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1.  Osteolytic lesions of the calcaneus: results from a multicentre study 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1851-1856.
Tumours of the calcaneus are exceedingly rare and the correct diagnosis is often missed. X-rays are the standard clinical examination tool and therefore we wanted to discover whether X-rays alone were a sufficient diagnostic tool for these tumours. Diard’s classification was applied to define whether different types of lesions were characteristically distributed in the bone and in addition we analysed whether type and/or duration of symptoms were possible indicators of malignancy.
Ninety-two patients’ files (59 men and 33 women) were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-five patients with a mean age at surgery of 28 years (range five to 78) were surgically treated. Parameters analysed were sex, age at surgery, side, type and duration of symptoms, tentative diagnosis, biopsy prior to surgery, operative procedure, recurrence rate, revision and localisation of the lesion according to Diard. For each lesion the first documented radiological diagnosis and—in cases of malignancy—Enneking’s classification was applied.
Discrepancies between the radiological and definitive histological diagnosis occurred in 38 (41 %) of 92 cases. In eight (osteosarcoma n = 5, Ewing’s sarcoma n = 2, metastases n = 1) of 17 malignant cases radiological examination initially gave no evidence of malignancy, resulting in an unplanned excision (“whoops procedure”) in three cases of osteosarcoma. Applying Diard’s system trabecular area 6 (radiolucent area) was highly affected in 64 (80 %) of 80 investigated plain X-rays, whereas areas 1 and 5 were affected in nine (11 %) and 16 (20 %) cases only.
In each case of an osteolytic lesion of the calcaneus a malignant tumour must be ruled out, and thus preoperative plain X-rays in two planes alone are not sufficient and should therefore be followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Applying the Diard system different types of lesions are not characteristically distributed in the bone. Increasing pain for more than ten days without previous trauma should always justify further examinations.
PMCID: PMC3764280  PMID: 23974835
Calcaneus; Osteolytic lesions; Malignancy; Diard system; Pain; Enneking classification
2.  Extensive Implant Reaction in Failed Subtalar Joint Arthroereisis: Report of Two Cases 
HSS Journal  2007;3(2):177-181.
Foreign body synovitis with extensive granulomatous giant cell reaction to refractile polyethelene debris is a complication of subtalar arthroereisis not previously reported. We present two cases whereby STA-peg implants were used to treat bilateral painful flexible flatfoot deformities in children. Two boys, presented at 7 and 10 years of age, 2 years after STA-peg procedures and tendo-Achilles lengthening for painful flatfeet. They each had minimal subtalar motion and pain at the sinus tarsi. Radiographs demonstrated surgical defects in the calcaneus with surrounding high signal on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the subchondral bone of the calcaneus and talus. Both patients failed conservative management and had their implants removed with good relief of their pain. Histology was submitted at the time of implant removal. We present the radiographic and pathologic findings seen in these two patients with failed subtalar arthroereisis due to extensive implant reaction. The pathologic process seen in these patients is a previously unreported complication of this procedure. We do not recommend arthroereisis in the treatment of painful flexible flatfoot in children.
PMCID: PMC2504261  PMID: 18751791
arthroereisis; pes planus; children; subtalar synovitis
3.  Primary Osseous Tumors of the Hindfoot: Why the Delay in Diagnosis and Should We Be Concerned? 
Bony tumors of the foot account for approximately 3% of all osseous tumors. Diagnosis is frequently delayed as a result of lack of clinician familiarity and as a result of their rarity. The reasons for the delays, however, are unclear.
We therefore determined (1) how hindfoot tumors present and the specific reasons for delay in diagnosis; (2) whether the spectrum of disease varies between the talus and calcaneus; and (3) how these patients were treated.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical notes and imaging for all patients with 34 calcaneal and 23 talar tumors recorded in the Scottish Bone Tumour Registry. Demographics, presentation, investigation, histology, management, recurrence, and mortality were recorded.
Hindfoot tumors present with pain and often swelling around the heel (calcaneus) or ankle (talus), most often misdiagnosed as soft tissue injury. Calcaneal lesions were more likely to be malignant than talar lesions: 13 of 34 versus three of 23.
