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1.  High-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the treatment of children and adolescents with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(9):401-406.
Purpose
We performed a pilot study to determine the benefit of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoPBSCT) for patients with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who received HDCT/autoPBSCT at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Patients with relapsed, metastatic, or centrally located tumors were eligible for the study.
Results
A total of 9 patients (3 male, 6 female), with a median age at HDCT/autoPBSCT of 13.4 years (range, 7.1 to 28.2 years), were included in this study. Patients underwent conventional chemotherapy and local control either by surgery or radiation therapy, and had achieved complete response (CR, n=7), partial response (n=1), or stable disease (n=1) prior to HDCT/autoPBSCT. There was no transplant-related mortality. However, the median duration of overall survival and event-free survival after HDCT/autoPBSCT were 13.3 months (range, 5.3 to 44.5 months) and 6.2 months (range, 2.1 to 44.5 months), respectively. At present, 4 patients are alive and 5 patients who experienced adverse events (2 metastasis, 2 local recur, and 1 progressive disease) survived for a median time of 2.8 months (range, 0.1 to 10.7 months). The 2-year survival after HDCT/autoPBSCT was 44.4%±16.6% and disease status at the time of HDCT/autoPBSCT tended to influence survival (57.1%±18.7% of cases with CR vs. 0% of cases with non-CR, P=0.07).
Conclusion
Disease status at HDCT/autoPBSCT tended to influence survival. Further studies are necessary to define the role of HDCT/autoPBSCT and to identify subgroup of patients who might benefit from this investigational treatment.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.9.401
PMCID: PMC3819677  PMID: 24223602
Ewing sarcoma; High-dose chemotherapy; Stem cell transplantation
2.  Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia 
Treatment outcome in elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is still very disappointing. Although complete remission rate is around 50–60% the 2 years survival is only in the magnitude of 10–20%. This is mainly due to an overrepresentation of adverse prognostic factors present in elderly AML. As relapses emerge from residual disease present after chemotherapy, intensification of treatment could emerge as a rational strategy. Intensification of chemotherapy by increasing the dose of anthracyclines or addition of gemtuzumab ozogamycin (Mylotarg) to standard chemotherapy indeed has proved to be of advantage in elderly AML. In younger AML autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (AuPBSCT) as post remission treatment in comparison to intensive consolidation chemotherapy has been investigated in a few randomized studies. AuPBSCT showed reduced relapse rates with low non-relapse mortality rates. In elderly AML intensification by AuPBSCT also have been performed although randomized studies are lacking. Nevertheless, in the previous years various reports have suggested the potential utility of AuHSCT in AML of the elderly with encouraging results, albeit mostly in highly selected patients. Acceptable toxicity and a relatively low rate of transplant-related mortality has been notified. However relapses occurred which, irrespective of age, still remains the major cause of treatment failure of AuHSCT in AML. In this review we summarize the experience of AuPBSCT in elderly AML.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2013.018
PMCID: PMC3591258  PMID: 23505606
3.  Long-term persistence of nonpathogenic clonal chromosome abnormalities in donor hematopoietic cells following allogenic stem cell transplantation 
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics  2009;190(2):125-130.
We describe two unrelated patients who exhibited multiple chromosomal abnormalities in donor cells after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The patients were diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and both underwent non-myeloablative conditioning with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by PBSCT from their HLA-matched opposite-sex siblings. Post-transplant bone marrow cytogenetics showed full engraftment, and the early post-transplant studies demonstrated only normal donor metaphases. Subsequent studies of both patients, however, revealed a population of metaphase cells with abnormal, but apparently balanced, karyotypes. Chromosome studies performed on peripheral blood cells collected from both donors after transplantation were normal. Both patients remained in clinical remission during follow-up of up almost 6 years, despite the persistence of the abnormal clones. Chromosomal abnormalities in residual recipient cells after bone marrow or PBSCT are not unusual. In contrast, only rare reports of chromosome abnormalities in donor cells exist, all of which have been associated with post-bone marrow transplant myelodysplastic syndrome or acute leukemias. Ours is the first report of persistent clonal non-pathogenic chromosome aberrations in cells of donor origin.
doi:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2009.01.001
PMCID: PMC2764294  PMID: 19380032
4.  Comparison of marrow vs blood-derived stem cells for autografting in previously untreated multiple myeloma. 
British Journal of Cancer  1997;75(11):1684-1689.
