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1.  Extensive Implant Reaction in Failed Subtalar Joint Arthroereisis: Report of Two Cases 
HSS Journal  2007;3(2):177-181.
Foreign body synovitis with extensive granulomatous giant cell reaction to refractile polyethelene debris is a complication of subtalar arthroereisis not previously reported. We present two cases whereby STA-peg implants were used to treat bilateral painful flexible flatfoot deformities in children. Two boys, presented at 7 and 10 years of age, 2 years after STA-peg procedures and tendo-Achilles lengthening for painful flatfeet. They each had minimal subtalar motion and pain at the sinus tarsi. Radiographs demonstrated surgical defects in the calcaneus with surrounding high signal on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the subchondral bone of the calcaneus and talus. Both patients failed conservative management and had their implants removed with good relief of their pain. Histology was submitted at the time of implant removal. We present the radiographic and pathologic findings seen in these two patients with failed subtalar arthroereisis due to extensive implant reaction. The pathologic process seen in these patients is a previously unreported complication of this procedure. We do not recommend arthroereisis in the treatment of painful flexible flatfoot in children.
doi:10.1007/s11420-007-9057-0
PMCID: PMC2504261  PMID: 18751791
arthroereisis; pes planus; children; subtalar synovitis
2.  Primary Osseous Tumors of the Hindfoot: Why the Delay in Diagnosis and Should We Be Concerned? 
Background
Bony tumors of the foot account for approximately 3% of all osseous tumors. Diagnosis is frequently delayed as a result of lack of clinician familiarity and as a result of their rarity. The reasons for the delays, however, are unclear.
Questions/purposes
We therefore determined (1) how hindfoot tumors present and the specific reasons for delay in diagnosis; (2) whether the spectrum of disease varies between the talus and calcaneus; and (3) how these patients were treated.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical notes and imaging for all patients with 34 calcaneal and 23 talar tumors recorded in the Scottish Bone Tumour Registry. Demographics, presentation, investigation, histology, management, recurrence, and mortality were recorded.
Results
Hindfoot tumors present with pain and often swelling around the heel (calcaneus) or ankle (talus), most often misdiagnosed as soft tissue injury. Calcaneal lesions were more likely to be malignant than talar lesions: 13 of 34 versus three of 23.
Conclusions
Clinicians should be aware that hindfoot tumors can be initially misdiagnosed as soft tissue injuries and suspicion of a tumor should be raised in the absence of trauma or persistent symptoms. Lesions affecting the calcaneus are more likely to be malignant. Early diagnosis and adjuvant therapy are important.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2570-6
PMCID: PMC3563817  PMID: 23008022
3.  Calcaneal acrometastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the ureter: a case report and literature review 
Purpose
Ureteral cancer is a rare entity. Typical symptoms are painless hematuria as well as flank pain. Bone metastasis of ureteral cancer can occur in nearby bone structures, such as the spine, pelvis, and hip bone. Distal bone metastasis, such as that in the calcaneus bone, however, is rare.
Case report
An 82-year-old woman presented to the orthopedic clinic at the university hospital with a 3-month history of left heel pain. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her foot demonstrated a calcaneal lytic lesion. A biopsy of the lytic lesion showed urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed left hydronephrosis and an obstructive mass in the left ureter, at the iliac crossing. The patient received combined therapy that included local radiation, bisphosphonate, and chemotherapy, with complete resolution of her cancer-related symptoms. However, she eventually died from the progressive disease, 20 months after the initial diagnosis.
Conclusion
This case highlights the rare presentation of ureter cancer with an initial presentation of foot pain, secondary to calcaneal metastasis. Multimodality therapy provides effective palliation of symptoms and improved quality of life. We also reviewed the literature and discuss the clinical benefits of multidisciplinary cancer care in elderly patients.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S42056
PMCID: PMC3629866  PMID: 23610517
urothelial carcinoma; elderly; calcaneal acrometastasis; multimodality therapy; chemotherapy; radiation
4.  Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):206-211.
Background:
Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis.
Materials and Methods:
We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges) out of 92 foot TB cases collected over last 20 years. There were 16 adults and eight children. Tissue diagnosis was established in 23 of 24 cases based on PCR AFB staining, culture, and histopathology. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients with either a juxtaarticular focus threatening to involve a joint or an impending collapse of a midfoot bone with cystic destruction.
Results:
Fifteen cases had an osteolytic lesion on the radiographs resembling a space-occupying lesion, five had patchy osteolysis, while four showed coke like sequestra; one patient had a lesion in two bones. Antitubercular chemotherapy after biopsy was sufficient to heal the lesion in 19 cases, while in five cases surgical debridement needed to be done. The lesions healed eventually. At an average followup of 8.3 years, (range 2-15 years) there were no recurrences and all patients were free from pain, with no restriction of movements. Six patients complained of occasional pain during walking on uneven ground.