Clinicians should be aware that hindfoot tumors can be initially misdiagnosed as soft tissue injuries and suspicion of a tumor should be raised in the absence of trauma or persistent symptoms. Lesions affecting the calcaneus are more likely to be malignant. Early diagnosis and adjuvant therapy are important.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3563817  PMID: 23008022
4.  Primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone: Case report 
Xanthoma (or xanthofibroma) is a benign proliferative lesion, mostly seen in soft tissue. Xanthoma of bone is very rare benign primary bone tumor, more frequently seen in men and in patients over 20 years of age. Histologically, it is characterized by mononuclear macrophage-like cells, abundant foam cells, and multinucleated giant cells. It is sometimes discovered coincidentally and the most frequent symptom is pain.
We present a 50-year-old healthy male patient with primary xanthoma of the calcaneus, who was treated by curettage and bone cement. He presented with a pathological fracture in a calcaneus bone lesion. Giant cell tumor was suspected on X-ray and MRI. Curettage and bone cementing was done through the posterolateral approach. Lipid profile was normal and histological examination revealed findings consistent with primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone.
To avoid an erroneous diagnosis, all material should be examined microscopically, the radiological features of the lesion should be studied properly and lipid profile should be investigated to differentiate between primary and secondary xanthoma. Primary xanthoma may be treated with curettage and bone graft while secondary xanthoma is treated nonsurgically and the skeletal manifestations will disappear with systemic treatment of hyperlipidemia.
We present this case to raise the suspicion of this lesion that is rarely described in the literatures. This is the first case of primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone that has been reported in Qatar.
PMCID: PMC4189060  PMID: 25194608
Xanthoma of the bone; Primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone; Xanthofibroma
5.  Calcaneal acrometastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the ureter: a case report and literature review 
Ureteral cancer is a rare entity. Typical symptoms are painless hematuria as well as flank pain. Bone metastasis of ureteral cancer can occur in nearby bone structures, such as the spine, pelvis, and hip bone. Distal bone metastasis, such as that in the calcaneus bone, however, is rare.
Case report
An 82-year-old woman presented to the orthopedic clinic at the university hospital with a 3-month history of left heel pain. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her foot demonstrated a calcaneal lytic lesion. A biopsy of the lytic lesion showed urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed left hydronephrosis and an obstructive mass in the left ureter, at the iliac crossing. The patient received combined therapy that included local radiation, bisphosphonate, and chemotherapy, with complete resolution of her cancer-related symptoms. However, she eventually died from the progressive disease, 20 months after the initial diagnosis.
This case highlights the rare presentation of ureter cancer with an initial presentation of foot pain, secondary to calcaneal metastasis. Multimodality therapy provides effective palliation of symptoms and improved quality of life. We also reviewed the literature and discuss the clinical benefits of multidisciplinary cancer care in elderly patients.
PMCID: PMC3629866  PMID: 23610517
urothelial carcinoma; elderly; calcaneal acrometastasis; multimodality therapy; chemotherapy; radiation
6.  Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Calcaneus 
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, non-neoplastic, expansile, vascular, locally destructive lesions. The lesion may arise de novo (65%) or secondarily (35%) in pre-existing benign or malignant lesions (giant cell tumor, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma, angioma, and others). The calcaneus is a rare localization for ABC, comprising only 1.6% of the cases. In this paper, we present a case of a female patient with a 3-month history of heel pain that got worse and was accompanied by swelling and difficulty in walking. The magnetic resonance images of the postero-lateral calcaneus showed a contrast-enhanced cystic lesion located in the medullary cavity; exophytic portion of the tumor extended into the soft tissue causing distinctive cortical thinning. Heterogeneous hyperintense septae formations and blood level components were also detected. After correlation with pathology results, the lesion was diagnosed as an ABC. Since an ABC of the calcaneus is a rarely seen phenomenon, we present the radiologic findings in this case and a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC4229787  PMID: 25396076
Aneurysmal bone cyst; benign bone lesions; calcaneus
7.  Three-Dimensional CT Findings of Os Calcaneus Secundarius Mimicking a Fracture 
Case Reports in Radiology  2014;2014:537062.