Sixty-three new untreated patients with multiple myeloma under the age of 70 years received C-VAMP induction treatment followed by high-dose intravenous melphalan (200 mg m(-2)) and autologous stem cell transplant, either with marrow [autologous bone marrow transplants (ABMT), n = 26] or with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized stem cells from the blood [peripheral blood stem cell transplants (PBSCT), n = 37]. This was a sequential study and the two groups were not significantly different for all known prognostic variables. The complete remission (CR) rate after high-dose treatment was the same for both groups [ABMT 84% and PBSCT 70%; P = not significant (NS)]. Neutrophil recovery to 0.5 x 10(9) l(-1) occurred at a median of 22 days in the ABMT patients compared with 19 days for the PBSCT patients (P = NS). Platelet recovery to 50 x 10(9) l(-1) was significantly faster in PBSCT patients (19 days vs 33 days; P = 0.0015), and the PBSCT patients spent fewer days in hospital (median 20 vs 27 days; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in the two groups with respect to starting interferon (58 days for ABMT vs 55 days for PBSCT), and tolerance to interferon was identical. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for the PBSCT patients has not yet been reached. The OS in the ABMT patients at 3 years was 76.9% (95% CI 60-93%) compared with 85.3% (95% CI 72-99%) in the PBSCT patients (P = NS), and the PFS at 3 years in the ABMT patients was 53.8% (95% CI 34-73%) and in the PBSCT patients was 57.6% (95% CI 34-81%) (P = NS). The probability of relapse at 3 years was 42.3% in the ABMT arm compared with 40% in the PBSCT patients (P = NS). Thus, PBSCT patients had a faster engraftment and a shorter stay in hospital than ABMT; the survival outcome and probability of relapse was the same for both groups.
PMCID: PMC2223521  PMID: 9184187
5.  Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with Refractory or Relapsed Lymphoma: Results of Children’s Oncology Group Study A5962 
Purpose
This prospective study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of cyclophosphamide, BCNU and etoposide (CBV) conditioning and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in children with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and NHL).
Patients and Methods
Patients achieving CR or PR after 2–4 courses of reinduction underwent a G-CSF mobilized PBSC apheresis with a target collection dose of 5×106 CD34+/kg. Those eligible to proceed received autologous PBSCT after CBV (7200 mg/m2, 450–300 mg/m2, 2400 mg/m2).
Results
Forty-three of 69 patients (30/39 HL, 13/30 NHL) achieved a CR/PR after reinduction. Thirty-eight patients (28 HL, 10 NHL) underwent PBSCT. All initial 6 patients who received BCNU at 450 mg/m2 experienced grade III or IV pulmonary toxicity compared to none of the subsequent 32 receiving 300 mg/m2 (p<0.0001). The probability of OS at 3 years for all patients is 51% and for transplanted patients is 64%. The 3-year EFS is 38% (45% for HL; 30% NHL). The 3-year EFS in transplanted patients is 66% (65% HL; 70% NHL). Initial duration of remission of ≥ 12 vs < 12 months was associated with a significant increase in OS (3 ys OS 70% vs 34%) (p=0.003).
Conclusion
BCNU at 300 mg/m2 in a CBV regimen prior to PBSCT is well tolerated in relapsed or refractory pediatric lymphoma patients. A short duration (< 12 months) of initial remission is associated with a poorer prognosis. Lastly, a high percentage of patients achieving a CR/PR after reinduction therapy can be salvaged with CBV and autologlous PBSCT.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.07.002
PMCID: PMC3072756  PMID: 20637881
autologous transplant; PBSCT; CBV; lymphoma; NHL; HL
6.  Efficacy of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation versus conventional chemotherapy on anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a retrospective study of 64 patients from a single center 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(11):532-540.