Conclusion:
When tuberculous pathology is limited to the bone, the prognosis is better than in articular disease, as there is less deformity, and hence, less residual pain and disability.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.93683
PMCID: PMC3308663  PMID: 22448060
Calcaneus; foot; infection; osteolytic; tuberculosis
5.  Lung cancer presenting as heel pain: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):736-738.
Bone metastasis as the first symptom of lung cancer is common, particularly in the axial skeleton. The calcaneus is an unusual site of metastatic involvement. Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is one of the most common complaints of the foot requiring medical treatment. The most typical symptom of CPHP is pain under the medial heel during weight-bearing, and this symptom is therefore generally initially diagnosed as CPHP by clinicians. The current case study reports a female patient never-smoker with non-small cell lung cancer accompanied by calcaneal metastasis presenting as heel pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with CPHP without any imaging examinations. As there was no relief from the heel pain six months later, a foot X-ray was performed, which revealed a lesion of the calcaneus. The analysis of a biopsy obtained from the lesion resulted in a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The present case indicates that patients suspected to have CPHP should be conventionally examined with radiography of the foot during the initial diagnosis. Similarly, if a patient with lung cancer has symptoms such as CPHP, distant metastasis should be accounted for; despite their rarity, clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion, since accurate diagnosis and timely treatment is important in management and outcome.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2164
PMCID: PMC4081435  PMID: 25009652
heel pain; lung cancer; biopsy; bone metastasis
6.  Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation 
Summary
Background
Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution.
Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters.
Material/Methods
A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed.
A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint.
Conclusions
People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression.
doi:10.12659/PJR.889874
PMCID: PMC3927420  PMID: 24567769
congenital vascular malformations; scintigraphy; 99mTc-RBC
7.  Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments 
Clinics and Practice  2011;1(1):e12.
A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rock-climbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week.
doi:10.4081/cp.2011.e12
PMCID: PMC3981216  PMID: 24765266
completely extruded talus; primary subtalar fusion; osteolysis.
8.  An in vivo study of hindfoot 3D kinetics in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot based on weight-bearing CT scan 
Bone & Joint Research  2013;2(12):255-263.
Objective
The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing.
Methods
CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint.
Results
From non- to full-body-weight-bearing condition, the difference in the talus position relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint was 0.6° more dorsiflexed (p = 0.032), 1.4° more everted (p = 0.026), 0.9 mm more anterior (p = 0.031) and 1.0 mm more proximal (p = 0.004) in stage II PTTD flatfoot compared with that in a healthy foot. The navicular position difference relative to the talus in the talonavicular joint was 3° more everted (p = 0.012), 1.3 mm more lateral (p = 0.024), 0.8 mm more anterior (p = 0.037) and 2.1 mm more proximal (p = 0.017). The cuboid position difference relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint did not change significantly in rotation and translation (all p ≥ 0.08).
Conclusion
Referring to a previous study regarding both the cadaveric foot and the live foot, joint instability occurred in the hindfoot in simulated weight-bearing condition in patients with stage II PTTD flatfoot. The method used in this study might be applied to clinical analysis of the aetiology and evolution of PTTD flatfoot, and may inform biomechanical analyses of the effects of foot surgery in the future.
Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:255–63.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.212.2000220
PMCID: PMC3860169  PMID: 24324193
Three-dimensional image; Computed tomography; Stage II PTTD flatfoot; Weight-bearing
9.  Radiography and sonography of clubfoot: A comparative study 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):229-235.
Background:
Congenital talipes equinovarus is a common foot deformity afflicting children with reported incidence varying from 0.9/1000 to 7/1000 in various populations. The success reported with Ponseti method when started at an early age requires an imaging modality to quantitate the deformity. Sonography being a radiation free, easily available non-invasive imaging has been investigated for this purpose. Various studies have described the sonographic anatomy of normal neonatal foot and clubfoot and correlated the degree of severity with trends in sonographic measurements. However, none of these studies have correlated clinical, radiographic and sonographic parameters of all the component deformities in clubfoot. The present study aims to compare the radiographic and sonographic parameters in various grades of clubfoot.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-one children with unilateral clubfoot were examined clinically and graded according to the Demeglio system of classification of clubfoot severity. Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs of both normal and affected feet were obtained in maximum correction and AP talo-calcaneal (T-C), AP talo-first metatarsal (TMT) and lateral T-C angles were measured. Sonographic examination was done in medial, lateral, dorsal and posterior projections of both feet in static neutral position and after Ponseti manouever in the position of maximum correctability in dynamic sonography. Normal foot was taken as control in all cases. The sonographic parameters measured were as follows : Medial malleolar- navicular distance (MMN) and medial soft tissue thickness (STT) on medial projection, calcaneo-cuboid (C-C) distance, calcaneo-cuboid (C-C) angle and maximum length of calcaneus on lateral projection, length of talus on dorsal projection; and tibiocalcaneal (T-C) distance, posterior soft tissue thickness and length of tendoachilles on posterior projection. Also, medial displacement of navicular relative to talus, mobility of talonavicular joint (medial view); reducibility of C-C mal alignment (lateral view); talonavicular relation with respect to dorsal/ ventral displacement of navicular (dorsal view) and reduction of talus within the ankle mortise (posterior view) were subjectively assessed while performing dynamic sonography. Various radiographic and sonographic parameters were correlated with clinical grades.