Os calcaneus secundarius is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot that have been identified as normal variants of skeletal development. It may cause ankle pain and may mimic an avulsion fracture of the anterior calcaneal process. A twenty-year-old male was admitted to our institution with right ankle pain following an inversion injury. An axial CT image of the patient's right ankle revealed a shape with smooth and sharp margins, identified as a well-corticated bone fragment in the subtalar region. A diagnosis of an accessory ossicle, os calcaneus secundarius, was made based on radiographic findings. As a result of this case, it is recommended that potential locations of the accessory bones should be well understood in order to prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate surgical procedures. Os calcaneus secundarius must be considered when an apparent bone fragment or a suspicious fracture line at the anterior region of os calcaneus is demonstrated.
PMCID: PMC4283419  PMID: 25610694
8.  Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):206-211.
Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis.
Materials and Methods:
We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges) out of 92 foot TB cases collected over last 20 years. There were 16 adults and eight children. Tissue diagnosis was established in 23 of 24 cases based on PCR AFB staining, culture, and histopathology. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients with either a juxtaarticular focus threatening to involve a joint or an impending collapse of a midfoot bone with cystic destruction.
Fifteen cases had an osteolytic lesion on the radiographs resembling a space-occupying lesion, five had patchy osteolysis, while four showed coke like sequestra; one patient had a lesion in two bones. Antitubercular chemotherapy after biopsy was sufficient to heal the lesion in 19 cases, while in five cases surgical debridement needed to be done. The lesions healed eventually. At an average followup of 8.3 years, (range 2-15 years) there were no recurrences and all patients were free from pain, with no restriction of movements. Six patients complained of occasional pain during walking on uneven ground.
When tuberculous pathology is limited to the bone, the prognosis is better than in articular disease, as there is less deformity, and hence, less residual pain and disability.
PMCID: PMC3308663  PMID: 22448060
Calcaneus; foot; infection; osteolytic; tuberculosis
9.  Lung cancer presenting as heel pain: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):736-738.
Bone metastasis as the first symptom of lung cancer is common, particularly in the axial skeleton. The calcaneus is an unusual site of metastatic involvement. Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is one of the most common complaints of the foot requiring medical treatment. The most typical symptom of CPHP is pain under the medial heel during weight-bearing, and this symptom is therefore generally initially diagnosed as CPHP by clinicians. The current case study reports a female patient never-smoker with non-small cell lung cancer accompanied by calcaneal metastasis presenting as heel pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with CPHP without any imaging examinations. As there was no relief from the heel pain six months later, a foot X-ray was performed, which revealed a lesion of the calcaneus. The analysis of a biopsy obtained from the lesion resulted in a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The present case indicates that patients suspected to have CPHP should be conventionally examined with radiography of the foot during the initial diagnosis. Similarly, if a patient with lung cancer has symptoms such as CPHP, distant metastasis should be accounted for; despite their rarity, clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion, since accurate diagnosis and timely treatment is important in management and outcome.
PMCID: PMC4081435  PMID: 25009652
heel pain; lung cancer; biopsy; bone metastasis
10.  Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation 
Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution.
Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters.
A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed.
A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint.
People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression.
PMCID: PMC3927420  PMID: 24567769
congenital vascular malformations; scintigraphy; 99mTc-RBC
11.  Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments 
Clinics and Practice  2011;1(1):e12.
A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rock-climbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week.
PMCID: PMC3981216  PMID: 24765266
completely extruded talus; primary subtalar fusion; osteolysis.
12.  An in vivo study of hindfoot 3D kinetics in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot based on weight-bearing CT scan 
Bone & Joint Research  2013;2(12):255-263.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the rotation and translation of each joint in the hindfoot and compare the load response in healthy feet with that in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) flatfoot by analysing the reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image data during simulated weight-bearing.
CT scans of 15 healthy feet and 15 feet with stage II PTTD flatfoot were taken first in a non-weight-bearing condition, followed by a simulated full-body weight-bearing condition. The images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into 3D models. The ‘twice registration’ method in three planes was used to calculate the position of the talus relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint, the navicular relative to the talus in talonavicular joint, and the cuboid relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint.