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is characterized by frequently presenting adverse factors at diagnosis. Many groups believed aggressive treatment strategies such as autologous stem cell transplantation brought survival benefit for ALCL patients. However, few compared these approaches with conventional chemotherapy to validate their superiority. Here, we report a study comparing the efficacy of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) and conventional chemotherapy on ALCL. A total of 64 patients with primary systemic ALCL were studied retrospectively. The median follow-up period was 51 months (range, 1–167 months). For 48 patients undergoing conventional chemotherapy only, the 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 70.7% and 88.3%, respectively. Altogether, 16 patients underwent PBSCT, including 11 at first remission (CR1/PR1), 3 at second remission, and 2 with disease progression during first-line chemotherapy. The 4-year EFS and OS rates for patients underwent PBSCT at first remission were 81.8% and 90.9%, respectively. Compared with conventional chemotherapy, PBSCT did not show superiority either in EFS (P = 0.240) or in OS (P = 0.580) when applied at first remission. Univariate analysis showed that patients with B symptoms (P = 0.001), stage III/IV disease (P = 0.008), bulky disease (P = 0.075), negative anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression (P = 0.059), and age ≤ 60 years (P = 0.054) had lower EFS. Furthermore, PBSCT significantly improved EFS in patients with B symptoms (100% vs. 50.8%, P = 0.027) or bulky disease (100% vs. 52.8%, P = 0.045) when applied as an up-front strategy. Based on these results, we conclude that, for patients with specific adverse factors such as B symptoms and bulky disease, PBSCT was superior to conventional chemotherapy in terms of EFS.
doi:10.5732/cjc.011.10418
PMCID: PMC3777515  PMID: 22854061
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma; peripheral blood stem cell transplantation; chemotherapy; anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)
7.  Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Young Children with Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Central Nervous System 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(2):135-140.
The feasibility and effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) were evaluated in children younger than 3 yr of age with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Tandem HDCT/autoSCT was administered following six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered if the tumor relapsed or progressed, otherwise, it was administered after 3 yr of age. Tumors relapsed or progressed during induction chemotherapy in 5 of 9 patients enrolled; 3 of these 5 received tandem HDCT/autoSCT as a salvage treatment. One patient died from sepsis during induction chemotherapy. The remaining 3 patients proceeded to tandem HDCT/autoSCT; however, 2 of these patients showed tumor relapse/progression after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. All 7 relapses/progressions occurred at primary sites even in patients with leptomeningeal seeding. Toxicities during tandem HDCT/autoSCT were manageable. A total of 5 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 20 (range 16-70) months from diagnosis. Four of 5 patients who received RT after relapse/progression are alive. The probability of overall survival at 3 yr from diagnosis was 53.3% ± 17.3%. Our tandem HDCT/autoSCT is feasible; however, early administration of RT prior to tandem HDCT/autoSCT should be considered to improve the outcome after tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.2.135
PMCID: PMC3271285  PMID: 22323859
Rhabdoid Tumor; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Stem Cell Transplantation; Radiotherapy; Child
8.  Gynecologic complication of chronic graft-versus-host disease: Vaginal obstruction 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2013;56(4):277-280.
Allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Allo-PBSCT) is being used to treat hematological malignancies with increasing frequency. Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a complex complication of PBSCT. A 43-year-old woman came to the gynecology clinic for amenorrhea. She had been diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia 2 years earlier and treated with induction and consolidation chemotherapy. After developing complete remission, she underwent Allo-PBSCT. When she started chemotherapy, her menstrual cycle completely disappeared. Fourteen months after menopausal hormone replacement therapy, it was discovered that her upper vaginal canal was completely obstructed. The lower vagina had an atrophic appearance. We report a rare case of partial vaginal obstruction as a complication of chronic GvHD and review the literature. We expect that this case report provides an opportunity to remind clinician of the gynecologic complications of GvHD.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2013.56.4.277
PMCID: PMC3784143  PMID: 24328016
Graft vs host disease; Hematocolpos; Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation; Vagina
9.  Efficacy of High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Medulloblastoma: A Report on The Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1160-1166.