Results:
MMN distance and STT measured on medial view, C-C distance and C-C angle measured on lateral view and tibiocalcaneal distance measured on posterior view showed statistically significant difference between cases and controls. A significant correlation was evident between sonographic parameters and clinical grades of relevant components of clubfoot. All radiographic angles except AP T-C angle were significantly different between cases and controls. However, they did not show correlation with clinical degree of severity.
Conclusion:
All radiographic angles except AP T-C angle and sonographic parameters varied significantly between cases and controls. However, radiographic parameters did not correlate well with clubfoot severity. In contrast, sonography not only assessed all components of clubfoot comprehensively but also the sonographic parameters correlated well with the severity of these components. Thus, we conclude that sonography is a superior, radiation free imaging modality for clubfoot.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.93675
PMCID: PMC3308667  PMID: 22448064
Clubfoot; congenital talipes equinovarus; pediatric; radiography; sonography
10.  Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients 
Background
Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined.
Results
Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80.
Conclusions
The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life. Furthermore, the peripheral assessment of BMD in the calcaneus via DXA is a feasible approach to quantify bone loss in the lower extremity in bone sarcoma patients and may serve as an alternative procedure, when the established assessment of femoral BMD is not practicable due to endoprosthetic replacements.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-287
PMCID: PMC3022904  PMID: 21190557
11.  Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet as an Etiology of Painful Talocalcaneal Impingement in the Rigid Flatfoot: A New Diagnosis 
A retrospective review identified six patients with seven painful rigid flatfeet. In each case, pain was localized laterally to an accessory facet of the anterolateral talus. cross-sectional imaging demonstrated no evidence of tarsal coalition. In five of the six, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and in each case demonstrated focal abutting bone marrow edema consistent with impingement between the accessory facet and the anterior calcaneus.
Seven feet in six patients underwent resection of the accessory facet with additional subtalar joint-sparing reconstructive procedures. At an average follow-up of 11 months, clinical results were graded as four good and two fair.
An association between this accessory facet and pain in the rigid flatfoot has not been previously reported. Obesity was universal and may represent a risk factor for facet impingement. At early follow-up, facet resection with subtalar joint-sparing flatfoot reconstruction provided good results with symptomatic and functional improvement in the majority of patients.
PMCID: PMC2603342  PMID: 19223941
12.  Reliability of clinically relevant 3D foot bone angles from quantitative computed tomography 
Background
Surgical treatment and clinical management of foot pathology requires accurate, reliable assessment of foot deformities. Foot and ankle deformities are multi-planar and therefore difficult to quantify by standard radiographs. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities have been used to define bone orientations using inertial axes based on bone shape, but these inertial axes can fail to mimic established bone angles used in orthopaedics and clinical biomechanics. To provide improved clinical relevance of 3D bone angles, we developed techniques to define bone axes using landmarks on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) bone surface meshes. We aimed to assess measurement precision of landmark-based, 3D bone-to-bone orientations of hind foot and lesser tarsal bones for expert raters and a template-based automated method.
Methods
Two raters completed two repetitions each for twenty feet (10 right, 10 left), placing anatomic landmarks on the surfaces of calcaneus, talus, cuboid, and navicular. Landmarks were also recorded using the automated, template-based method. For each method, 3D bone axes were computed from landmark positions, and Cardan sequences produced sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane angles of bone-to-bone orientations. Angular reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the root mean square standard deviation (RMS-SD) for intra-rater and inter-rater precision, and rater versus automated agreement.
Results
Intra- and inter-rater ICCs were generally high (≥ 0.80), and the ICCs for each rater compared to the automated method were similarly high. RMS-SD intra-rater precision ranged from 1.4 to 3.6° and 2.4 to 6.1°, respectively, for the two raters, which compares favorably to uni-planar radiographic precision. Greatest variability was in Navicular: Talus sagittal plane angle and Cuboid: Calcaneus frontal plane angle. Precision of the automated, atlas-based template method versus the raters was comparable to each rater’s internal precision.
