PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (322064)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Platinum Assisted Vapor–Liquid–Solid Growth of Er–Si Nanowires and Their Optical Properties 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2009;5(2):286-290.
We report the optical activation of erbium coated silicon nanowires (Er–SiNWs) grown with the assist of platinum (Pt) and gold (Au), respectively. The NWs were grown on Si substrates by using a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl4 and ErCl4 as precursors. Pt as well as Au worked successfully as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) catalysts for growing SiNWs with diameters of ~100 nm and length of several micrometers, respectively. The SiNWs have core–shell structures where the Er-crystalline layer is sandwiched between silica layers. Photoluminescence spectra analyses showed the optical activity of SiNWs from both Pt and Au. A stronger Er3+ luminescence of 1,534 nm was observed from the SiNWs with Pt at room- and low-temperature (25 K) using the 488- and/or 477-nm line of an Ar laser that may be due to the uniform incorporation of more Er ions into NWs with the exclusion of the formation of catalyst-induced deep levels in the band-gap. Pt would be used as a VLS catalyst for high performance optically active Er–SiNWs.
doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9477-5
PMCID: PMC2894122  PMID: 20672113
Si nanowires; Erbium; Luminescence; Platinum catalyst
2.  Platinum Assisted Vapor–Liquid–Solid Growth of Er–Si Nanowires and Their Optical Properties 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2009;5(2):286-290.
We report the optical activation of erbium coated silicon nanowires (Er–SiNWs) grown with the assist of platinum (Pt) and gold (Au), respectively. The NWs were grown on Si substrates by using a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl4 and ErCl4 as precursors. Pt as well as Au worked successfully as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) catalysts for growing SiNWs with diameters of ~100 nm and length of several micrometers, respectively. The SiNWs have core–shell structures where the Er-crystalline layer is sandwiched between silica layers. Photoluminescence spectra analyses showed the optical activity of SiNWs from both Pt and Au. A stronger Er3+ luminescence of 1,534 nm was observed from the SiNWs with Pt at room- and low-temperature (25 K) using the 488- and/or 477-nm line of an Ar laser that may be due to the uniform incorporation of more Er ions into NWs with the exclusion of the formation of catalyst-induced deep levels in the band-gap. Pt would be used as a VLS catalyst for high performance optically active Er–SiNWs.
doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9477-5
PMCID: PMC2894122  PMID: 20672113
Si nanowires; Erbium; Luminescence; Platinum catalyst
3.  Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy characterization of silicon nanowire 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):110.
The electrical conduction properties of lateral and vertical silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). Horizontal SiNWs, which were synthesized by the in-plane solid-liquid-solid technique, are randomly deployed into an undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer. Local current mapping shows that the wires have internal microstructures. The local current-voltage measurements on these horizontal wires reveal a power law behavior indicating several transport regimes based on space-charge limited conduction which can be assisted by traps in the high-bias regime (> 1 V). Vertical phosphorus-doped SiNWs were grown by chemical vapor deposition using a gold catalyst-driving vapor-liquid-solid process on higly n-type silicon substrates. The effect of phosphorus doping on the local contact resistance between the AFM tip and the SiNW was put in evidence, and the SiNWs resistivity was estimated.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-110
PMCID: PMC3211155  PMID: 21711623
4.  Controlled Synthesis of Millimeter-Long Silicon Nanowires with Uniform Electronic Properties 
Nano letters  2008;8(9):3004-3009.