The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1160
PMCID: PMC2908784  PMID: 20676326
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
10.  High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation for advanced testicular cancer 
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy  2011;11(7):1091-1103.
High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support has been studied in both the salvage and first-line setting in advanced germ cell tumor (GCT) patients with poor-risk features. While early studies reported significant treatment-related mortality, introduction of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, recombinant growth factors and better supportive care have decreased toxicity; and in more recent reports treatment-related deaths are observed in <3% of patients. Two to three cycles of high-dose carboplatin and etoposide is the standard backbone for HDCT, given with or without additional agents including ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Three large randomized Phase III trials have failed to show a benefit of HDCT over conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) in the first-line treatment of patients with intermediate- or poor-risk advanced GCT, and to date the routine use of HDCT has been reserved for the salvage setting. Several prognostic models have been developed to help predict outcome of salvage HDCT, the most recent of which applies to both CDCT and HDCT in the initial salvage setting. Patients that relapse after HDCT are usually considered incurable, and additional therapy is provided with palliative intent.
doi:10.1586/era.10.231
PMCID: PMC3253700  PMID: 21806332
chemotherapy; germ cell tumors; high-dose chemotherapy; stem cell transplantation; testicular cancer
11.  Double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma: a pilot study in a single center. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(4):537-543.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
PMCID: PMC3054907  PMID: 12172052
12.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;15(3):352-359.
Background
We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of reduced-dose craniospinal (CS) radiotherapy (RT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) in reducing late adverse effects without jeopardizing survival among children with high-risk medulloblastoma (MB).
Methods
From October 2005 through September 2010, twenty consecutive children aged >3 years with high-risk MB (presence of metastasis and/or postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2) were assigned to receive 2 cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy, CSRT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) combined with local RT to the primary site (total 54.0 Gy), and 4 cycles of post-RT chemotherapy followed by tandem HDCT/autoSCT. Carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide and cyclophosphamide-melphalan regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively.
Results
Of 20 patients with high-risk MB, 17 had metastatic disease and 3 had a postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2 without metastasis. The tumor relapsed/progressed in 4 patients, and 2 patients died of toxicities during the second HDCT/autoSCT. Therefore, 14 patients remained event-free at a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 23−82) from diagnosis. The probability of 5-year event-free survival was 70.0% ± 10.3% for all patients and 70.6% ± 11.1% for patients with metastases. Late adverse effects evaluated at a median of 36 months (range, 12−68) after tandem HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable.
Conclusions
In children with high-risk MB, CSRT dose might be reduced when accompanied by tandem HDCT/autoSCT without jeopardizing survival. However, longer follow-up is needed to evaluate whether the benefits of reduced-dose CSRT outweigh the long-term risks of tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos304
PMCID: PMC3578484  PMID: 23258845
autologous stem cell transplantation; high-dose chemotherapy; late effect; medulloblastoma; radiotherapy
13.  Granulocytic Sarcoma by AML M4eo (inv16) after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation without Bone Marrow Involvement 
Case Reports in Hematology  2011;2011:692982.
Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) represents a rare type of extramedullar manifestation from the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We report the case of a patient with recurrences of AML M4eo leukaemia in the uterus and the small intestine at 3 and 5 years, respectively, after matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The patient underwent the withdrawal of immunosuppression, hysterectomy, and local irradiation at first relapse, as well as systemic chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusions at second recurrence, inducing a second and third complete remission, respectively. At year six after transplantation, the patient experienced disease progression by meningeosis leukaemia to which she succumbed despite intrathecal chemotherapy. Following allogeneic stem cell transplantation, awareness for atypical manifestations of granulocytic sarcoma appears prudent, the cellular immunotherapy should aim at immunological disease control.
doi:10.1155/2011/692982
PMCID: PMC3420739  PMID: 22937311
14.  Extramedullary Relapse of the AML Transformed from MDS Following Auto-HSCT: A Case Report 
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics  2014;70(1):409-414.