From non- to full-body-weight-bearing condition, the difference in the talus position relative to the calcaneus in the talocalcaneal joint was 0.6° more dorsiflexed (p = 0.032), 1.4° more everted (p = 0.026), 0.9 mm more anterior (p = 0.031) and 1.0 mm more proximal (p = 0.004) in stage II PTTD flatfoot compared with that in a healthy foot. The navicular position difference relative to the talus in the talonavicular joint was 3° more everted (p = 0.012), 1.3 mm more lateral (p = 0.024), 0.8 mm more anterior (p = 0.037) and 2.1 mm more proximal (p = 0.017). The cuboid position difference relative to the calcaneus in the calcaneocuboid joint did not change significantly in rotation and translation (all p ≥ 0.08).
Referring to a previous study regarding both the cadaveric foot and the live foot, joint instability occurred in the hindfoot in simulated weight-bearing condition in patients with stage II PTTD flatfoot. The method used in this study might be applied to clinical analysis of the aetiology and evolution of PTTD flatfoot, and may inform biomechanical analyses of the effects of foot surgery in the future.
Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:255–63.
PMCID: PMC3860169  PMID: 24324193
Three-dimensional image; Computed tomography; Stage II PTTD flatfoot; Weight-bearing
13.  Radiography and sonography of clubfoot: A comparative study 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(2):229-235.
Congenital talipes equinovarus is a common foot deformity afflicting children with reported incidence varying from 0.9/1000 to 7/1000 in various populations. The success reported with Ponseti method when started at an early age requires an imaging modality to quantitate the deformity. Sonography being a radiation free, easily available non-invasive imaging has been investigated for this purpose. Various studies have described the sonographic anatomy of normal neonatal foot and clubfoot and correlated the degree of severity with trends in sonographic measurements. However, none of these studies have correlated clinical, radiographic and sonographic parameters of all the component deformities in clubfoot. The present study aims to compare the radiographic and sonographic parameters in various grades of clubfoot.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-one children with unilateral clubfoot were examined clinically and graded according to the Demeglio system of classification of clubfoot severity. Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs of both normal and affected feet were obtained in maximum correction and AP talo-calcaneal (T-C), AP talo-first metatarsal (TMT) and lateral T-C angles were measured. Sonographic examination was done in medial, lateral, dorsal and posterior projections of both feet in static neutral position and after Ponseti manouever in the position of maximum correctability in dynamic sonography. Normal foot was taken as control in all cases. The sonographic parameters measured were as follows : Medial malleolar- navicular distance (MMN) and medial soft tissue thickness (STT) on medial projection, calcaneo-cuboid (C-C) distance, calcaneo-cuboid (C-C) angle and maximum length of calcaneus on lateral projection, length of talus on dorsal projection; and tibiocalcaneal (T-C) distance, posterior soft tissue thickness and length of tendoachilles on posterior projection. Also, medial displacement of navicular relative to talus, mobility of talonavicular joint (medial view); reducibility of C-C mal alignment (lateral view); talonavicular relation with respect to dorsal/ ventral displacement of navicular (dorsal view) and reduction of talus within the ankle mortise (posterior view) were subjectively assessed while performing dynamic sonography. Various radiographic and sonographic parameters were correlated with clinical grades.
MMN distance and STT measured on medial view, C-C distance and C-C angle measured on lateral view and tibiocalcaneal distance measured on posterior view showed statistically significant difference between cases and controls. A significant correlation was evident between sonographic parameters and clinical grades of relevant components of clubfoot. All radiographic angles except AP T-C angle were significantly different between cases and controls. However, they did not show correlation with clinical degree of severity.
All radiographic angles except AP T-C angle and sonographic parameters varied significantly between cases and controls. However, radiographic parameters did not correlate well with clubfoot severity. In contrast, sonography not only assessed all components of clubfoot comprehensively but also the sonographic parameters correlated well with the severity of these components. Thus, we conclude that sonography is a superior, radiation free imaging modality for clubfoot.
PMCID: PMC3308667  PMID: 22448064
Clubfoot; congenital talipes equinovarus; pediatric; radiography; sonography
14.  Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients 
Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined.
Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80.
The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life. Furthermore, the peripheral assessment of BMD in the calcaneus via DXA is a feasible approach to quantify bone loss in the lower extremity in bone sarcoma patients and may serve as an alternative procedure, when the established assessment of femoral BMD is not practicable due to endoprosthetic replacements.
