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1.  Adverse drug reaction monitoring: support for pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Brazil 
Background
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service.
Methods
A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed.
Results
The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had moderate severity (58.9%), thus requiring intervention. Type A reactions were the most common (82.1%). At least one predisposing factor was present in 79.9% of the reports examined, and the most common predisposing factor was polypharmacy.
Conclusions
The results obtained will contribute to the development of strategies for the pharmacovigilance service at HGP and other hospitals throughout the country, which will improve the quality of ADR reporting and ensure safer drug use in Brazilian hospitals.
doi:10.1186/2050-6511-14-5
PMCID: PMC3554560  PMID: 23298396
2.  Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease –Update 
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD).
Clinical Need
Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD.
Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions:
What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery?
Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion?
What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion?
One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following:
Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates;
Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates);
Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin.
Summary of Findings
The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review.
Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials.
Regarding lumbar ADR, data were available from 2 noninferiority RCTs to complete a meta-analysis. The following clinical, health systems, and adverse event outcome measures were synthesized: primary outcome of clinical success, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, pain VAS scores, patient satisfaction, duration of surgery, amount of blood loss, length of hospital stay, rate of device failure, and rate of reoperation.
The meta-analysis of overall clinical success supported the noninferiority of lumbar ADR compared with spinal fusion at 24-month follow-up. Of the remaining clinical outcome measures (ODI, pain VAS scores, SF-36 scores [mental and physical components], patient satisfaction, and return to work status), only patient satisfaction and scores on the physical component scale of the SF-36 questionnaire were significantly improved in favour of lumbar ADR compared with spinal fusion at 24 months follow-up. Blood loss and surgical time showed statistical heterogeneity; therefore, meta-analysis results are not interpretable. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients receiving the ADR compared with controls. Neither the number of device failures nor the number of neurological complications at 24 months was statistically significantly different between the ADR and fusion treatment groups. However, there was a trend towards fewer neurological complications at 24 months in the ADR treatment group compared with the spinal fusion treatment group.
Results of the Bayesian analyses indicated that the influence of missing data on the outcome measure of clinical success was minimal. The Bayesian model indicated that the probability for ADR being better than spinal fusion was 79%. The probability of ADR being noninferior to spinal fusion using a -10% noninferiority bound was 92%, and using a -15% noninferiority bound was 94%. The probability of artificial discs being superior to spinal fusion in a future trial was 73%.
Six case series were reviewed, mainly to characterize the rate of major complications for lumbar ADR. The Medical Advisory Secretariat defined a major complication as any reoperation; device failure necessitating a revision, removal or reoperation; or life-threatening event. The rates of major complications ranged from 0% to 13% per device implanted. Only 1 study reported the rate of ASD, which was detected in 2 (2%) of the 100 people 11 years after surgery.
There were no RCT data available for cervical ADR; therefore, data from 4 case series were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness and safety. Because data were sparse, the effectiveness of cervical ADR compared with spinal fusion cannot be determined at this time.
The rate of major complications was assessed up to 2 years after surgery. It was found to range from 0% to 8.1% per device implanted. The rate of ASD is not reported in the clinical trial literature.
The total cost of a lumbar ADR procedure is $15,371 (Cdn; including costs related to the device, physician, and procedure). The total cost of a lumbar fusion surgery procedure is $11,311 (Cdn; including physicians’ and procedural costs).
Conclusions
Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement
Since the 2004 Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology policy assessment, data from 2 RCTs and 6 case series assessing the effectiveness and adverse events profile of lumbar ADR to treat DDD has become available. The GRADE quality of this evidence is moderate for effectiveness and for short-term (2-year follow-up) complications; it is very low for ASD.
The effectiveness of lumbar ADR is not inferior to that of spinal fusion for the treatment of lumbar DDD. The rates for device failure and neurological complications 2 years after surgery did not differ between ADR and fusion patients. Based on a Bayesian meta-analysis, lumbar ADR is 79% superior to lumbar spinal fusion.
The rate of major complications after lumbar ADR is between 0% and 13% per device implanted. The rate of ASD in 1 case series was 2% over an 11-year follow-up period.
Outcome data for lumbar ADR beyond a 2-year follow-up are not yet available.
Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement
Since the 2004 Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology policy assessment, 4 case series have been added to the body of evidence assessing the effectiveness and adverse events profile of cervical ADR to treat DDD. The GRADE quality of this evidence is very low for effectiveness as well as for the adverse events profile. Sparse outcome data are available.
Because data are sparse, the effectiveness of cervical ADR compared with spinal fusion cannot be determined at this time.
The rate of major complications was assessed up to 2 years after surgery; it ranged from 0% to 8.1% per device implanted. The rate of ASD is not reported in the clinical trial literature.
PMCID: PMC3379529  PMID: 23074480
3.  Educational intervention to improve physician reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a primary care setting in complementary and alternative medicine 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:274.
Background
Recent studies have shown that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are underreported. This may be particularly true of ADRs associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Data on CAM-related ADRs, however, are sparse.
Objective was to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention and monitoring programme designed to improve physician reporting of ADRs in a primary care setting.
Methods
A prospective multicentre study with 38 primary care practitioners specialized in CAM was conducted from January 2004 through June 2007. After 21 month all physicians received an educational intervention in terms of face-to-face training to assist them in classifying and reporting ADRs. The study centre monitored the quantity and quality of ADR reports and analysed the results.