The treatment for AML (Acute myeloid/myelogenous leukemia) transformed from MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) is difficult and controversial clinically, especially in elder patients. In this case report, we diagnosed a 59-year-old female patient with AML-M2a transformed form MDS which might be caused by her chemotherapy for mastocarcinoma. After achieving complete remission (CR) through combined chemotherapy, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) was attempted. Following auto-HSCT, marrow showed continuous CR but the patient later developed extramedullary bone-infiltration relapse. Then local radiotherapy has been applied, and the patient now has prolonged survival. This is the first (or a successful) case report of auto-HSCT in an elderly patient with AML transformed from MDS.
doi:10.1007/s12013-014-9926-3
PMCID: PMC4133025  PMID: 24696077
Acute myeloid leukemia; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Extra-medullary relapse; Stem cell transplant; Auto-HSCT; AML
15.  Red blood cell transfusion-dependence and outcome after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) 
The prognosis of patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), who are red blood cell transfusion-dependent (TD) and receive supportive care is inferior to that of patients not requiring transfusions. It is unknown, whether TD also affects outcome after allogeneic transplantation. We therefore analyzed in 172 de novo MDS patients, median age 51 years, the impact of TD on outcome after high-dose conditioning and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). With a median follow-up of 37 months the probability of 3-year overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between patients who were or were not TD before PBSCT (p=0.1). However, transfusion burden, as reflected by ferritin levels, correlated with a higher probability of severe acute graft versus host disease (p=0.03) and a higher comorbidity index (p=0.01), and OS was inferior among patients with ferritin levels >1000µg/l before PBSCT (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis only marrow myeloblast count (p=0.01) and comorbidity index (p=0.001) had a significant impact on OS. Thus, these data did not identify TD as an independent negative prognostic factor for outcome after allogeneic PBSCT. However, iron overload, presumably transfusion-related, may contribute to inferior transplant success by adding to the overall comorbidities. Whether clinical intervention in the form of iron chelation would improve results of allogeneic PBSCT in TD patients with MDS remains to be determined.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.08.006
PMCID: PMC2759308  PMID: 18940675
MDS; transplantation; transfusion; WPSS
16.  Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem-Cell Compared With Bone Marrow Transplantation in the Management of Hematologic Malignancies: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Nine Randomized Trials 
Purpose
Considerable uncertainty exists regarding relative effects of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSCT) versus bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies.
Patients and Methods
To provide the totality of research evidence related to the effects of PBSCT versus BMT, we conducted an individual-patient data meta-analysis using data from nine randomized trials enrolling 1,111 adult patients.
Results
Compared with BMT, PBSCT led to faster neutrophil (odds ratio [OR] = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.38; P < .00001) and platelet engraftment (OR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.61; P < .00001). PBSCT was associated with a significant increase in the development of grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.88) and extensive (47% v 31% at 3 years; OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.47 to 2.42; P < .000001) and overall chronic GVHD (68% v 52% at 3 years; OR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.47 to 2.49; P < .000001), but not grade 2-4 acute GVHD (54% v 53%; P = .49). PBSCT was associated with a decrease in relapse (21% v 27% at 3 years; OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; P = .01) in both late-stage– (33% v 51% at 3 years; OR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.93; P = .02) and early-stage– disease patients (16% v 20% at 3 years; OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P = .04). Nonrelapse mortality was not different between groups. Overall and disease-free survival were only statistically significantly improved in patients with late-stage disease (overall survival: 46% v 31% at 3 years; OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.90; P = .01; disease-free survival: 41% v 27% at 3 years; OR = 0.63 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.87; P = .01).
Conclusion
PBSCT is associated with a decreased relapse rate in hematologic malignancies and improvement in overall and disease-free survival in patients with late-stage disease. PBSCT is also associated with a significant risk of extensive chronic GVHD.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.09.020
PMCID: PMC1475795  PMID: 16051954
17.  Prognostic Value of EMT-Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing High-Dose Chemotherapy with Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 
Journal of Cancer  2012;3:369-380.