PMCID: PMC3022904  PMID: 21190557
15.  Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet as an Etiology of Painful Talocalcaneal Impingement in the Rigid Flatfoot: A New Diagnosis 
A retrospective review identified six patients with seven painful rigid flatfeet. In each case, pain was localized laterally to an accessory facet of the anterolateral talus. cross-sectional imaging demonstrated no evidence of tarsal coalition. In five of the six, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and in each case demonstrated focal abutting bone marrow edema consistent with impingement between the accessory facet and the anterior calcaneus.
Seven feet in six patients underwent resection of the accessory facet with additional subtalar joint-sparing reconstructive procedures. At an average follow-up of 11 months, clinical results were graded as four good and two fair.
An association between this accessory facet and pain in the rigid flatfoot has not been previously reported. Obesity was universal and may represent a risk factor for facet impingement. At early follow-up, facet resection with subtalar joint-sparing flatfoot reconstruction provided good results with symptomatic and functional improvement in the majority of patients.
PMCID: PMC2603342  PMID: 19223941
16.  Reliability of clinically relevant 3D foot bone angles from quantitative computed tomography 
Surgical treatment and clinical management of foot pathology requires accurate, reliable assessment of foot deformities. Foot and ankle deformities are multi-planar and therefore difficult to quantify by standard radiographs. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities have been used to define bone orientations using inertial axes based on bone shape, but these inertial axes can fail to mimic established bone angles used in orthopaedics and clinical biomechanics. To provide improved clinical relevance of 3D bone angles, we developed techniques to define bone axes using landmarks on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) bone surface meshes. We aimed to assess measurement precision of landmark-based, 3D bone-to-bone orientations of hind foot and lesser tarsal bones for expert raters and a template-based automated method.
Two raters completed two repetitions each for twenty feet (10 right, 10 left), placing anatomic landmarks on the surfaces of calcaneus, talus, cuboid, and navicular. Landmarks were also recorded using the automated, template-based method. For each method, 3D bone axes were computed from landmark positions, and Cardan sequences produced sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane angles of bone-to-bone orientations. Angular reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the root mean square standard deviation (RMS-SD) for intra-rater and inter-rater precision, and rater versus automated agreement.
Intra- and inter-rater ICCs were generally high (≥ 0.80), and the ICCs for each rater compared to the automated method were similarly high. RMS-SD intra-rater precision ranged from 1.4 to 3.6° and 2.4 to 6.1°, respectively, for the two raters, which compares favorably to uni-planar radiographic precision. Greatest variability was in Navicular: Talus sagittal plane angle and Cuboid: Calcaneus frontal plane angle. Precision of the automated, atlas-based template method versus the raters was comparable to each rater’s internal precision.
Intra- and inter-rater precision suggest that the landmark-based methods have adequate test-retest reliability for 3D assessment of foot deformities. Agreement of the automated, atlas-based method with the expert raters suggests that the automated method is a valid, time-saving technique for foot deformity assessment. These methods have the potential to improve diagnosis of foot and ankle pathologies by allowing multi-planar quantification of deformities.
PMCID: PMC3852332  PMID: 24044376
17.  Fracture Surgery of the extremities with the intra-operative use of 3D-RX: A randomized multicenter trial (EF3X-trial) 
Posttraumatic osteoarthritis can develop after an intra-articular extremity fracture, leading to pain and loss of function. According to international guidelines, anatomical reduction and fixation are the basis for an optimal functional result. In order to achieve this during fracture surgery, an optimal view on the position of the bone fragments and fixation material is a necessity. The currently used 2D-fluoroscopy does not provide sufficient insight, in particular in cases with complex anatomy or subtle injury, and even an 18-26% suboptimal fracture reduction is reported for the ankle and foot. More intra-operative information is therefore needed.
Recently the 3D-RX-system was developed, which provides conventional 2D-fluoroscopic images as well as a 3D-reconstruction of bony structures. This modality provides more information, which consequently leads to extra corrections in 18-30% of the fracture operations. However, the effect of the extra corrections on the quality of the anatomical fracture reduction and fixation as well as on patient relevant outcomes has never been investigated.
The objective of this study protocol is to investigate the effectiveness of the intra-operative use of the 3D-RX-system as compared to the conventional 2D-fluoroscopy in patients with traumatic intra-articular fractures of the wrist, ankle and calcaneus. The effectiveness will be assessed in two different areas: 1) the quality of fracture reduction and fixation, based on the current golden standard, Computed Tomography. 2) The patient-relevant outcomes like functional outcome range of motion and pain. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of the 3D-RX-scan will be determined in a clinical setting and a cost-effectiveness as well as a cost-utility analysis will be performed.