To measure changes in the ADR reporting rate, the median number of ADR reports and interquartile range (IQR) were calculated before and after the educational intervention. The pre-intervention and post-intervention quality of the reports was assessed in terms of changes in the completeness of data provided for obligatory items. Interrater reliability between the physicians and the study centre was calculated using Cohen's kappa with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used Mann Whitney U-test for testing continuous data and chi-square test was used for categorical data. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results
A total of 404 ADRs were reported during the complete study period. An initial 148% increase (P = 0.001) in the number of ADR reports was observed after the educational intervention. Compared to baseline the postinterventional number of ADR reportings was statistically significant higher (P < 0.005) through the first 16 months after the intervention but not significant in the last 4-month period (median: 8.00 (IQR [2.75; 8.75]; P = 0.605). The completeness of the ADR reports increased from 80.3% before to 90.7% after the intervention. The completeness of the item for classifying ADRs as serious or non-serious increased significantly (P < 0.001) after the educational intervention. The quality of ADR reports increased from kappa 0.15 (95% CI: 0.08; 0.29) before to 0.43 (95% CI: 0.23; 0.63) after the intervention.
Conclusion
The results of the present study demonstrate that an educational intervention can increase physician awareness of ADRs. Participating physicians were able to incorporate the knowledge they had gained from face-to-face training into their daily clinical practice. However, the effects of the intervention were temporary.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-274
PMCID: PMC2728721  PMID: 19643033
4.  Adverse drug reactions from psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population: analysis of reports to the Danish Medicines Agency over a decade 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:176.
Background
The prescribing of psychotropic medicines for the paediatric population is rapidly increasing. In attempts to curb the use of psychotropic medicine in the paediatric population, regulatory authorities have issued various warnings about risks associated with use of these products in childhood. Little evidence has been reported about the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of these medicines in practice. As spontaneous reports are the main source for information about previously unknown ADRs, we analysed data submitted to a national ADR database. The objective was to characterise ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the Danish paediatric population over a decade.
Findings
All spontaneous ADR reports from 1998 to 2007 for children from birth to 17 years of age were included. The unit of analysis was one ADR. We analysed the distribution of ADRs per year, seriousness, age and gender of the child, suspected medicine and type of reported ADR. A total of 429 ADRs were reported for psychotropic medicines and 56% of these were classified as serious. Almost 20% of psychotropic ADRs were reported for children from birth up to 2 years of age and one half of ADRs were reported in adolescents, especially for antidepressants and psychostimulants. Approximately 60% of ADRs were reported for boys. Forty percent of all ADRs were from the category 'nervous and psychiatric disorders'. All but one ADR reported for children below two years were serious and two of these were fatal. A number of serious ADRs reported in children from birth up to 2 years of age were presumably caused by mothers' use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy.
Conclusion
The high number of serious ADRs reported for psychotropic medicines in the paediatric population should be a concern for health care professionals and physicians. Considering the higher number of birth defects being reported greater care has to be given while prescribing these drugs for pregnant women.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-176
PMCID: PMC2901212  PMID: 20573185
5.  Cost evaluation of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients in Taiwan: A prospective, descriptive, observational study 
Background: Adverse drug reactions (AADRs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, ADR-related morbidity and mortality costs have been estimated at US $330 billion to US $1130 billion annually.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of ADRs in Taiwan, to identify the drug classes that are most commonly related to ADRs, and to determine the direct medical costs to hospitals associated with prolonged hospitalizations due to ADRs.
Methods: In this prospective, descriptive, observational study, patients who experienced ADRs during their hospitalization at a Taiwan teaching hospital or who were admitted due to an ADR from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2004, were included in the study. The patients were identified actively by clinical pharmacists and passively by physicians and nurses who reported ADRs. The World Health Organization (WWHO) definition of ADR severity was adopted, and degrees of probability for each ADR were determined using the Naranjo algorithm. The direct medical costs incurred to the hospital in the treatment of ADRs that prolonged hospitalization were calculated (ie, costs of emergency department [ED] visits, intensive care unit visits, extra days of hospitalization, monitoring and laboratory studies, pharmacist dispensing fees, physician fees, room charges, ED charges).
Results: During the study period, 43 of the 142,295 hospitalized patients (00.03%)) were admitted because of an ADR. A total of 564 (00.40%)) of the hospitalized patients were verified to have ADRs. Three hundred eighteen of the patients (56.44%) with ADRs were male and the overall mean (SD) age was 66(2) years. The most common drug classes associated with the ADRs were antibiotics (219 patients [38.8% ]), analgesics (62 [11.0%]), and cardiovascular agents (56 [9.9%]). The systems most commonly involved in ADRs were cutaneous (296 patients [52.5%]), hematologic (61 [10.8%]), and cardiovascular (54 [9.66%]). The causes of the ADRs were anaphylactic (464 patients [82.3%]), drug overdose (78 [13.8%]), and drug-drug interactions (22 [3.9%]). Of the ADRs, 474 (884.0%) were idiosyncratic type B reactions (predictable). ADR-related costs, estimated at US $3489/ADR, were mostly due to prolonged length of stay. Based on the WHO definition, of the 564 ADRs, 330 (58.5%) and 40 (7.1%) were classified as moderate and severe, respectively. Two patients died of ADRs associated with allopurinol.
Conclusion: In this hospital, 0.40% of patients were identified as having ADRs that were associated with high direct costs, mostly due to extended hospitalizations.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2008.04.005
PMCID: PMC3969903  PMID: 24692791
direct medical cost; adverse drug reactions
6.  Knowledge, attitudes and practice of nurse regarding adverse drug reaction reporting 
Background:
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are ranked as some of the major causes of patient morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs has remained the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance and is important in maintaining patient safety. This study was conducted to assess the nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance, reasons for not reporting ADRs, and their pharmacovigilance practice.
Materials and Methods:
A questionnaire was prepared to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses regarding ADR reporting. In November 2009, the questionnaires were given to 500 nurses of a teaching hospital in Tehran.