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated by conventional dose chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of CTCs and CTCs undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in metastatic breast cancer. We used the platform of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) to study the CTCs and CTCs with EMT.
Patients and methods: CTCs were enumerated in 21 MBC patients before apheresis and 1 month after AHSCT. CD34-depleted apheresis products were analyzed for CD326+ epithelial and Aldefluor+ cancer stem cells (CSC) by flow cytometry and were depleted of CD45+ cells and assessed for EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TF) by quantitative RT-PCR.
Results: Patients with ≥ 5 CTCs/7.5 mL of peripheral blood 1 month after AHSCT had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.02) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.02). Patients with apheresis products containing high percentages of CD326+ epithelial cells or overexpressing EMT-TF had shorter PFS. In multivariate analysis, low percentage of CD326+ epithelial cells and response to HDCT with AHSCT were associated with longer PFS, whereas lower CTCs after AHSCT was associated with longer OS. High CTCs, 1 month after AHSCT correlated with shorter PFS and OS in MBC patients undergoing HDCT and AHSCT, while CTCs with EMT and CSCs phenotype in apheresis products are associated with relapse.
Conclusion: Our data suggest that CTC and CTCs with EMT are prognostic in MBC patients undergoing HDCT followed by AHSCT.
doi:10.7150/jca.5111
PMCID: PMC3471078  PMID: 23074378
metastatic breast cancer; circulating tumor cells; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; high-dose chemotherapy; autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
18.  Isolated Recurrence of Intracranial Granulocytic Sarcoma Mimicking a Falx Meningioma in Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia 
Intracranial granulocytic sarcomas are rare tumors, which are composed of immature granulocytic cells. Although it has been well known that these tumors are associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), they have been almost always related to bone marrow relapse. However, isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma following complete remission from prior AML is extremely rare, especially in the central nervous system. A 44-year-old male presented with isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma mimicking a falx meningioma two years after complete remission by allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transfusion (PBSCT) in the acute myelomonoblastic leukemia (FAB, M4). Because of depressed mental state and mass effect, total surgical resection was performed. Pathological findings were compatible with the granulocytic sarcoma. There was no evidence of leukemic relapse in the peripheral blood. We suggest that this phenomenon can be explained by the hypothesis that a certain barrier effect such as blood brain barrier might lead to the proliferation of intracranial leukemic cells which metastasized before PBSCT.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.385
PMCID: PMC2883061  PMID: 20539800
Chloroma; Granulocytic sarcoma; Leukemia
19.  Epstein–Barr virus-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the central nervous system following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for neuroblastoma 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:582.
Introduction
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication following solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although extranodal involvement of PTLD is common, its isolated involvement in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely rare. To date, primary CNS-PTLD has been reported in 13 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT, but no cases have been reported in autologous HSCT recipients.
Case Description
Herein, we report the first report of a patient with neuroblastoma that progressed to CNS-PTLD after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT). A 27-month-old boy with stage IV neuroblastoma of the left adrenal gland received auto-PBSCT after intensive chemotherapy, tumor resection, and radiation of tumor bed and regional lymph node. An intracranial tumor in his left parietal lobe was detected by magnetic resonance imaging 99 days posttransplantation, and the tumor was completely resected. The histological diagnosis of the intracranial tumor was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with latency type III Epstein-Barr virus infection. The patient has maintained tumor free status 3 years after auto-PBSCT.
Discussion and Evaluation
Given the rarity of CNS-PTLD, there is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Historically, the outcome of CNS-PTLD has been very poor. However, our patient remains free from PTLD after only total resection. The prognosis for PTLD following auto-HSCT may depend upon the underlying malignancy, immune state, EBV immune status, and treatments.
Conclusions
The outcome of PTLD following auto-HSCT is not necessarily poor prognosis. Further research is required to establish the optimal treatment strategy for CNS-PTLD.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-582
PMCID: PMC4194306  PMID: 25332882
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder; Epstein-Barr virus; Central nervous system; Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Neuroblastoma
20.  Nine-Year Survival of Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Patients 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2006;47(4):466-474.