Conclusions
Intra- and inter-rater precision suggest that the landmark-based methods have adequate test-retest reliability for 3D assessment of foot deformities. Agreement of the automated, atlas-based method with the expert raters suggests that the automated method is a valid, time-saving technique for foot deformity assessment. These methods have the potential to improve diagnosis of foot and ankle pathologies by allowing multi-planar quantification of deformities.
doi:10.1186/1757-1146-6-38
PMCID: PMC3852332  PMID: 24044376
13.  Fracture Surgery of the extremities with the intra-operative use of 3D-RX: A randomized multicenter trial (EF3X-trial) 
Background
Posttraumatic osteoarthritis can develop after an intra-articular extremity fracture, leading to pain and loss of function. According to international guidelines, anatomical reduction and fixation are the basis for an optimal functional result. In order to achieve this during fracture surgery, an optimal view on the position of the bone fragments and fixation material is a necessity. The currently used 2D-fluoroscopy does not provide sufficient insight, in particular in cases with complex anatomy or subtle injury, and even an 18-26% suboptimal fracture reduction is reported for the ankle and foot. More intra-operative information is therefore needed.
Recently the 3D-RX-system was developed, which provides conventional 2D-fluoroscopic images as well as a 3D-reconstruction of bony structures. This modality provides more information, which consequently leads to extra corrections in 18-30% of the fracture operations. However, the effect of the extra corrections on the quality of the anatomical fracture reduction and fixation as well as on patient relevant outcomes has never been investigated.
The objective of this study protocol is to investigate the effectiveness of the intra-operative use of the 3D-RX-system as compared to the conventional 2D-fluoroscopy in patients with traumatic intra-articular fractures of the wrist, ankle and calcaneus. The effectiveness will be assessed in two different areas: 1) the quality of fracture reduction and fixation, based on the current golden standard, Computed Tomography. 2) The patient-relevant outcomes like functional outcome range of motion and pain. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of the 3D-RX-scan will be determined in a clinical setting and a cost-effectiveness as well as a cost-utility analysis will be performed.
Methods/design
In this protocol for an international multicenter randomized clinical trial, adult patients (age > 17 years) with a traumatic intra-articular fracture of the wrist, ankle or calcaneus eligible for surgery will be subjected to additional intra-operative 3D-RX. In half of the patients the surgeon will be blinded to these results, in the other half the surgeon may use the 3D-RX results to further optimize fracture reduction. In both randomization groups a CT-scan will be performed postoperatively. Based on these CT-scans the quality of fracture reduction and fixation will be determined. During the follow-up visits after hospital discharge at 6 and 12 weeks and 1 year postoperatively the patient relevant outcomes will be determined by joint specific, health economic and quality of life questionnaires. In addition a follow up study will be performed to determine the patient relevant outcomes and prevalence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis at 2 and 5 years postoperatively.
Discussion
The results of the study will provide more information on the effectiveness of the intra-operative use of 3D-imaging during surgical treatment of intra-articular fractures of the wrist, ankle and calcaneus. A randomized design in which patients will be allocated to a treatment arm during surgery will be used because of its high methodological quality and the ability to detect incongruences in the reduction and/or fixation that occur intra-operatively in the blinded arm of the 3D-RX. An alternative, pragmatic design could be to randomize before the start of the surgery, then two surgical strategies would be compared. This resembles clinical practice better, but introduces more bias and does not allow the assessment of incongruences that would have been detected by 3D-RX in the blinded arm.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register NTR 1902
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-151
PMCID: PMC3152540  PMID: 21733185
Fracture; Wrist; Ankle; Calcaneus; Intra-operative imaging; 2D-fluoroscopy; 3D-imaging; Conebeam-CT; 3D-RX
14.  The use of fibrin matrix-mixed gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus 
Purpose
This study assessed the clinical results and second-look arthroscopy after fibrin matrix-mixed gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Methods
Chondrocytes were harvested from the cuboid surface of the calcaneus in 38 patients and cultured, and gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation was performed with or without medial malleolar osteotomy. Preoperative American orthopedic foot and ankle society ankle-hind foot scores, visual analogue score, Hannover scoring system and subjective satisfaction were investigated, and the comparison of arthroscopic results (36/38, 94.7 %) and MRI investigation of chondral recovery was performed. Direct tenderness and relationship to the active daily life of the donor site was evaluated.