Findings:
Knowledge and practice of participants were not satisfying; however, their attitude towards pharmacovigilance was at a high level. About 91% of the nurses had never reported an ADR. Most nurses liked to report the ADRs to the physicians (87.1%) and pharmacists in hospital's ADR center (1.8%) rather than the ADR National Center. The main cause of under-reporting of the suspected ADRs was unawareness about the existence of such a national center. Among nurses who had reported ADR for at least once, the majority preferred using phone (10 out of 50) or Yellow Cards (7 out of 50). Only 1 person out of 50 preferred using internet for submitting the reports
Conclusions:
Since the nurses in this study had little knowledge and poor practice regarding the pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting system, interventions such as holding pharmacovigilance workshops in the hospitals focusing on the aims of pharmacovigilance, completing the Yellow Card and clarifying the reporting criteria are strongly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3590690  PMID: 23492864
Knowledge; attitude; practice; nurse; adverse drug reaction; pharmacovigilance; Iran
7.  379 Adverse Drug Reactions to Anti-asthmatics in Patients with Bronchial Asthma 
Background
The number of self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has been rapidly increased with the active pharmacovigilance activities in Korea. However, there has been few data on ADRs to anti-asthmatics in Korea. This study was conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of ADRs to anti-asthmatics in adult patients with bronchial asthma.
Methods
ADRs to anti-asthmatics reported to Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of Inha University Hospital by 2 physicians were collected from January 2011 to April 2011. Causality assessment of adverse events was performed by using WHO-UMC criteria and Naranjo's probability scale. Clinical information was additionally collected from electronic medical records.
Results
Twenty five ADRs to anti-asthmatics were reported in 19 (male 5, female 14) out of 228 patients with asthma. The most common offending anti-asthmatics were inhaled glucocorticoids combined with inhaled long-acting beta agonist (LABA) (12 of 19 subjects, 63.2%), theobromine (10.5%), oral LABA (10.5%), doxofylline (5.3%), acetylcysteine (5.3%), and montelukast (5.3%). Severity of ADRs was mild in most patients (13 of 19, 68.5%), and no severe ADR was detected. By frequency, oral LABA was the commonest drug associated with ADRs (2 in 17 prescription, 11.8%). ADR frequency was not different according to asthma control status. But ADRs to simultaneously prescribed drugs were more frequently detected in patients with combined upper airway diseases (ADRs to antihistamines) or patients with combined infection (ADRs to anti-infective drugs, mucolytics, oral LABA, or to SABA), or older patients with asthma.
Conclusions
Although the severity is usually mild, ADRs are relatively common in patients with bronchial asthma. Physician should monitor ADRs to anti-asthmatics or related drugs in patients with asthma, especially in older patients or in patients with multiple drug treatment for combined conditions.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000412142.81425.50
PMCID: PMC3512811
8.  Attitudes among healthcare professionals to the reporting of adverse drug reactions in Nepal 
Background
Healthcare professional’s knowledge and attitudes to adverse drug reaction (ADR) and ADR reporting play vital role to report any cases of ADR. Positive attitudes may favour ADR reporting by healthcare professionals. This study was aimed to investigate the attitudes towards and ways to improve adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among healthcare professionals working at four Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres (RPCs) of Nepal.
Methods
A cross sectional study was done by survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 450 healthcare professionals working at four RPCs.
Results
The overall response rate was 74.0%. There were 74.8% of healthcare professionals who had seen patient experiencing an ADR; however, only 20.1% had reported. Reporting form not available (48.1%) and other colleagues not reporting ADR cases (46.9%) would significantly discourage the ADR reporting among healthcare professionals working at four RPCs. Healthcare professionals perceived that seriousness of the reaction (75.6%); unusual reaction (64.6%); reaction to new product (71.2%); new reaction to existing product (70.2%); and confidence in diagnosis of ADR (60.8%) were important factors on the decision to report ADR. Awareness among healthcare professionals (85.9%), training (76.0%), collaboration (67.0%), and involve pharmacist for ADR reporting (63.1%) were mostly recognized ways to improve reporting. Regular newsletter on current awareness in drug safety (71.2%), information on new ADR (65.8%), and international drug safety information (64.0%) were the identified feedbacks they would like to receive from the Nepal pharmacovigilance programme.
Conclusion
Healthcare professionals working at four RPCs of Nepal have positive attitudes towards ADR reporting. Awareness among healthcare professionals, training and collaboration would likely improve reporting provided they would receive appropriate feedback from the national pharamcovigilance programme.
doi:10.1186/2050-6511-14-16
PMCID: PMC3599543  PMID: 23497690
Adverse drug reaction; Attitudes; Healthcare professional; Nepal
9.  Consequences, measurement, and evaluation of the costs associated with adverse drug reactions among hospitalized patients in China 
Background
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a leading cause of morbidity in developed countries and represent a substantial burden on health-care resources. Many countries spent 15% to 20% of their hospital budgets to treat drug complications. However, few studies have measured the pharmacoeconomic effects of ADRs on hospitalized patients in China. The study estimates the costs of ADRs as identified from the spontaneous voluntary reports completed from healthcare professionals. To do so, we calculate these costs, determine the sum of Medicare payments and their proportion of total healthcare spending, and evaluate the incidence of ADRs, characteristics of hospitalized ADR patients, and outcomes of ADRs in China.
Methods
This retrospective survey studied patients who experienced ADRs during their hospitalization at a Chinese tertiary-care teaching hospital. The patients were divided into group A and group B according to general ADRs and serious ADRs in Provisions for Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring and Reporting. The direct costs included treatment fees, inspection fees, laboratory fees, materials fees, bed charges, drug charges, nursing care, meals, and other expenses and the sunk-cost losses were calculated according to the hospital information system (HIS). Indirect costs of ADR treatment were calculated according to the human capital approach. The epidemiological characteristics of ADRs were evaluated.
