110 colleges and schools that responded, 23 (21%) offered a PharmD/MPH degree. Common characteristics of these 23 programs included current PharmD program structure (3 + 1 year), early curricular recruitment, small enrollment, and interdisciplinary coursework occurring online and in the classroom. The impact of the dual degree on the curriculum and longevity of the dual-degree programs varied. About 55% of responding programs without a formal dual-degree program reported that additional public health training was available.
Conclusion. Twenty-one percent of colleges and schools of pharmacy offer a combined PharmD/MPH dual degree. Most programs required an additional 1 or 2 semesters to complete both degrees.
doi:10.5688/ajpe776116
PMCID: PMC3748297  PMID: 23966719
pharmacy education; public health; masters of public health; dual degree
8.  Evaluation of Curricula Content Based on Thai Pharmacy Competency Standards 
Objective
To evaluate the curricula content of Thai pharmacy schools based on the Thai pharmacy competency standards.
Methods
Course syllabi were collected from 11 pharmacy schools. A questionnaire was developed based on the Thai pharmacy competency standards. Course coordinators completed the questionnaire assessing the curricula content.
Results
The curricula for both the bachelor of science in pharmacy degree (BS Pharm) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree programs included the minimum content required by the 8 competency domains. The dominant content area in BS Pharm degree programs was product-oriented material. The content ratio of patient to product to social and administrative pharmacy in the BS Pharm degree programs was 2:3:1, respectively. However, the content ratio suggested by the Thai Pharmacy Council was 3:2:1, respectively. For the PharmD programs, the largest content area was patient-oriented material, which was in agreement with the framework suggested by the Thai Pharmacy Council.
Conclusions
The curricula of all Thai pharmacy schools met the competency standards; however, some patient-oriented material should be expanded and some product-oriented content deleted in order to meet the recommended content ratio.
PMCID: PMC2254234  PMID: 18322571
pharmacy education; curriculum; competency; evaluation; Thailand
9.  Simulation and Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences 
This paper reviews the literature on the various types of simulation and their incorporation into health professions curricula, describes how simulation training is recognized in other professions, and evaluates the feasibility of integrating simulation into experiential education programs of colleges and schools of pharmacy. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Board of Directors develop standards and guidelines on the use of simulation as part of introductory pharmacy practice experiences within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510209
PMCID: PMC3279018  PMID: 22345728
simulation; experiential education; introductory pharmacy practice experience
10.  Use of Simulation-based Teaching Methodologies in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives. To characterize the use of high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients in US pharmacy colleges and schools.
Methods. A survey instrument was sent to 105 doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs to collect data on the use of simulation and to identify barriers to using simulation-based teaching methods.
Results. Eighty-eight colleges and schools completed the survey instrument (response rate 84%). Of these, 14 did not use high-fidelity mannequins or standardized patients within the curriculum. Top barriers were logistical constraints and high resource cost. Twenty-three colleges and schools used simulation for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs), 34 for interprofessional education, and 68 for evaluation of at least 1 core competency prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Conclusions. Although the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy use simulation-based teaching methodologies to some extent in the pharmacy curricula, the role of simulation in IPPEs, interprofessional education, and assessment of competency-based skills could be expanded.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77353
PMCID: PMC3631728  PMID: 23610471
simulation; high-fidelity mannequins; standardized patients; survey research
11.  Teaching Patient Assessment Skills to Doctor of Pharmacy Students: The TOPAS Study 
Objectives
To determine the content and extent, design, and relative importance of patient assessment courses in the professional pharmacy curriculum.
Methods
A 20-item questionnaire was developed to gather information pertaining to patient assessment. Pharmacy practice department chairs were mailed a letter with an Internet link to an online survey instrument.
Results
Ninety-six percent of the programs indicated that patient assessment skills were taught. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated their course was a standalone course. The most common topics covered in assessment courses were pulmonary examination, vital signs, and cardiovascular assessment.
Conclusion
There is significant variability in the topics covered, depth of content, types of instruction, and evaluation methods used in patient assessment courses in US colleges of pharmacy. This survey was an initial assessment of what is being done regarding education of student pharmacists on patient assessment.
PMCID: PMC1959204  PMID: 17786252
curriculum design; laboratory instruction; patient assessment; physical assessment
12.  Pharmacogenomics in the Curricula of Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States 
Objectives
To assess the breadth, depth, and perceived importance of pharmacogenomics instruction and level of faculty development in this area in schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States.