In this protocol for an international multicenter randomized clinical trial, adult patients (age > 17 years) with a traumatic intra-articular fracture of the wrist, ankle or calcaneus eligible for surgery will be subjected to additional intra-operative 3D-RX. In half of the patients the surgeon will be blinded to these results, in the other half the surgeon may use the 3D-RX results to further optimize fracture reduction. In both randomization groups a CT-scan will be performed postoperatively. Based on these CT-scans the quality of fracture reduction and fixation will be determined. During the follow-up visits after hospital discharge at 6 and 12 weeks and 1 year postoperatively the patient relevant outcomes will be determined by joint specific, health economic and quality of life questionnaires. In addition a follow up study will be performed to determine the patient relevant outcomes and prevalence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis at 2 and 5 years postoperatively.
The results of the study will provide more information on the effectiveness of the intra-operative use of 3D-imaging during surgical treatment of intra-articular fractures of the wrist, ankle and calcaneus. A randomized design in which patients will be allocated to a treatment arm during surgery will be used because of its high methodological quality and the ability to detect incongruences in the reduction and/or fixation that occur intra-operatively in the blinded arm of the 3D-RX. An alternative, pragmatic design could be to randomize before the start of the surgery, then two surgical strategies would be compared. This resembles clinical practice better, but introduces more bias and does not allow the assessment of incongruences that would have been detected by 3D-RX in the blinded arm.
Trial registration
Dutch Trial Register NTR 1902
PMCID: PMC3152540  PMID: 21733185
Fracture; Wrist; Ankle; Calcaneus; Intra-operative imaging; 2D-fluoroscopy; 3D-imaging; Conebeam-CT; 3D-RX
18.  Arthroscopic Excision of Bone Fragments in a Neglected Fracture of the Lateral Process of the Talus in a Junior Soccer Player 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2014;3(3):e331-e334.
Fractures of the lateral process of the talus are uncommon and often overlooked. Typically, they are found in adult snowboarders. We report the case of an 11-year-old male soccer player who complained of lateral ankle pain after an inversion injury 6 months earlier. He did not respond to conservative treatment and thus underwent arthroscopic excision of fragments of the talar lateral process. The ankle was approached through standard medial and anterolateral portals. A 2.7-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope was used. Soft tissues around the talus were cleared with a motorized shaver, and the lateral aspect of the talar process was then visualized. The lateral process presented as an osseous overgrowth, and a loose body was impinged between the talus and the calcaneus. The osseous overgrowth was resected piece by piece with a punch, and the loose body was removed en block. The patient returned to soccer 5 weeks after the operation. This case exemplifies 2 important points: (1) This type of fracture can develop even in children and not only in snowboarders. (2) Arthroscopic excision of talar lateral process fragments can be accomplished easily, and return to sports can be achieved in a relatively short time.
PMCID: PMC4129989  PMID: 25126497
19.  A Novel Technique for Closed Reduction and Fixation of Paediatric Calcaneal Fracture Dislocation Injuries 
Case Reports in Orthopedics  2013;2013:928938.
Paediatric calcaneal fractures are rare injuries usually managed conservatively or with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Closed reduction was previously thought to be impossible, and very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a new technique for closed reduction using Ilizarov half-rings. We report successful closed reduction and screwless fixation of an extra-articular calcaneal fracture dislocation in a 7-year-old boy. Reduction was achieved using two Ilizarov half-ring frames arranged perpendicular to each other, enabling simultaneous application of longitudinal and rotational traction. Anatomical reduction was achieved with restored angles of Bohler and Gissane. Two K-wires were the definitive fixation. Bony union with good functional outcome and minimal pain was achieved at eight-weeks follow up. ORIF of calcaneal fractures provides good functional outcome but is associated with high rates of malunion and postoperative pain. Preservation of the unique soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus reduces the risk of infection. Closed reduction prevents distortion of these tissues and may lead to faster healing and mobilisation. Closed reduction and screwless fixation of paediatric calcaneal fractures is an achievable management option. Our technique has preserved the soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus, has avoided retained metalwork related complications, and has resulted in a good functional outcome.