Results
2739 were diagnosed with ADR during the study period, which translates to an ADR rate of 0.81%. The total socioeconomic loss from 2739 cases of ADR was estimated at ¥817401.69, consisting of direct costs of ¥603252.81 and indirect costs of ¥214148.88. On average, the costs per patient amounted to ¥196.10 in group A, ¥7032.29 in group B. The sum of medicare payment and proportion were ¥219061.13 (65.23%) and ¥105422.02 (39.42%) in group A and B. The ADR incidence in old-age patients was significantly higher than in other age groups (P < 0.0001). The most common drug class associated with ADRs represented antibiotics (957 patients, 34.94%).
Conclusions
The costs of especially severe ADRs could not be ignored, and in this hospital 0.13% of patients were diagnosed with ADRs associated with relatively higher direct costs than who suffered from mild ADRs, largely due to extended hospitalization.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-73
PMCID: PMC3931293  PMID: 24533894
Adverse drug reaction; Direct medical cost; Hospitalized patients; Tertiary care teaching hospital; Pharmacoeconomic
10.  Reporting of adverse drug reactions: an exploratory study among nurses in a teaching hospital, Ajman, United Arab Emirates 
Background and the purpose of the study
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important public health problem associated with morbidity, mortality and financial burden on the society. Nurses play important role in medication safety surveillance through the spontaneous voluntary reporting of ADRs. Nurses’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards ADR reporting and factors affecting reporting was assessed in the study.
Methods
All nurses working in a tertiary care hospital, Ajman, UAE participated in this cross-sectional survey. A self administered questionnaire of four domains (knowledge, attitude, practice, factors affecting reporting) was distributed among nurses after obtaining informed consent. The knowledge and attitude components were assigned score of one for correct response. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 19). Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare knowledge and attitude scores between subgroups; Spearman’s correlation for any relationship between knowledge and attitude.
Results
Of the total participants, females constituted 92.3%; average duration of clinical experience 6.5 ± 3.3 years; mean age 28.9 ± 4.1 years. Median score for knowledge components of ADR reporting was 11(total score: 17) and for attitude components was 4(total score: 8). No difference noted in knowledge and attitude scores between gender, age group, educational qualification. A positive correlation between knowledge and attitude components was observed (r = 0.38). ADRs are important cause for morbidity and mortality was reported by (54.9%). 49.5% were aware of Pharmacovigilance centers’. Uncertainty of ADRs (49.5%); concern that the report may be wrong (46.2%) and inadequate knowledge of ADR reporting procedure were the major barriers to reporting. Training in ADR reporting as the key measure to improve reporting was suggested by (86.8%).
Major conclusion
The results of the study strongly point out the need for interventional program among nurses focusing on the importance of ADR reporting and reporting procedure to encourage their active, voluntary participation in drug safety surveillance.
doi:10.1186/2008-2231-20-44
PMCID: PMC3555921  PMID: 23351252
11.  Knowledge, attitude and perception/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners in India towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting 
Objective:
The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude and perceptions/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners (MPs) in India towards Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting.
Materials and Methods:
A questionnaire was designed for assessment of KAP of medical practitioners in India toward ADR reporting. This questionnaire was administered to 2-3 medical practitioners from each zone prior to administering final questionnaire which was approved by Disha Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. 1200 medical practitioners (about 300 from each zone) from India were selected randomly.
Results:
1000 medical practitioners out of 1200 (90%), selected at random were approached. A total of 870 provided responses to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 73% of 1200 selected randomly. A total of 47.5% respondents reported that they were aware of Government ADR centers. A total of 59.2% reported that they are familiar with the procedure of reporting ADRs to Government centers. However, only 18.5% of MPs have reported the observed ADRs to Government ADR centers. As against this relatively large number of MPs (87.9%) have reported ADRs observed during their routine practice to medical representatives of pharmaceutical company and NGOs (non-Govt. Organizations). A total of 80.5% of respondents agreed that safety plays an important role and 96% reported that ADR centers are useful. However, only 55.6% of respondents have reported that there is a need for ADR centers.
Conclusion:
The study reveals that practitioners are aware of ADR reporting; their perception toward ADR reporting is right but it is not reflected when it comes to the act of reporting of ADRs. In our sample of 870 respondents only 18.5 % reported ADRs to some organizations. Only 5% of respondents recorded the details of ADR and reported to the manufacturer and 1% of respondents to government health ministry. Thus, medical practitioners in India appear to have a good knowledge about ADR reporting, the right perception toward ADR reporting. However, as far as practice of ADR reporting is concerned it is discouraging.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.100651
PMCID: PMC3487231  PMID: 23125959
Adverse drug reactions; ADR reporting; pharmacovigilance
12.  Motives for reporting adverse drug reactions by patient-reporters in the Netherlands 
Aim
The aim of this study was to quantify the reasons and opinions of patients who reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the Netherlands to a pharmacovigilance centre.
Method
A web-based questionnaire was sent to 1370 patients who had previously reported an ADR to a pharmacovigilance centre. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, χ2 tests and Spearman’s correlation coefficients.
Results
The response rate was 76.5% after one reminder. The main reasons for patients to report ADRs were to share their experiences (89% agreed or strongly agreed), the severity of the reaction (86% agreed or strongly agreed to the statement), worries about their own situation (63.2% agreed or strongly agreed) and the fact the ADR was not mentioned in the patient information leaflet (57.6% agreed or strongly agreed). Of the patient-responders, 93.8% shared the opinion that reporting an ADR can prevent harm to other people, 97.9% believed that reporting contributes to research and knowledge, 90.7% stated that they felt responsible for reporting an ADR and 92.5% stated that they will report a possible ADR once again in the future.