Results
The preoperative mean ankle–hind foot scores (71 ± 14) and Hannover scoring system (65 ± 10) had increased to 91 ± 12 and 93 ± 14, respectively, at 24-month follow-up (p < 0.0001), and the preoperative visual analogue score of 58 mm had decreased to 21 mm (p < 0.0001). Regarding subjective satisfaction, 34 cases (89.5 %) reported excellent, good or fair. Chondral regeneration was analysed by second-look arthroscopy and MRI. Complications included one non-union and two delayed-unions of the osteotomy sites, and 9 ankles (9/31, 29.0 %) sustained damaged medial malleolar cartilage due to osteotomy. Marked symptoms at the biopsy site did not adversely affect the patient’s active daily life.
Conclusions
Fibrin matrix-mixed gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation using the cuboid surface of the calcaneus as a donor can be used for treating osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Level of evidence
Therapeutic study, prospective case series, Level IV.
doi:10.1007/s00167-012-2096-1
PMCID: PMC3657090  PMID: 22752415
Talus; Osteochondral lesion; Autologous chondrocyte implantation; Arthroscopy; Donor
15.  A Novel Technique for Closed Reduction and Fixation of Paediatric Calcaneal Fracture Dislocation Injuries 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2013;2013:928938.
Paediatric calcaneal fractures are rare injuries usually managed conservatively or with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Closed reduction was previously thought to be impossible, and very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a new technique for closed reduction using Ilizarov half-rings. We report successful closed reduction and screwless fixation of an extra-articular calcaneal fracture dislocation in a 7-year-old boy. Reduction was achieved using two Ilizarov half-ring frames arranged perpendicular to each other, enabling simultaneous application of longitudinal and rotational traction. Anatomical reduction was achieved with restored angles of Bohler and Gissane. Two K-wires were the definitive fixation. Bony union with good functional outcome and minimal pain was achieved at eight-weeks follow up. ORIF of calcaneal fractures provides good functional outcome but is associated with high rates of malunion and postoperative pain. Preservation of the unique soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus reduces the risk of infection. Closed reduction prevents distortion of these tissues and may lead to faster healing and mobilisation. Closed reduction and screwless fixation of paediatric calcaneal fractures is an achievable management option. Our technique has preserved the soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus, has avoided retained metalwork related complications, and has resulted in a good functional outcome.
doi:10.1155/2013/928938
PMCID: PMC3683434  PMID: 23819090
16.  Feet injuries in rock climbers 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(4):218-228.
While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described.
doi:10.5312/wjo.v4.i4.218
PMCID: PMC3801241  PMID: 24147257
Rock climbing; Sport climbing; Feet injuries; Hallux valgus; Overstrain injuries
17.  Short-term followup after surgical treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(4):384-389.
Background:
Results of surgical treatment in Indian patients of Ewing’s sarcoma managed with multimodality treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are insufficient. We report a retrospective evaluation of a series of cases of Ewing’s sarcoma managed with chemotherapy, surgery with or without radiotherapy.
Materials and Methods:
54 patients of biopsy-proven Ewing’s sarcoma of the bone, except craniofacial and vertebral bones were included. The patients having recurrence or having previous treatment were excluded from the study. Local and systemic extent of the sarcoma was defined, staged, and patients were subjected to the chemotherapy, surgery, and in some cases radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated for results of surgery with respect to complications, recurrence, and metastases at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of follow-up
Results:
Average age of patients was 15.6 years (range 7-26 years); average delay in treatment was 4.1 months (1-7 months); follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years (median 3.1 years); 14 patients (25.9%) had pulmonary metastases at their initial presentation. Twenty-one patients (38.9%) underwent resection and intercalary reconstruction with bone grafting, fixed with locking plates. Allograft was also used in 11 of these. Sixteen patients underwent resection and reconstruction with endoprosthesis, while seven patients (13.0%) underwent resection and arthrodesis. An above-knee amputation was required in 7.4% (four patients). Mesh was used for containing the graft longitudinally in five patients (femoral and tibial intercalary reconstructions) and for soft tissue attachment in two patients (hip and shoulder endoprostheses). Two patients had deep wound infection. One patient presented 1 year later with implant failure. The disease-free survival at 2 years from the time of diagnosis was 57.5% (23 out of 40) for patients without preoperative metastases and 42.9% (6 out of 14) for those with preoperative metastases. Overall, the disease-free survival at 2 years was 53.7% (29 out of 54 patients). Overall survival rate at 2 years was 61.1% (33 out of 54 patients).
Conclusion:
Results of surgical treatment in this study are comparable with the current literature in spite of involvement of long bony segment and large soft tissue component. Intramedullary fibular autograft with morcellized cancellous autograft and allograft contained longitudinally in a mesh appears to be a good alternative with such large bone tumors.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.69308
PMCID: PMC2947724  PMID: 20924478
Ewing’s sarcoma; multimodality treatment; resection/reconstruction; arthrodesis
18.  Skeletal tuberculosis in children in the Western world: 18 new cases with a review of the literature 
Purpose
The occurrence of pediatric skeletal (extra-spinal) tuberculosis in the developed world is extremely rare. The purpose of this study was to review the cases at our institutions.