We report the nanocluster-catalyzed growth of ultra-long and highly-uniform single-crystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with millimeter-scale lengths and aspect ratios up to ca. 100,000. The average SiNW growth rate using disilane (Si2H6) at 400 °C was 31 µm/min, while the growth rate determined for silane (SiH4) reactant under similar growth conditions was 130 times lower. Transmission electron microscopy studies of millimeter-long SiNWs with diameters of 20–80 nm show that the nanowires grow preferentially along the <110> direction independent of diameter. In addition, ultra-long SiNWs were used as building blocks to fabricate one-dimensional arrays of field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of ca. 100 independent devices per nanowire. Significantly, electrical transport measurements demonstrated that the millimeter-long SiNWs had uniform electrical properties along the entire length of wires, and each device can behave as a reliable FET with an on-state current, threshold voltage, and transconductance values (average ± 1 standard deviation) of 1.8 ± 0.3 µA, 6.0 ± 1.1 V, 210 ± 60 nS, respectively. Electronically-uniform millimeter-long SiNWs were also functionalized with monoclonal antibody receptors, and used to demonstrate multiplexed detection of cancer marker proteins with a single nanowire. The synthesis of structurally- and electronically-uniform ultra-long SiNWs may open up new opportunities for integrated nanoelectronics, and could serve as unique building blocks linking integrated structures from the nanometer through millimeter length scales.
doi:10.1021/nl802063q
PMCID: PMC2664526  PMID: 18710294
5.  A review on electronic and optical properties of silicon nanowire and its different growth techniques 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:151.
Electronic and optical properties of Silicon Nanowire (SiNW) obtained from theoretical studies and experimental approaches have been reviewed. The diameter dependency of bandgap and effective mass of SiNW for various terminations have been presented. Optical absorption of SiNW and nanocone has been compared for different angle of incidences. SiNW shows greater absorption with large range of wavelength and higher range of angle of incidence. Reflectance of SiNW is less than 5% over majority of the spectrum from the UV to near IR region. Thereafter, a brief description of the different growth techniques of SiNW is given. The advantages and disadvantages of the different catalyst materials for SiNW growth are discussed at length. Furthermore, three thermodynamic aspects of SiNW growth via the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism are presented and discussed.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-151
PMCID: PMC3647085  PMID: 23667808
Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs); Bandgap; Optical absorption; Reflectance; Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD); Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
6.  Realization of radial p-n junction silicon nanowire solar cell based on low-temperature and shallow phosphorus doping 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):544.
A radial p-n junction solar cell based on vertically free-standing silicon nanowire (SiNW) array is realized using a novel low-temperature and shallow phosphorus doping technique. The SiNW arrays with excellent light trapping property were fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching technique. The shallow phosphorus doping process was carried out in a hot wire chemical vapor disposition chamber with a low substrate temperature of 250°C and H2-diluted PH3 as the doping gas. Auger electron spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements prove the formation of a shallow p-n junction with P atom surface concentration of above 1020 cm−3 and a junction depth of less than 10 nm. A short circuit current density of 37.13 mA/cm2 is achieved for the radial p-n junction SiNW solar cell, which is enhanced by 7.75% compared with the axial p-n junction SiNW solar cell. The quantum efficiency spectra show that radial transport based on the shallow phosphorus doping of SiNW array improves the carrier collection property and then enhances the blue wavelength region response. The novel shallow doping technique provides great potential in the fabrication of high-efficiency SiNW solar cells.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-544
PMCID: PMC3913617  PMID: 24369781
7.  Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):554.
The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-554
PMCID: PMC3494563  PMID: 23039084
Thermal conductivity; Silicon nanowires; Porous silicon; Thermoreflectance
8.  Silicon nanowires prepared by electron beam evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):243.
One-dimensional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were prepared by electron beam evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The SiNWs can be grown through either vapor–liquid-solid (VLS) or oxide-assisted growth (OAG) mechanism. In VLS growth, SiNWs can be formed on Si surface, not on SiO2 surfaces. Moreover, low deposition rate is helpful for producing lateral SiNWs by VLS. But in OAG process, SiNWs can be grown on SiO2 surfaces, not on Si surfaces. This work reveals the methods of producing large-scale SiNWs in UHV.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-243
PMCID: PMC3403976  PMID: 22559207
Silicon nanowires; Preparation; Vapor–liquid-solid; Oxide-assisted growth; Ultrahigh vacuum
9.  Atomic scale investigation of silicon nanowires and nanoclusters 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):271.