PMCID: PMC3683434  PMID: 23819090
20.  The use of fibrin matrix-mixed gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus 
This study assessed the clinical results and second-look arthroscopy after fibrin matrix-mixed gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Chondrocytes were harvested from the cuboid surface of the calcaneus in 38 patients and cultured, and gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation was performed with or without medial malleolar osteotomy. Preoperative American orthopedic foot and ankle society ankle-hind foot scores, visual analogue score, Hannover scoring system and subjective satisfaction were investigated, and the comparison of arthroscopic results (36/38, 94.7 %) and MRI investigation of chondral recovery was performed. Direct tenderness and relationship to the active daily life of the donor site was evaluated.
The preoperative mean ankle–hind foot scores (71 ± 14) and Hannover scoring system (65 ± 10) had increased to 91 ± 12 and 93 ± 14, respectively, at 24-month follow-up (p < 0.0001), and the preoperative visual analogue score of 58 mm had decreased to 21 mm (p < 0.0001). Regarding subjective satisfaction, 34 cases (89.5 %) reported excellent, good or fair. Chondral regeneration was analysed by second-look arthroscopy and MRI. Complications included one non-union and two delayed-unions of the osteotomy sites, and 9 ankles (9/31, 29.0 %) sustained damaged medial malleolar cartilage due to osteotomy. Marked symptoms at the biopsy site did not adversely affect the patient’s active daily life.
Fibrin matrix-mixed gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation using the cuboid surface of the calcaneus as a donor can be used for treating osteochondral lesions of the talus.
Level of evidence
Therapeutic study, prospective case series, Level IV.
PMCID: PMC3657090  PMID: 22752415
Talus; Osteochondral lesion; Autologous chondrocyte implantation; Arthroscopy; Donor
21.  Feet injuries in rock climbers 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(4):218-228.
While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described.
PMCID: PMC3801241  PMID: 24147257
Rock climbing; Sport climbing; Feet injuries; Hallux valgus; Overstrain injuries
22.  Uncommon case of brain metastasis in a patient with a history of heavy smoking 
Current Oncology  2014;21(5):e728-e731.
Primary sarcomas of the aorta are extremely uncommon. Depending on histomorphology and immunohistochemical pattern, intimal sarcomas can show angiosarcomatous differentiation. Here, we describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary intimal sarcoma of the aortic arch and signs of cerebral metastatic disease as the initial manifestation.
After the patient experienced the onset of severe headaches, ataxia, and left-sided weakness, magnetic resonance imaging showed several brain lesions. Histologic assessment of a brain biopsy specimen revealed a malignant tumour composed of large pleomorphic cells that were positive for pancytokeratin and CD10. Radiation to the brain did not significantly improve the patient’s symptoms, and cranial computed tomography (ct) imaging revealed several metastases, indicating lack of response. Because of the patient’s smoking history, the presence of central nervous system and skeletal metastases on combined positron-emission tomography and ct imaging, and the focal pan-cytokeratin positivity of the tumour, carcinoma of the lung was favoured as the primary tumour.
Despite chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, the patient’s neurologic symptoms and general condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died within a few days. At autopsy, an undifferentiated intimal sarcoma of the aortic arch was diagnosed. The primary tumour in the aorta consisted of large pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the aortic tumour and brain metastases demonstrated diffuse positivity for vimentin and p53 and focal S-100 staining.
In summary, we report a challenging case of advanced intimal sarcoma of the aortic arch with brain and bone metastases at initial presentation. Our report demonstrates the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this disease, and the need for multicentre studies to accrue more patients for investigations of optimal therapy.
PMCID: PMC4189579  PMID: 25302044
Sarcoma; angiosarcoma; brain metastasis
23.  Synovial sarcoma of the spine: a case involving paraspinal muscle with extensive calcification and the surgical consideration in treatment 
European Spine Journal  2013;23(1):27-31.
Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of the spine. This tumor may present as a painless mass of the spine or slowly enlarge, causing pain or neurologic deficits. As it is difficult to differentiate this lesion from other soft tissue tumors, synovial sarcoma requires histologic confirmation for definite diagnosis. Thus, the treatment strategy is often planned in the final step depending on the pathologic results. Despite its rare incidence, a few cases of primary or metastatic synovial sarcoma involving the spinal cord, foramen, vertebral body, or paraspinal muscles have been reported in the literature.