Conclusion
The main motives for patients to report their ADRs to a pharmacovigilance centre were the severity of the ADR and their need to share experiences. The high level of response to the questionnaire shows that patients are involved when it comes to ADRs and that they are also willing to share their motivations for and opinions about the reporting of ADRs with a pharmacovigilance centre.
doi:10.1007/s00228-010-0865-7
PMCID: PMC2957580  PMID: 20658130
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs); Pharmacovigilance; Patient reporting; Consumer reporting; Web-based questionnaire
13.  An evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists towards adverse drug reaction reporting: A pilot study 
Background:
Pharmacovigilance is a useful to assure the safety of medicines and protect consumers from their harmful effects. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as part of their professional obligation and participate in the existent pharmacovigilance programs in their countries. In India, the National PV Program was re-launched in July 2010.
Objectives:
This survey was conducted in order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists with the aim of exploring the pharmacists’ participation in ADR reporting system, identifying the reasons of under reporting and determining the steps that could be adopted to increase reporting rates.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the pharmacists in India using a pretested questionnaire with 33 questions (10 questions on knowledge, 6 on attitude, 7 on practice, 7 on future of ADR reporting in India and 3 on benefits of reporting ADRs.). The study was conducted, over a period of 3 months from May 2012 to July 2012.
Results:
Out of the 600 participants to whom the survey was administered, a total of 400 were filled. The response rate of the survey was 67%. 95% responders were knowledgeable about ADRs. 90% participants had a positive attitude towards making ADRs reporting mandatory for practicing pharmacists. 87.5% participants were interested in participating in the National Pharmacovigilance program, in India. 47.5% respondents had observed ADRs in their practice, and 37% had reported it to the national pharmacovigilance center. 92% pharmacists believed reporting ADRs immensely helped in providing quality care to patients.
Conclusion:
The Indian pharmacists have poor knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. Pharmacists with higher qualifications such as the pharmacists with a PharmD have better KAP. With additional training on Pharmacovigilance, the Indian Pharmacists working in different sectors can become part of ADR reporting system.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.120168
PMCID: PMC3835963  PMID: 24312887
Adverse drug reaction; adverse drug reaction reporting; knowledge; attitude; and practice; national pharmacovigilance program; pharmacists
14.  Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the inPatients of Medicine Department of a Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and Influence of Pharmacovigilance in Reporting ADR 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2008;40(1):37-40.
Objectives:
(i) To find the incidence and study various aspects of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the inpatients of medicine department of Shree Krishna Hospital, a rural tertiary care teaching hospital. (ii) To test the impact of pharmacovigilance in reporting ADR.
Material & Methods:
A prospective study involving 600 patients admitted to the medical wards and TB & Chest diseases ward over a period of six months and a retrospective analysis of 600 case files for the corresponding period of the previous year were carried out to find the incidence rate of ADR, study various aspects of ADR like causality assessment, drugs frequently causing ADR etc. Suitably structured and pre-tested format was used for compiling the data.
Results:
In the prospective study, 18 of the 600 patients (3%) developed ADR. A significant number (77.78%) of patients developed ADR between the 3rd and 10th days of administering the drug/s. As the number of drugs increased, the incidence of ADR also increased. Majority of ADR (72.22%) occurred due to chemotherapeutic agents. 66.67% of ADR involved the gastrointestinal tract. None of the ADR was fatal. Sex of the patients did not influence the incidence rate of ADR. On the other hand, in the retrospective analysis, only ADR were reported in just 6 out of 600 patients (1%).
Conclusion:
The incidence rate of ADR is found to be much lower (3%) than the reported rate (10%-20%). Pharmacovigilance certainly contributes to picking up ADR.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.40488
PMCID: PMC3023121  PMID: 21264160
Adverse drug reactions; ADR monitoring; Pharmacovigilance
15.  Side effects of antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications reported by European consumers 
Objective:
To characterize adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported by European (EU) consumer for antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications.
Methods:
ADRs reported by consumers of antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications (anatomical therapeutic chemical [ATC]) group L from 2007 to 2011 and located in the EU ADR database, EudraVigilance, were analyzed. Data were categorized with respect to age and sex, category, and seriousness of reported ADRs and medications. The unit of analysis was one ADR.
Findings:
We located 9649 ADRs reported for antineoplastic and immunomodulating medications, which approximately 15% of were serious, including 26 deaths. Less than 5% of ADRs were reported in children. Totally 73% of ADRs were reported for women and 27% for men. The majority of ADRs were of the type “general disorders and administration site conditions” (54% of total ADRs), followed by “skin and subcutaneous disorders” (7% of total ADRs), and “infections and infestations” (6% of total ADRs). Reports encompassed medicines from the therapeutic groups: Imunosupressants (ATC group L04) (90% of all ADRs), immunostimulants (ATC group L03) (6% of all ADRS), and antineoplastic agents (ATC group L01) (4% of all ADRs). Many ADRs were reported for etanercept (Enbrel®), Interferon beta (Betaferon®/Extavia®), and imatinib (Glivec®) with only few being serious.
Conclusion:
In general, consumers reported a high number of ADRs from the use of antineoplastic and immunostimulant medications and many of these were classified as non-serious. This indicates that consumers are interesting in reporting ADRs, but since the investigated substances potentially have the risk of causing many ADRs, we expected a higher number of serious ADRs.
doi:10.4103/2279-042X.114091
PMCID: PMC4076892  PMID: 24991604
Adverse drug reactions; antineoplastic agents; consumers; eudravigilance; immunomodulating agents; pharmacovigilance
16.  Adverse drug events resulting from use of drugs with sulphonamide-containing anti-malarials and artemisinin-based ingredients: findings on incidence and household costs from three districts with routine demographic surveillance systems in rural Tanzania 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:236.