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric biopsy-proven skeletal (extra-spinal) cases of tuberculosis over a five-year period.
Results
Eighteen patients of biopsy-proven tuberculosis were identified. The mean age was 12 years (range 7–20). Lesion locations included: distal humerus, ulna, scapula, acetabulum, proximal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and calcaneus. All had symptoms of pain, swelling, and stiffness. Five cases had multi-focal involvement. Twenty-four lesions were noted in 18 patients. Nineteen lesions were cystic in nature at presentation. The sedimentation rate was normal in six and purified protein derivative (PPD) was negative in five patients. All received chemotherapy. Six patients underwent surgery.
Conclusions
The diagnosis of pediatric skeletal tuberculosis can be made with good correlation of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. Biopsy and culture are the gold standards in diagnosis. Prognosis is good with chemotherapy and non-operative management. Surgical intervention may be needed in select cases.
doi:10.1007/s11832-009-0184-7
PMCID: PMC2726868  PMID: 19543761
Skeletal tuberculosis; Children; Western world
19.  Osteochondral lesion of the talus in a recreational athlete: a case report 
A 23-year-old recreational male athlete presented with intermittent pain of three weeks duration, localized to the left ankle. Pain was aggravated by walking, although his symptoms had not affected the patient’s jogging activity which was performed three times per week. Past history revealed an inversion sprain of the left ankle, sustained fifteen months previously. Examination showed mild swelling anterior to the ankle mortise joint while other tests including range of motion, strength and motion palpation of specific joints of the ankle were noted to be unremarkable. Radiographic findings revealed a defect in the medial aspect of the talus. An orthopaedic referral was made for further evaluation. Tomography revealed a Grade III osteochondral lesion of the talus.
It was determined that follow-up views be taken in three months to demonstrate if the lesion was progressing or healing. Within the three month period, activity modifications and modalities for pain control were indicated. Surgery was considered a reasonable option should conservative measures fail.
The present case illustrates an osteochondral lesion of the talus, a condition which has not previously been reported in the chiropractic literature. A review of the pertinent orthopaedic literature has indicated an average delay of three years in diagnosing the existence of this lesion.
Although considered rare, the diagnostic frequency of the condition appears to be on the rise due to increased awareness and the use of bone and CT scans. The osteochondral lesion of the talus deserves particular consideration by practitioners working with athletes due to its higher incidence within this group. This diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with chronic ankle pain particularly when a history of an inversion sprain exists.
The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of this condition, and review diagnosis and management strategies.
Images
PMCID: PMC2485432
osteochondral lesion; talus; osteochondritis dissecans; diagnosis; chiropractic; athletic injuries; ankle
20.  Subcalcaneal Bursitis With Plantar Fasciitis Treated by Arthroscopy 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2013;2(2):e135-e139.
We report the successful arthroscopic treatment of a case of subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on arthroscopic excision of a subcalcaneal bursa. Right heel pain developed in a 50-year-old woman, without any obvious cause. She reported that the heel pain occurred immediately after waking and that the heel ached when she walked. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extra-articular, homogeneous, high-intensity lesion in the fat pad adjacent to the calcaneal tubercle on T2-weighted sagittal and coronal images and thickening of the plantar fascia on T2-weighted sagittal images. A diagnosis of a recalcitrant subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis was made, and surgery was performed. The arthroscope was placed between the calcaneus and the plantar fascia. With the surgeon viewing from the lateral portal and working from the medial portal, the dorsal surface of the degenerative plantar fascia was debrided and the medial half of the plantar fascia was released, followed by debridement of the subcalcaneal bursal cavity through the incised plantar fascia. Full weight bearing and gait were allowed immediately after the operation. At the latest follow-up, the patient had achieved complete resolution of heel pain without a recurrence of the mass, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging.
doi:10.1016/j.eats.2013.01.003
PMCID: PMC3716222  PMID: 23875139
21.  Clinicopathological features, diagnosis and treatment of clear cell sarcoma/melanoma of soft parts 
Hippokratia  2013;17(4):298-302.
Background: Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses is a rare, high grade malignant soft tissue tumor resembling melanoma and soft tissue sarcomas.
Clinical and Imaging Presentation: The median age at presentation is 27 years and the most common location are the foot and the ankle. MR imaging typically shows a benign looking, well defined, homogenous mass; on T1-weighted MR images, it is usually homogeneous and isointense or slight hyperintense to muscle, whereas on T2-weighted MR images, it is usually more heterogeneous with variable signal intensity.