Materials and methods
We present the case of a 29-year-old man with a synovial sarcoma in the paraspinal muscle of the cervical spine. The patient was evaluated radiologically and histologically. Plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed as part of the preoperative workup, and immunohistochemical and cytogenetic studies were additionally performed to identify the histologic features of the tumor. The patient underwent marginal resection followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. The patient has been followed up for 2 years.
This article highlights the features of synovial sarcoma of the spine via a comprehensive review. Synovial sarcoma of the spine is uncommon, but it is a challenging issue in both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The currently available evidence suggests the use of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of synovial sarcoma, which includes complete resection and radiation therapy.
PMCID: PMC3897827  PMID: 24121750
Synovial sarcoma; Cervical spine; Paraspinal muscle
24.  Short-term followup after surgical treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(4):384-389.
Results of surgical treatment in Indian patients of Ewing’s sarcoma managed with multimodality treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are insufficient. We report a retrospective evaluation of a series of cases of Ewing’s sarcoma managed with chemotherapy, surgery with or without radiotherapy.
Materials and Methods:
54 patients of biopsy-proven Ewing’s sarcoma of the bone, except craniofacial and vertebral bones were included. The patients having recurrence or having previous treatment were excluded from the study. Local and systemic extent of the sarcoma was defined, staged, and patients were subjected to the chemotherapy, surgery, and in some cases radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated for results of surgery with respect to complications, recurrence, and metastases at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of follow-up
Average age of patients was 15.6 years (range 7-26 years); average delay in treatment was 4.1 months (1-7 months); follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years (median 3.1 years); 14 patients (25.9%) had pulmonary metastases at their initial presentation. Twenty-one patients (38.9%) underwent resection and intercalary reconstruction with bone grafting, fixed with locking plates. Allograft was also used in 11 of these. Sixteen patients underwent resection and reconstruction with endoprosthesis, while seven patients (13.0%) underwent resection and arthrodesis. An above-knee amputation was required in 7.4% (four patients). Mesh was used for containing the graft longitudinally in five patients (femoral and tibial intercalary reconstructions) and for soft tissue attachment in two patients (hip and shoulder endoprostheses). Two patients had deep wound infection. One patient presented 1 year later with implant failure. The disease-free survival at 2 years from the time of diagnosis was 57.5% (23 out of 40) for patients without preoperative metastases and 42.9% (6 out of 14) for those with preoperative metastases. Overall, the disease-free survival at 2 years was 53.7% (29 out of 54 patients). Overall survival rate at 2 years was 61.1% (33 out of 54 patients).
Results of surgical treatment in this study are comparable with the current literature in spite of involvement of long bony segment and large soft tissue component. Intramedullary fibular autograft with morcellized cancellous autograft and allograft contained longitudinally in a mesh appears to be a good alternative with such large bone tumors.
PMCID: PMC2947724  PMID: 20924478
Ewing’s sarcoma; multimodality treatment; resection/reconstruction; arthrodesis
25.  Skeletal tuberculosis in children in the Western world: 18 new cases with a review of the literature 
The occurrence of pediatric skeletal (extra-spinal) tuberculosis in the developed world is extremely rare. The purpose of this study was to review the cases at our institutions.
We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric biopsy-proven skeletal (extra-spinal) cases of tuberculosis over a five-year period.
Eighteen patients of biopsy-proven tuberculosis were identified. The mean age was 12 years (range 7–20). Lesion locations included: distal humerus, ulna, scapula, acetabulum, proximal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and calcaneus. All had symptoms of pain, swelling, and stiffness. Five cases had multi-focal involvement. Twenty-four lesions were noted in 18 patients. Nineteen lesions were cystic in nature at presentation. The sedimentation rate was normal in six and purified protein derivative (PPD) was negative in five patients. All received chemotherapy. Six patients underwent surgery.
The diagnosis of pediatric skeletal tuberculosis can be made with good correlation of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. Biopsy and culture are the gold standards in diagnosis. Prognosis is good with chemotherapy and non-operative management. Surgical intervention may be needed in select cases.
PMCID: PMC2726868  PMID: 19543761
Skeletal tuberculosis; Children; Western world

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