Background
Anti-malarial regimens containing sulphonamide or artemisinin ingredients are widely used in malaria-endemic countries. However, evidence of the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to these drugs is limited, especially in Africa, and there is a complete absence of information on the economic burden such ADR place on patients. This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by demographic surveillance systems.
Methods
Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify ADR from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin (AS) use. ADR were identified by trained clinicians at health facilities (passive surveillance) and through cross-sectional household surveys (active surveillance). Potential cases were followed up at home, where a complete history and physical examination was undertaken, and household cost data collected. Patients were classified as having ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ ADR by a physician.
Results
A total of 95 suspected ADR were identified during a two-year period, of which 79 were traced, and 67 reported use of SP and/or AS prior to ADR onset. Thirty-four cases were classified as ‘probable’ and 33 as ‘possible’ ADRs. Most (53) cases were associated with SP monotherapy, 13 with the AS/SP combination (available in one of the two areas only), and one with AS monotherapy. Annual ADR incidence per 100,000 exposures was estimated based on ‘probable’ ADR only at 5.6 for AS/SP in combination, and 25.0 and 11.6 for SP monotherapy. Median ADR treatment costs per episode ranged from US$2.23 for those making a single provider visit to US$146.93 for patients with four visits. Seventy-three per cent of patients used out-of-pocket funds or sold part of their farm harvests to pay for treatment, and 19% borrowed money.
Conclusion
Both passive and active surveillance methods proved feasible methods for anti-malarial ADR surveillance, with active surveillance being an important complement to facility-based surveillance, given the widespread practice of self-medication. Household costs associated with ADR treatment were high and potentially catastrophic. Efforts should be made to both improve pharmacovigilance across Africa and to identify strategies to reduce the economic burden endured by households suffering from ADR.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-236
PMCID: PMC3710484  PMID: 23844934
Anti-malarial; Adverse drug reactions; Household costs; ACT; Sulphonamide; Tanzania
17.  The occurrence of adverse drug reactions reported for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in the pediatric population: a qualitative review of empirical studies 
Background
To review empirical studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported to be associated with the use of medications generally licensed for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the pediatric population.
Methods
PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO® databases were searched from origin until June 2011. Studies reporting ADRs from amphetamine derivates, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and modafinil in children from birth to age 17 were included. Information about ADR reporting rates, age and gender of the child, type, and seriousness of ADRs, setting, study design, ADR assessors, authors, and funding sources were extracted.
Results
The review identified 43 studies reporting ADRs associated with medicines for treatment of ADHD in clinical studies covering approximately 7000 children, the majority of 6- to 12-year-old boys, and particularly in the United States of America (USA). The most frequently reported ADRs were decrease in appetite, gastrointestinal pain, and headache. There were wide variations in reported ADR occurrence between studies of similar design, setting, included population, and type of medication. Reported ADRs were primarily assessed by the children/their parents, and very few ADRs were rated as being serious. A large number of children dropped out of studies due to serious ADRs, and therefore, the actual number of serious ADRs from use of psychostimulants is probably higher. A large number of studies were conducted by the same groups of authors and sponsored by the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing the respective medications.
Conclusion
Reported ADRs from use of psychostimulants in children were found in clinical trials of short duration. Since ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies. The pharmaceutical companies should make all information about ADRs reported for these medications accessible to the public, and further studies are needed on the impact of the link between researchers and the manufacturers of the respective products.
doi:10.2147/NDT.S26403
PMCID: PMC3256000  PMID: 22247615
adverse drug reactions; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; children; pharmaco-vigilance
18.  An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among prescribers at a tertiary care hospital 
Objectives:
Spontaneous reporting is an important tool in pharmacovigilance. However, its success depends on cooperative and motivated prescribers. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by prescribers is a common problem. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) regarding ADR reporting among prescribers at the Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, to get an insight into the causes of under-reporting of ADRs.
Materials and Methods:
A pretested KAP questionnaire comprising of 15 questions (knowledge 6, attitude 5, and practice 4) was administered to 436 prescribers. The questionnaires were assessed for their completeness (maximum score 20) and the type of responses regarding ADR reporting. Microsoft Excel worksheet (Microsoft Office 2007) and Chi-Square test were used for statistical analysis.
Results:
A total of 260 (61%) prescribers completed the questionnaire (mean score of completion 18.04). The response rate of resident doctors (70.7%) was better than consultants (34.5%) (P < 0.001). ADR reporting was considered important by 97.3% of the respondents; primarily for improving patient safety (28.8%) and identifying new ADRs (24.6%). A majority of the respondents opined that they would like to report serious ADRs (56%). However, only 15% of the prescribers had reported ADRs previously. The reasons cited for this were lack of information on where (70%) and how (68%) to report and the lack of access to reporting forms (49.2%). Preferred methods for reporting were e-mail (56%) and personal communication (42%).
Conclusion:
The prescribers are aware of the ADRs and the importance of their reporting. However, under reporting and lack of knowledge about the reporting system are clearly evident. Creating awareness about ADR reporting and devising means to make it easy and convenient may aid in improving spontaneous reporting.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.86883
PMCID: PMC3227330  PMID: 22145123
Adverse drug reaction; knowledge; attitude; and practices study; pharmacovigilance; spontaneous reporting
19.  Vancomycin-Associated Spontaneous Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions 
Purpose
With the increase in vancomycin use, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with vancomycin have been reported increasingly more often. However, the characteristics of cutaneous ADRs with and without systemic reactions (SRs) have not been described. This study investigated the characteristics of spontaneously reported and assessed ADRs associated with vancomycin by a pharmacovigilance center.