Pathology: Microscopically, the clear cell appearance is due to the accumulation of glycogen. The cells show no or minimal pleomorphism, and paucity of mitotic figures that is in concordance with the slow-growing behavior of the tumor. Scattered multinucleated giant cells are commonly present; areas of necrosis and melanin pigment may be identified. The reciprocal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) is observed in more than 90% of clear cell sarcoma cases. In addition, polysomy of chromosome 8 has been observed as a secondary abnormality in many cases of clear cell sarcoma. The differential diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma should include melanoma, epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, melanotic schwannoma, paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor, perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas), cellular blue naevus, synovial sarcoma (monophasic type), alveolar soft part sarcoma, paraganglioma, epithelioid sarcoma and carcinomas. Treatment and Prognosis: The treatment of choice for clear cell sarcoma is wide surgical resection. If complete excision is achieved, adjuvant treatments are not unnecessary. Chemotherapy is predominantly employed in patients with metastatic disease. The 5 to 20 year survival of the patients with clear cell sarcoma range from 67% to 10%. The rates of local recurrence ranges up to 84%, late metastases up to 63%, and metastases at presentation up to 30%.
PMCID: PMC4097407  PMID: 25031505
Clear cell sarcoma; Melanoma of soft parts; Soft tissue sarcoma
22.  Dural metastasis of Ewing’s sarcoma 
Background:
Metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma to the central nervous system is an uncommon condition and debate concerning the true origin of its metastases is still up to date. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of dural metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma have been published in the English medical literature. We present an additional case in a 24-year-old female and discuss the pathogenesis of these unusual tumors with review of the relevant literature concerning their treatment and outcome.
Case Description:
A 24-year-old female with previous history of pelvis Ewing’s sarcoma and recently discovered lung metastases, presented with moderate headache for the past 2 weeks and weakness in her left leg for the past 2 days. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extra-axial right frontoparietal mass invading the superior sagittal sinus but with clear delineation with brain parenchyma. Imaging features were suggestive of a meningioma as no abnormalities in the skull abutting to the tumor were noted. The patient underwent surgical removal of her tumor. Near total resection was achieved and histological examination showed evidence of metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy were administered. The patient improved well postoperatively with full recovery of her motor weakness. She is symptom free with no signs of progression, at most recent follow-up, 8 months after surgery.
Conclusion:
Despite its rarity, metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses particularly meningiomas.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.115487
PMCID: PMC3740616  PMID: 23956939
Cranial; Ewing’s sarcoma; meningeal tumor; metastasis
23.  A radiological classification system for talocalcaneal coalition based on a multi-planar imaging study using CT and MRI 
Insights into Imaging  2013;4(5):563-567.
Objective
To develop a radiological classification system for talocalcaneal coalition suitable for adults.
Methods and materials
A retrospective review was performed on patients diagnosed with talocalcaneal coalition from July 2001 to November 2011. Based on the cartilaginous or bony nature, facet joint orientation and bony structure morphology, we classified talocalcaneal coalitions into four types: I (linear with or without posterior hooking), II (talar overgrowth), III (calcaneal overgrowth) and IV (complete osseous).
Results
Seventy feet (59 patients) with talocalcaneal coalition were evaluated by CT (61/70 feet) using multi-planar reformation and/or magnetic resonance imaging (43/70 feet). Type I, II, III and IV coalitions were detected in 45 (64 %), 10 (14 %), 13 (19 %), and 2 feet (3 %), respectively. Fracture fragments were observed in 16 feet (seven Type I and nine Type III coalitions) with hooked or overgrown calcanei and in one foot in the talus (Type I). Eleven patients had bilateral talocalcaneal coalitions; ten patients had coalitions of the same type and one had both Type I and Type III coalitions. Among 48 patients with unilateral involvement, the left and right feet were affected in 26 and 22 patients, respectively.
Conclusions
A classification system for talocalcaneal coalition based on multi-planar imaging studies was developed.
Key Points
• A classification system for talocalcaneal coalition based on multi-planar imaging was developed.
• The relative frequencies of different talocalcaneal coalition types were determined.
• Fracture fragments were easily distinguished and frequently originated from the calcaneus.