This study aimed to analyze the overall survival period of adult lymphoblastic lymphoma patients treated with various therapeutic regimens, and to assess the determinants affecting survival outcome. Twenty-five adult patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma who had been treated at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea from June 1996 to June 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. As an initial remission induction chemotherapy, the hyper-CVAD regimen was performed in eight patients, the Stanford/Northern California Oncology Group (NCOG) regimen in five, the CAVOP regimen in four, the m-BACOP regimen in three, and the CHOP regimen in one patient. Patients were divided into two groups according to their therapeutic modalities. Twenty patients received conventional chemotherapy alone and five received subsequent PBSCT after conventional chemotherapy. Four patients of the PBSCT group underwent autologous PBSCT and one underwent allogeneic PBSCT. The overall response rate was 80% (60% showing a complete response, 20% showing a partial response) and the relapse rate was 73.3%. The overall survival (OS) rate was 55.1% at 1 year, 31.5% at 5 years, and 23.6% at 9 years. The disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 46.7% at 1 year and 30.0% at 7 years. The 5-year OS rate in relation to the regimens was 60% with the Stanford/NCOG regimen, 50% with the CAVOP regimen, and 33.3% with the m-BACOP regimen. The patients treated with the hyper-CVAD regimen had an 18.2% 2-year OS rate, and other patients with CHOP or COPBLAM-V expired early in their course. The OS rate in patients treated with conventional chemotherapy alone was 19.8%, whereas patients treated with subsequent PBSCT after chemotherapy showed 50% overall survival (p = 0.25). The age at presentation influenced the outcome of the patients (p = 0.01). The Stanford/NCOG regimen is an effective initial choice of therapy for lymphoblastic lymphoma patients, and is superior to the hyper-CVAD regimen in complete response rate and overall survival rate (p = 0.36). Addition of PBSCT after chemotherapy may be needed for achieving optimal outcomes.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.4.466
PMCID: PMC2687725  PMID: 16941734
Lymphoblastic lymphoma; conventional chemotherapy; peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
21.  Long-term Outcome of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Treated with High-Dose Chemotherapy and Transplantation of Purified Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells 
Metastatic breast cancer remains a major treatment challenge. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with rescue by autologous mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) is controversial, in part due to contamination of MPB by circulating tumor cells. CD34+Thy- 1+ selected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) represent a graft source with a greater than 250,000-fold reduction in cancer cells. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a pilot study determining feasibility and engraftment using HDCT and purified HSC in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-two patients who had been treated with standard chemotherapy were enrolled into a phase I/II trial between 12/1996 to 02/1998, and underwent HDCT followed by rescue with CD34+Thy-1+ HSC isolated from autologous MPB. More than 12 years after the end of the study 23% (5/22) of HSC recipients are alive, 18% (4/22) free of recurrence with normal hematopoietic function. Median PFS was 16 months and median OS was 60 months. Retrospective comparison with 74 patients transplanted between 02/1995 and 06/1999 with the identical HDCT regimen but rescue with unmanipulated MPB show that 9% of patients are alive, and 7% without disease. Median PFS was 10 months and median OS was 28 months. In conclusion, cancer-depleted HSC following HDCT resulted in better than expected 12- 14 year PFS and OS in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These data prompt us to look once again at purified HSC transplantation in a protocol powered to test for efficacy in advanced stage breast cancer patients.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.009
PMCID: PMC4113088  PMID: 21767515
22.  High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Patients with High-risk Stage 3 Neuroblastoma: 10-Year Experience at a Single Center 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(4):660-667.