In this study, we have performed nanoscale characterization of Si-clusters and Si-nanowires with a laser-assisted tomographic atom probe. Intrinsic and p-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are elaborated by chemical vapor deposition method using gold as catalyst, silane as silicon precursor, and diborane as dopant reactant. The concentration and distribution of impurity (gold) and dopant (boron) in SiNW are investigated and discussed. Silicon nanoclusters are produced by thermal annealing of silicon-rich silicon oxide and silica multilayers. In this process, atom probe tomography (APT) provides accurate information on the silicon nanoparticles and the chemistry of the nanolayers.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-271
PMCID: PMC3211335  PMID: 21711788
10.  Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species from Silicon Nanowires 
Environmental Health Insights  2014;8(Suppl 1):21-29.
Processing and synthesis of purified nanomaterials of diverse composition, size, and properties is an evolving process. Studies have demonstrated that some nanomaterials have potential toxic effects and have led to toxicity research focusing on nanotoxicology. About two million workers will be employed in the field of nanotechnology over the next 10 years. The unknown effects of nanomaterials create a need for research and development of techniques to identify possible toxicity. Through a cooperative effort between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and IBM to address possible occupational exposures, silicon-based nanowires (SiNWs) were obtained for our study. These SiNWs are anisotropic filamentary crystals of silicon, synthesized by the vapor–liquid–solid method and used in bio-sensors, gas sensors, and field effect transistors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated when organisms are exposed to a material causing cellular responses, such as lipid peroxidation, H2O2 production, and DNA damage. SiNWs were assessed using three different in vitro environments (H2O2, RAW 264.7 cells, and rat alveolar macrophages) for ROS generation and possible toxicity identification. We used electron spin resonance, analysis of lipid peroxidation, measurement of H2O2 production, and the comet assay to assess generation of ROS from SiNW and define possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that SiNWs do not appear to be significant generators of free radicals.
doi:10.4137/EHI.S15261
PMCID: PMC4227628  PMID: 25452695
reactive oxygen species; nanomaterials; nanotoxicology; free radicals; silicon
11.  Nanoelectronics-biology frontier: From nanoscopic probes for action potential recording in live cells to three-dimensional cyborg tissues 
Nano today  2013;8(4):351-373.
Summary
Semiconductor nanowires configured as the active channels of field-effect transistors (FETs) have been used as detectors for high-resolution electrical recording from single live cells, cell networks, tissues and organs. Extracellular measurements with substrate supported silicon nanowire (SiNW) FETs, which have projected active areas orders of magnitude smaller than conventional microfabricated multielectrode arrays (MEAs) and planar FETs, recorded action potential and field potential signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution from cultured neurons, cultured cardiomyocytes, acute brain slices and whole animal hearts. Measurements made with modulation-doped nanoscale active channel SiNW FETs demonstrate that signals recorded from cardiomyocytes are highly localized and have improved time resolution compared to larger planar detectors. In addition, several novel three-dimensional (3D) transistor probes, which were realized using advanced nanowire synthesis methods, have been implemented for intracellular recording. These novel probes include (i) flexible 3D kinked nanowire FETs, (ii) branched intracellular nanotube SiNW FETs, and (iii) active silicon nanotube FETs. Following phospholipid modification of the probes to mimic the cell membrane, the kinked nanowire, branched intracellular nanotube and active silicon nanotube FET probes recorded full-amplitude intracellular action potentials from spontaneously firing cardiomyocytes. Moreover, these probes demonstrated the capability of reversible, stable, and long-term intracellular recording, thus indicating the minimal invasiveness of the new nanoscale structures and suggesting biomimetic internalization via the phospholipid modification. Simultaneous, multi-site intracellular recording from both single cells and cell networks were also readily achieved by interfacing independently addressable nanoprobe devices with cells. Finally, electronic and biological systems have been seamlessly merged in 3D for the first time using macroporous nanoelectronic scaffolds that are analogous to synthetic tissue scaffold and the extracellular matrix in tissue. Free-standing 3D nanoelectronic scaffolds were cultured with neurons, cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells to yield electronically-innervated synthetic or ‘cyborg’ tissues. Measurements demonstrate that innervated tissues exhibit similar cell viability as with conventional tissue scaffolds, and importantly, demonstrate that the real-time response to drugs and pH changes can be mapped in 3D through the tissues. These results open up a new field of research, wherein nanoelectronics are merged with biological systems in 3D thereby providing broad opportunities, ranging from a nanoelectronic/tissue platform for real-time pharmacological screening in 3D to implantable ‘cyborg’ tissues enabling closed-loop monitoring and treatment of diseases. Furthermore, the capability of high density scale-up of the above extra- and intracellular nanoscopic probes for action potential recording provide important tools for large-scale high spatio-temporal resolution electrical neural activity mapping in both 2D and 3D, which promises to have a profound impact on many research areas, including the mapping of activity within the brain.