Methods
A questionnaire used and published previously was further developed and sent to individuals at all US schools and colleges of pharmacy. Multiple approaches were used to enhance response.
Results
Seventy-five (83.3%) questionnaires were returned. Sixty-nine colleges (89.3%) included pharmacogenomics in their PharmD curriculum compared to 16 (39.0%) as reported in a 2005 study. Topic coverage was <10 hours for 28 (40.6%), 10-30 hours for 29 (42.0%), and 31-60 hours for 10 (14.5%) colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fewer than half (46.7%) were planning to increase course work over the next 3 years and 54.7% had no plans for faculty development related to pharmacogenomics.
Conclusions
Most US colleges of pharmacy include pharmacogenomics content in their curriculum, however, the depth may be limited. The majority did not have plans for faculty development in the area of pharmacogenomic content expertise.
PMCID: PMC2829155  PMID: 20221358
pharmacogenomics education; pharmacogenetics education; curriculum
13.  Pharmacoeconomic Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy: An Update 
Objectives
To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education at US pharmacy colleges and schools in 2007.
Methods
An e-mail survey was developed and sent to pharmacoeconomics instructors at all US colleges of pharmacy.
Results
Of the 90 colleges and schools of pharmacy that completed the survey, 7 colleges and schools did not currently have someone teaching pharmacoeconomics (eg, new school or looking for instructor). For the 83 colleges and schools that had an instructor who taught pharmacoeconomics, 69 covered pharmacoeconomic-related topics in a required course only; 5, in an elective course only; and 9, in both a required and elective course. The number of hours of pharmacoeconomic-related topics presented in required courses ranged from 1 to 48 hours (mean = 21 ± 14; median = 19).
Conclusions
Pharmacoeconomics education courses are offered at the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. There was a wide range of hours devoted to pharmacoeconomic-related topics and the topics covered in these colleges and schools varied. Although the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy offer pharmacoeconomics courses, official guidelines are needed for the specific aspects and topics that should be covered in the classroom.
PMCID: PMC2508714  PMID: 18698384
pharmacoeconomics education
14.  Objective Structured Clinical Examinations in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs in the United States 
Objectives
To describe current objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) practices in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States.
Methods
Structured interviews were conducted with PharmD faculty members between September 2008 and May 2010 to collect information about awareness of and interest in OSCE, current OSCE practices, and barriers to OSCEs.
Results
Of 108 US colleges and schools of pharmacy identified, interviews were completed for a representative sample of 88 programs (81.5% participation rate). Thirty-two pharmacy programs reported using OSCEs; however, practices within these programs varied. Eleven of the programs consistently administered examinations of 3 or more stations, required all students to complete the same scenario(s), and had processes in place to ensure consistency of standardized patients' role portrayal. Of the 55 programs not using OSCEs, approximately half were interested in using the technique. Common barriers to OSCE implementation or expansion were cost and faculty members' workloads.
Conclusions
There is wide interest in using OSCEs within pharmacy education. However, few colleges and schools of pharmacy conduct OSCEs in an optimal manner, and most do not adhere to best practices in OSCE construction and administration.
PMCID: PMC2987288  PMID: 21179259
objective structured clinical examination (OSCE); assessment; testing; examination
15.  Didactic Migraine Education in US Doctor of Pharmacy Programs 
Objective
To compare didactic migraine education in doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States with the Headache Consortium's evidence-based migraine treatment recommendations.
Methods
A self-administered survey instrument was mailed to all 90 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) approved PharmD programs in the United States.
Results
Seventy-seven programs responded (86%) and 69 useable survey instruments were analyzed. Fifty-five percent of programs discussed the Consortium's guidelines, 49% discussed the selection of nonprescription versus prescription agents, 45% recommended a butalbital-containing product as migraine treatment, and 20% educated students about tools for assessing migraine-related debilitation. At least 50% of programs taught information consistent with the remaining Consortium recommendations.
Conclusion
Approximately half of the PharmD programs teach concepts about migraine headache treatment consistent with the US Headache Consortium's recommendations.