• Fracture fragments were mostly associated with Type I (linear) with posterior hooking and Type III (calcaneal overgrowth).
doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0267-3
PMCID: PMC3781257  PMID: 23881349
Classification; Anatomy; Talocalcaneal coalition syndrome; X-ray computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging
24.  Tarsal decancellation in the residual resistant arthrogrypotic clubfoot 
INTRODUCTION
Conservatism is well recognised after Ponseti's method in the treatment of congenital clubfoot; however, this is not applicable to the complex and resistant arthrogrypotic type which challenges the orthopaedic surgeon. In such a type, soft tissue releases as fasciotomies, tenotomies, and capsulotomies, as well as osteotomies are insufficient, and joint fusions are not suitable in early childhood before skeletal maturity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Twelve children (15 feet) with residual resistant arthrogrypotic clubfeet between 2-4 years of age were analysed clinically and radiographically. All of the cases received previous conservative Ponseti's method of treatment in their first year of life followed by soft tissue releases (plantar fasciotomy, posteromedial tenotomies, capsulotomies, and abductor hallucis release) before treatment by decancellation of the cuboid, the calcaneus, and the talus to correct the complex adduction, supination, varus, and equinus deformities. Pre-operative measurements of certain foot angles were compared with their corresponding postoperative values.
RESULTS
A grading scheme for evaluation of the results using a point scoring system was suggested to evaluate accurately both clinical and radiographic results after a follow-up period of an average of 3.3 years. Six feet (40%) had excellent, six (40%) good, three (20%) fair, and no poor (0%) outcome. There was no major complication. There was significant improvement in the result (P > 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS
Tarsal decancellation is particularly applicable to residual resistant clubfoot such as the arthrogrypotic type at an early age. It shortens the period of disability, improves the range of foot motion, and does not interfere with the foot bone growth.
doi:10.1308/003588411X12851639107430
PMCID: PMC3293309  PMID: 21054925
Tarsal decancellation; Arthrogrypotic clubfoot
25.  Two Hundred Cases of Paralytic Foot Stabilization after the Method of Hoke 
Dr. Oscar Lee Miller was born on a farm in Franklin County, in northeast Georgia [6]. He obtained a teachers’ certificate and taught school several years after high school before he attended the University of Georgia and then graduated from the Atlanta College of Physicians and Surgeons (now Emory University School of Medicine) in 1912. He took postgraduate training in Atlanta, working with Dr. Michael Hoke (whose name is associated with hindfoot arthrodesis). He entered military service in 1917, then returned to private practice after the armistice. As with other first Presidents of the AAOS, foreign experience was important, and in 1921 he visited Sir Robert Jones and other British surgeons. Upon returning he moved to Gastonia, North Carolina and helped develop the North Carolina Orthopaedic Hospital, an institution focusing on crippled children. In 1923, he opened an office which eventually became the Miller Clinic in nearby Charlotte. (The Miller Clinic and Charlotte Orthopedic Specialists merged in 2005 to create OrthoCarolina.)
Dr. Miller was active in the AOA as well as the AAOS, and was a member of the Argentine Surgical Association. He became President of the AAOS in January, 1942, only days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. In his Presidential address he emphasized the importance of the care of crippled children and urged a strong relationship with the Latin American orthopaedic community [1]. He served as Chair of a committee that created the Inter-American Orthopaedic Fellowship Program, for Latin American surgeons to visit training centers in the US. He also urged the AAOS to develop a library “as a repository for all pertinent records.” The Executive Committee outlined a program in June, 1941, to present a “motion picture exhibit,” a feature of the meeting which subsequently became the Instructional Course Lecture [2]. Under his leadership at that meeting, the AAOS passed a resolution regarding support of the country during the war years: “It is the desire of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons to offer its wholehearted support to our Country in this serious emergency.” A telegram with the resolution was sent to the President of the United States.
Miller had a lasting interest in foot surgery, undoubtedly influenced by Hoke. We reprint here Miller’s report of Hoke’s triple arthrodesis for paralytic feet [3]. Astonishingly, Miller states this was the only operation performed for paralytic feet in his clinic over a three-year period, yet he reported 200 cases in this short time; obviously the number of polio patients at the time was devastating. Among these 200 cases, 121 were of the “clubfoot type,” 62 had pes cavus (on which he wrote in 1927 [4]), and 17 pes calcaneus (on which he wrote in 1936 [5]). Miller reports eight cases of flail feet (although it is unclear whether these are additional cases, or fall within one of the three categories since the numbers of those categories add to 200). His focus is to describe the basic operations with indications for supplemental procedures including tendon transfers. As was often common practice in describing procedures at the time, he did not report the followup results and did not provide references [3]. Oscar Lee Miller, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
References
Heck CV. Commemorative Volume 1933–1983 Fifty Years of Progress. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1983.Heck CV. Fifty Years of Progress: In Recognition of the 50th Anniversary of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1983.Miller O. Two hundred cases of paralytic foot stabilization after the method of Hoke. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1925;7:85–97.Miller O. A plastic foot operation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1927;9:84–91.Miller O. Surgical management of pes calcaneus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1936;18:169–172.Oscar Lee Miller 1887–1970. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1971;53:400–401.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0029-y
PMCID: PMC2505288  PMID: 18196377

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