Methods
ADRs (n=121) associated with vancomycin in 96 patients were collected from 2008 to 2009. Records from physician- and nurse-reported suspected cases of vancomycin ADRs, ADR type, latent period, and laboratory results were compared between cutaneous ADRs with and without SRs.
Results
The main vancomycin-related ADRs were skin rashes (47.9%), hematologic abnormalities (17.36%), fever (12.4%), and elevated serum creatinine (12.4%). Significant differences were observed in latent period (days) and the mean change in eosinophils (%) between cutaneous (9.21±9.71 and 1.4±3.4, respectively) and other ADRs (14.03±11.71 and -0.5±3.5, respectively). Twelve cases of cutaneous ADRs with SRs had been initially reported as cutaneous ADRs only. Mean changes in the eosinophil count were significantly higher for cutaneous ADRs with SRs compared to those without SRs.
Conclusions
Skin rashes accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia, representing suspected immune-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions, are a common vancomycin ADR. For the early and exact detection of ADRs associated with vancomycin administration, close monitoring of laboratory tests, including complete blood counts with differential analysis, is recommended.
doi:10.4168/aair.2011.3.3.194
PMCID: PMC3121061  PMID: 21738885
Vancomycin; adverse drug reaction; eosinophilia
20.  Adverse Drug Reactions: A Retrospective Review of Hospitalized Patients at a State Psychiatric Hospital 
Hospital Pharmacy  2013;48(11):931-935.
Background: There is a paucity of information regarding adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in psychiatric patients. Information on common and preventable ADRs (pADRs) in psychiatric patients will allow for targeted improvement projects.
Objective: To characterize reported ADRs and pharmacist interventions to prevent ADRs in an extended-care state psychiatric hospital.
Methods: Four years of ADR reports were assessed for probability, reaction severity, pharmacological class of medication involved, preventability, change in therapy, and transfers to a medical facility. The pharmacist intervention database was queried for interventions classified as “prevention of ADR.” The interventions were assessed for type of medication and recommendation acceptance.
Results: Medication classes responsible for ADRs included mood stabilizers (30%), typical antipsychotics (25%), atypical antipsychotics (25%), and antidepressants (8%). Nine percent resulted in transfer to a medical facility. Of all ADRs, 34.4% were pADRs; mood stabilizers (41%) and atypical antipsychotics (27%) were the most common pADRs. The most common causes of pADRs were supratherapeutic serum concentrations, drug-drug interactions, and history of reaction. There were 87 pharmacist interventions that were classified as “prevention of ADR,” and the acceptance rate of pharmacists’ recommendations was 96.5%. Mood stabilizers (20%), atypical antipsychotics (17%), and typical antipsychotics (11%) were commonly associated with prevented ADRs. Lithium accounted for 13.8% of prevented ADRs; these ADRs were most often due to a drug–drug interaction with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
Conclusions: ADRs were most commonly associated with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics, and pADRs were common. There is an opportunity to provide education to medical staff on therapeutic drug monitoring and drug–drug interactions for these classes, particularly lithium.
doi:10.1310/hpj4811-931
PMCID: PMC3875105  PMID: 24474834
adverse drug reactions; drug interactions; drug safety; preventable adverse drug reactions; psychiatry; psychotropic drugs
21.  Perceptions of doctors to adverse drug reaction reporting in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria 
Background
Spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance. ADR reporting with Yellow Cards has tremendously improved pharmacovigilance of drugs in many developed countries and its use is advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitude of doctors in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria on spontaneous ADR reporting and to suggest possible ways of improving this method of reporting.
Methods
A total of 120 doctors working at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), in Nigeria were evaluated with a questionnaire for their knowledge and attitudes to ADR reporting. The questionnaire sought the demographics of the doctors, their knowledge and attitudes to ADR reporting, the factors that they perceived may influence ADR reporting, and their levels of education and training on ADR reporting. Provision was also made for suggestions on the possible ways to improve ADR reporting.
Results
The response rate was 82.5%. A majority of the respondents (89, 89.9%) considered doctors as the most qualified health professionals to report ADRs. Forty (40.4%) of the respondents knew about the existence of National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC) in Nigeria. Thirty-two (32.3%) respondents were aware of the Yellow Card reporting scheme but only two had ever reported ADRs to the NPC. About half (48.5%) of the respondents felt that all serious ADRs could be identified after drug marketing. There was a significant difference between the proportion of respondents who felt that ADR reporting should be either compulsory or voluntary (χ2 = 38.9, P < 0.001). ADR reporting was encouraged if the reaction was serious (77, 77.8%) and unusual (70, 70.7%). Education and training was the most recognised means of improving ADR reporting.
Conclusion
The knowledge of ADRs and how to report them are inadequate among doctors working in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. More awareness should be created on the Yellow Card reporting scheme. Continuous medical education, training and integration of ADR reporting into the clinical activities of the doctors would likely improve reporting.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-9-14
PMCID: PMC2731723  PMID: 19671176
22.  Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of doctors to adverse drug reaction reporting in a teaching hospital in India: An observational study 
Background:
Underreporting of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a threat to pharmacovigilance. Various factors related with the knowledge and attitudes are responsible for underreporting of ADRs.
Aims:
The study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitudes of doctors to ADR reporting.
Materials and Methods:
It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eight questionnaires were administered to doctors working in a teaching hospital with an ADR monitoring center.
Statistical Analysis Used:
The descriptive statistics were used for responses to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to observe the association of knowledge and attitude with experience and position.