PMCID: PMC2829152  PMID: 20221355
pharmacy education; migraine; evidence-based; headache
16.  Bachelor’s Degree Programs in Clinical Pharmacy in China 
This paper describes the status of the bachelor’s degree in clinical pharmacy education in China, with particular focus on educational institutions, programs, and curricula. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of clinical pharmacy education articles published from 2006 to 2011. To ensure the completeness of the investigation, an e-mail was sent or telephone call made directly to the colleges whose curriculum information could not be obtained by the above methodology. Twenty-three colleges offered a program in clinical pharmacy education in 2011. The colleges award either a bachelor of science or a bachelor of medicine degree with programs ranging from 4 to 5 years in duration. The 5-year BS degree program was most popular. Although the number of clinical pharmacy programs in China has steadily increased, more graduates and standardization of curricula are needed to meet the country’s steadily expanding need for quality health care.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768146
PMCID: PMC3475775  PMID: 23129845
development; bachelor degree; clinical pharmacy; education; China
17.  Drug Information Education in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs 
Objective
To characterize pharmacy program standards and trends in drug information education.
Methods
A questionnaire containing 34 questions addressing general demographic characteristics, organization, and content of drug information education was distributed to 86 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States using a Web-based survey system.
Results
Sixty colleges responded (73% response rate). All colleges offered a campus-based 6-year first-professional degree PharmD program. Didactic drug information was a required course in over 70% of these schools. Only 51 of the 60 colleges offered an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in drug information, and 62% of these did so only on an elective basis.
Conclusion
Although almost all of the PharmD programs in the US include a required course in drug information, the majority do not have a required APPE in this important area.
PMCID: PMC1636960  PMID: 17136172
drug information; course; curriculum; pharmacy education; experiential training; advanced pharmacy practice experience
18.  Pharmacy Residencies and Dual Degrees as Complementary or Competitive Advanced Training Opportunities 
The impact of pharmacy practice has been enhanced through additional graduate training opportunities, such as pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs. This article compares and contrasts key aspects of pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs, as well as examines the efforts of US colleges and schools of pharmacy in promoting these advanced training opportunities on their Web sites. Pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs are complementary opportunities that allow student pharmacists to gain advanced knowledge and specialized skills beyond the traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. The combination of these credentials can be highly advantageous in a variety of practice settings. As pharmacists collaborate with healthcare providers and professionals from other disciplines, more support is needed to expand the availability and use of these cross-profession, advanced training opportunities to enhance the future of the pharmacy profession.
doi:10.5688/ajpe768145
PMCID: PMC3475774  PMID: 23129844
dual degree; residency; graduate program; advanced educational training; leadership; master’s degree
19.  Education of Pharmacists in Canada 
In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada.
PMCID: PMC2661159  PMID: 19325948
Canada; comparative education; international pharmacy education
20.  Use of Preadmission Criteria and Performance in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program to Predict Success on the North American Pharmacists Licensure Examination 
Objective. To determine which student characteristics and performance criteria in the prepharmacy and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program predict success on the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX).
Methods. Transcripts and NAPLEX scores were reviewed for 432 graduates from the Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy between 2008 and 2011.
Results. The preadmission variables that correlated with NAPLEX scores included math-science grade point average (GPA), cumulative GPA, student type (internal or transfer), and having no unsatisfactory grades (p<0.001). In the PharmD program, cumulative GPA, on-time graduation, and having no unsatisfactory grades in the prepharmacy and PharmD programs correlated with NAPLEX scores (p<0.001).
Conclusion. Having no unsatisfactory grades in the prepharmacy program and a high cumulative GPA in the PharmD program were identified as significant predictors of success on the NAPLEX.
doi:10.5688/ajpe779193
PMCID: PMC3831404  PMID: 24249855
North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination; admissions; grade point average
21.  Pharmacy Education in the Context of Australian Practice 
Accredited pharmacy programs in Australia provide a high standard of pharmacy education, attracting quality students. The principal pharmacy degree remains the 4-year bachelor of pharmacy degree; however, some universities offer graduate-entry master of pharmacy degrees taught in 6 semesters over a 2-year period. Curricula include enabling and applied pharmaceutical science, pharmacy practice, and clinical and experiential teaching, guided by competency standards and an indicative curriculum (a list of topics that are required to be included in a pharmacy degree curriculum before the program must be accredited by the Australian Pharmacy Council). Graduate numbers have increased approximately 250% with a dramatic increase from 6 pharmacy degree programs in 1997 to 21 such programs in 2008. Graduates must complete approximately 12 months of internship in a practice setting after graduation and prior to the competency-based registration examinations. An overview of pharmacy education in Australia is provided in the context of the healthcare system, a national system for subsidizing the cost of prescription medicines, the Australian National Medicines Policy and the practice of pharmacy. Furthermore, the innovations in practice and technology that will influence education in the future are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2661177  PMID: 19325951
pharmacy education; Australia; curriculum; international
22.  Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members’ Perceptions of Their Exposure to Postgraduate Training and Academic Careers During Pharmacy School 
Objective. To determine the perceptions of junior pharmacy faculty members with US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degrees regarding their exposure to residency, fellowship, and graduate school training options in pharmacy school. Perceptions of exposure to career options and research were also sought.