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was applied to improve the prognosis of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma. From January 1997 to December 2006, 28 patients were newly diagnosed as stage 3 neuroblastoma. Nine of 11 patients with N-myc amplification and 5 of 17 patients without N-myc amplification (poor response in 2 patients, persistent residual tumor in 2 and relapse in 1) underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Patients without high-risk features received conventional treatment modalities only. While 8 of 9 patients underwent single HDCT/ASCR and the remaining one patient underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the early study period, all 5 patients underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the late period. Toxicities associated with HDCT/ASCR were tolerable and there was no treatment-related mortality. While the tumor relapsed in two of eight patients in single HDCT/ASCR group, all six patients in tandem HDCT/ASCR group remained relapse free. The 5-yr event-free survival (EFS) from diagnosis, in patients with N-myc amplification, was 71.6±14.0%. In addition, 12 of 14 patients who underwent HDCT/ASCR remained event free resulting in an 85.1±9.7% 5-yr EFS after the first HDCT/ASCR. The present study demonstrates that HDCT/ASCR may improve the survival of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.4.660
PMCID: PMC2719186  PMID: 19654949
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Rescue; Prognosis; N-myc
23.  Consolidative high-dose chemotherapy after conventional-dose chemotherapy as first salvage treatment for male patients with metastatic germ cell tumours 
Introduction:
Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
Methods:
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
Results:
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
Conclusions:
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.11233
PMCID: PMC3328550  PMID: 22511417
24.  Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as the first-line treatment option in a patient with severe aplastic anemia without a matched related donor: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(4):1831-1833.
The outcomes of matched unrelated donor (MUD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) remain controversial. The clinical outcome in patients that undergo transplantation following failed IST is typically poorer when compared with patients that initially underwent transplantation. Clinical treatment algorithms have been proposed to determine the management of such patients, and account for individual conditions, personal preferences and prognostic risk factors. The present study reports the promising outcome of a 22-year-old patient exhibiting SAA. The patient underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from an MUD using a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen and low-dose total body irradiation as an alternative method to first-line IST. The patient achieved rapid bone marrow reconstitution and has been in complete remission for 32 months. The aim of the fludarabine-based conditioning regimen with PBSCT was to improve the patient’s therapeutic outcome and provide a convenient treatment strategy. Furthermore, this regimen extends the application of HSCT to patients who are older or those that are without a matched related donor.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2341
PMCID: PMC4156163  PMID: 25202420
unrelated donor; peripheral blood transplants; allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; aplastic anemia; bone marrow transplants
25.  Treatment of young children with CNS-primitive neuroectodermal tumors/pineoblastomas in the prospective multicenter trial HIT 2000 using different chemotherapy regimens and radiotherapy 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;15(2):224-234.
Background
Especially in young children, primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNET) and pineoblastomas are associated with an unfavorable outcome, and only a few prospective trials have been conducted thus far.
Methods
From January 2001 through January 2005, 17 eligible children aged <4 years with CNS-PNET not otherwise specified (n = 8), ependymoblastoma (n = 1), or pineoblastoma (n = 8) confirmed by central review were prospectively treated in the trial HIT 2000. In nonmetastatic disease (n = 11), up to 5 postoperative cycles of HIT-SKK systemic multiagent chemotherapy (8 months duration), followed by craniospinal radiotherapy (CSI), were given. In metastatic disease (M1-M3, n = 6), treatment consisted of a shorter induction chemotherapy (2–3 months) with carboplatin and etoposide, followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) in case of good response to induction. During induction and HDCT, patients received intraventricular methotrexate. CSI was applied to all patients with poor response to induction or residual disease after HDCT and was optional for patients with residual disease before HDCT.
Results
Five-year event-free survival and overall survival rates ± standard error for all eligible patients were 24% ± 10% and 40% ± 12%, respectively (median follow-up of survivors: 8.3 years). Only one patient with nonmetastatic disease remained free of relapse/progressive disease during induction. Three of 6 patients with metastatic disease responded to induction and received tandem-HDCT, followed by preventive CSI, and remain in continuous complete remission.
Conclusions
Short intensive induction chemotherapy followed by tandem-HDCT in young children with CNS-PNET/pineoblastomas seems to be superior to the prolonged and less intensive induction regimen.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos292
PMCID: PMC3548584  PMID: 23223339
brain tumors, chemotherapy; pineoblastoma; primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); radiotherapy; young children

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