Results:
The response rate was 62.9%. Spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 19.1%. The major factors found to be responsible for underreporting of ADR include inadequate risk perception about newly marketed drugs (77.9%), fear factor (73.5%), diffidence (67.7%), lack of clarity of information on ADR form about reporting (52.9%), lethargy (42.7%), insufficient training to identify ADRs (41.2%), lack of awareness about existence of pharmacovigilance program (30.9%) and ADR monitoring center in the institute (19.1%), and inadequate risk perception of over-the-counter (OTC) product (20.6%) and herbal medicines (13.2%). Experience and position did not influence the knowledge and attitudes of doctors.
Conclusion:
The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes require urgent attention not only to improve the rate of spontaneous reporting, but also for enhanced safety of the patients and society at large.
doi:10.4103/0976-9668.107289
PMCID: PMC3633276  PMID: 23633861
Attitude; doctors; knowledge; pharmacovigilance; spontaneous reporting
23.  A cross sectional pilot study on assessing the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists to adverse drug reaction related aspects in the Sultanate of Oman 
Background and objectives
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting requires a multidisciplinary approach and pharmacists have a major role to play in it. The present pilot study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists to ADR related aspects in the Sultanate of Oman.
Methods
A self-administered questionnaire comprising of 21 questions were distributed to a random sample of pharmacists in two Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman. It assessed the knowledge of pharmacists on some of the selected basic aspects of drug safety. Further, the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists toward ADR reporting and their behavior on ADR related aspects were assessed. A scoring scheme was used to estimate the median total score of participants for various parameters. Obtained scores were correlated with the demographics of the respondents.
Results
A total of 107 community pharmacists participated in the survey giving a response rate of 72.3%. The responses of the pharmacists to the questions on the drug safety of individual drugs were incorrect for some important and practical questions. Consequently, total median score corresponding to these questions was 5 (Inter Quartile Range, IQR 2) out of a possible maximum score of 9, which was below the acceptable score. Total median score based on knowledge, attitude and behavior was 38 (IQR 8) out of a possible maximum of 50 which shows a moderate score. Lack of awareness on how to report an ADR and concern that the report may be wrong were the most common factors discouraging pharmacists from reporting ADRs. Qualification as well as years of experience were the only demographic parameters which had an influence on the score obtained by the pharmacists.
Conclusions
Even though the pharmacists had an acceptable knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADR reporting and related aspects, a good number of them had below than acceptable knowledge on drug safety related aspects of specific drugs. Educational programs have to be continued to generate awareness on how to report ADR and stimulate pharmacists’ more active participation in the pharmacovigilance program. There is a genuine need to have training programs to improve the knowledge of pharmacists on ADR related aspects which are of benefit on a daily basis which could greatly have an impact on patient safety.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2013.07.006
PMCID: PMC3950505  PMID: 24648829
Knowledge; Attitude; Behavior; Community pharmacists; Adverse drug reactions; Oman
24.  Pharmacovigilance in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba 
Purpose
Our aim was to describe the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) detected following increased education about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba.
Methods
Over a period of 24 months (January 2009 to December 2010), all reports of suspected ADRs in children to the Provincial Pharmacovigilance Centre in Camagüey Province were analysed. ADRs were classified in relation to causality and severity.
Results
There were 533 reports involving suspected ADRs in children in the period. Almost one third of the reports received were classified as moderate (155, 29%) or severe (10, 2%). There was one fatality in association with the use of ceftriaxone. Vaccines and antibiotics were responsible for most of the ADR reports (392, 74%) and for all ten severe ADRs. After an intensive educational package, both within the community and the Children’s Hospital, the number of reports increased from 124 in 2008 to 161 in 2009 and 372 in 2010. This was equivalent to a reporting rate of 879 and 2,031 reports per million children per year for 2009 and 2010, respectively.
Conclusions
The incidence of ADRs in children Camagüey Province, Cuba, is greater than previously reported. An educational intervention about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children can improve the reporting of ADRs.
doi:10.1007/s00228-012-1222-9
PMCID: PMC3374098  PMID: 22315149
Adverse drug reaction; Drug toxicity; Children; Cuba; Pharmacovigilance
25.  Adverse drug reactions reported by consumers for nervous system medications in Europe 2007 to 2011 
Background
Reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. In the European Union, more countries have allowed consumers to report ADRs directly to the regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to characterize ADRs reported by European consumer for nervous system medications.
Methods
ADRs reported by consumers for nervous system medications (ATC group N) from 2007 to 2011 and located in the European ADR database, EudraVigilance, were analysed. Data were categorized with respect to age and sex, category and seriousness of reported ADRs and medications. The unit of analysis was one ADR.
Results
We located 4766 ADRs reported for nervous system medications, and one half of these were serious including 19 deaths. Less than 5% of ADRs were reported in children. Totally, 58% of ADRs were reported for women, 42% for men. The majority of reported ADRs were of the types “nervous system disorders” (18% of total ADRs) followed by “psychiatric disorders” (18% of total ADRs) and “general disorders” (15% of total ADRs) which also were the system organ classes in which the majority of serious ADRs were found. ADR reports encompassed medicines from the therapeutic groups: antiepileptics (ATC group N03) (36% of total ADRs), parasympathomimetics (ATC group N07) (22% of total ADRs) and antidepressants ATC group N06A (9% of total ADRs). Antiepileptics were the therapeutic group with the highest share of serious ADRs (60%) followed by antidepressants (15%). Many serious ADRs were reported for pregabalin and varenicline.
Conclusions
The majority of ADRs from nervous system mediations reported by consumers that were identified from the EudraVigilance database were serious. The value of consumer reports in pharmacovigilance still remains unclarified.
doi:10.1186/2050-6511-14-30
PMCID: PMC3685574  PMID: 23763896
Adverse drug reactions; Nervous system medications; Pharmacovigilance; Consumers; EudraVigilance

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