Methods. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and sent to assistant professors at US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results. Usable responses were received from 735 pharmacy faculty members. Faculty members perceived decreased exposure to and awareness of fellowship and graduate education training as compared to residency training. Awareness of and exposure to academic careers and research-related fields was low from a faculty recruitment perspective.
Conclusions. Ensuring adequate exposure of pharmacy students to career paths and postgraduate training opportunities could increase the number of PharmD graduates who choose academic careers or other pharmacy careers resulting from postgraduate training.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76339
PMCID: PMC3327237  PMID: 22544956
pharmacy faculty members; residency programs; fellowships; graduate education; careers
23.  Teaching the Pharmacology of Antiarrhythmic Drugs 
Objective. To provide doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students with highly integrated, comprehensive and up-to-date instruction related to the pharmacology of antiarrhythmic drugs.
Design. Students were taught the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics of antiarrhythmic agents in the cardiology module presented in quarter 7 of the PharmD curriculum. Important foundational information for this topic was presented to students in prerequisite physiology courses and pathophysiology courses offered earlier in the curriculum. Emphasis was placed on student critical thinking and active involvement. Weekly recitation sessions afforded students the opportunity to apply the information they learned regarding arrhythmia pharmacotherapy to comprehensive patient cases.
Assessment. Student comprehension was measured using class exercises, short quizzes, case write-ups, comprehensive examinations, group exercises, and classroom discussion. Students were afforded the opportunity to evaluate the course, and the instructors as well as rate the degree to which the course achieved its educational outcomes.
Conclusion. Students learned about cardiac arrhythmias through a high-quality, interdisciplinary series of classes presented by faculty members with extensive experience related to the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy of cardiac arrhythmias.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757139
PMCID: PMC3175649  PMID: 21969725
arrhythmia; antiarrhythmic agents; pharmacology; integrated curriculum
24.  A Train-the-Trainer Approach to a Shared Pharmacogenomics Curriculum for US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess pharmacy faculty trainers’ perceptions of a Web-based train-the-trainer program for PharmGenEd, a shared pharmacogenomics curriculum for health professional students and licensed clinicians.
Methods. Pharmacy faculty trainers (n=58, representing 39 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and 1 school from Canada) participated in a train-the-trainer program consisting of up to 9 pharmacogenomics topics. Posttraining survey instruments assessed faculty trainers’ perceptions toward the training program and the likelihood of their adopting the educational materials as part of their institution’s curriculum.
Results. Fifty-five percent of faculty trainers reported no prior formal training in pharmacogenomics. There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in self-reported ability to teach pharmacogenomics to pharmacy students after participants viewed the webinar and obtained educational materials. Nearly two-thirds (64%) indicated at least a “good” likelihood of adopting PharmGenEd materials at their institution during the upcoming academic year. More than two-thirds of respondents indicated interest in using PharmGenEd materials to train licensed health professionals, and 95% indicated that they would recommend the program to other pharmacy faculty members.
Conclusion. As a result of participating in the train-the-trainer program in pharmacogenomics, faculty member participants gained confidence in teaching pharmacogenomics to their students, and the majority of participants indicated a high likelihood of adopting the program at their institution. A Web-based train-the-trainer model appears to be a feasible strategy for training pharmacy faculty in pharmacogenomics.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7610193
PMCID: PMC3530055  PMID: 23275658
pharmacogenomics; curriculum; pharmacy colleges and schools; faculty development; train-the-trainer
25.  Status and Recommendations for Self-Care Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy, 2006 
Teachers of pharmacy self-care courses have met annually since 1998 at the Nonprescription Medicines Academy (NMA) held in Cincinnati, Ohio. During these meetings, self-care faculty members discuss methods of enhancing the teaching of self-care in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Self-care courses are taught using a variety of methods and content is woven into pharmacy curricula in many different ways. This manuscript sets forth the current state of self-care instruction in pharmacy curricula including the recommended core curriculum, instructional methodologies, course mechanics, existing standards, and assessment and curricular placement, and makes recommendations for the future.
PMCID: PMC1803700  PMID: 17332865
nonprescription medicines; curriculum; self-care; instruction

Results 1-25 (209773)