doi:10.1016/j.nantod.2013.05.001
PMCID: PMC3781175  PMID: 24073014
bioelectronics; nanowire; nanodevice; field-effect transistor; brain activity mapping; macroporous 3D electronics; flexible electronics; synthetic tissue; cellular and subcellular resolution; graphene
12.  Structure, morphology, and photoluminescence of porous Si nanowires: effect of different chemical treatments 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):383.
The structure and light-emitting properties of Si nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by a single-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process on highly boron-doped Si were investigated after different chemical treatments. The Si nanowires that result from the etching of a highly doped p-type Si wafer by MACE are fully porous, and as a result, they show intense photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature, the characteristics of which depend on the surface passivation of the Si nanocrystals composing the nanowires. SiNWs with a hydrogen-terminated nanostructured surface resulting from a chemical treatment with a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution show red PL, the maximum of which is blueshifted when the samples are further chemically oxidized in a piranha solution. This blueshift of PL is attributed to localized states at the Si/SiO2 interface at the shell of Si nanocrystals composing the porous SiNWs, which induce an important pinning of the electronic bandgap of the Si material and are involved in the recombination mechanism. After a sequence of HF/piranha/HF treatment, the SiNWs are almost fully dissolved in the chemical solution, which is indicative of their fully porous structure, verified also by transmission electron microscopy investigations. It was also found that a continuous porous Si layer is formed underneath the SiNWs during the MACE process, the thickness of which increases with the increase of etching time. This supports the idea that porous Si formation precedes nanowire formation. The origin of this effect is the increased etching rate at sites with high dopant concentration in the highly doped Si material.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-383
PMCID: PMC3847149  PMID: 24025542
Si nanowires; Metal-assisted chemical etching; Porous silicon nanowires; Photoluminescence; Structure; Morphology
13.  Micro-ultracapacitors with highly doped silicon nanowires electrodes 
Highly n-doped silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with several lengths have been deposited via chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrate. These nanostructured silicon substrates have been used as electrodes to build symmetrical micro-ultracapacitors. These devices show a quasi-ideal capacitive behavior in organic electrolyte (1 M NEt4BF4 in propylene carbonate). Their capacitance increases with the length of SiNWs on the electrode and has been improved up to 10 μFcm−2 by using 20 μm SiNWs, i.e., ≈10-fold bulk silicon capacitance. This device exhibits promising galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling stability with a maximum power density of 1.4 mW cm−2.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-38
PMCID: PMC3563566  PMID: 23336289
Ultracapacitor; Electrochemical capacitor; Silicon nanowires electrodes; Chemical vapor deposition; Cyclic voltammetry; Galvanostatic charge/discharge; Microdevice
14.  Radial n-i-p structure SiNW-based microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on flexible stainless steel 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):621.
Radial n-i-p structure silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on stainless steel foil was fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The SiNW solar cell displays very low optical reflectance (approximately 15% on average) over a broad range of wavelengths (400 to 1,100 nm). The initial SiNW-based microcrystalline (μc-Si:H) thin-film solar cell has an open-circuit voltage of 0.37 V, short-circuit current density of 13.36 mA/cm2, fill factor of 0.3, and conversion efficiency of 1.48%. After acid treatment, the performance of the modified SiNW-based μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell has been improved remarkably with an open-circuit voltage of 0.48 V, short-circuit current density of 13.42 mA/cm2, fill factor of 0.35, and conversion efficiency of 2.25%. The external quantum efficiency measurements show that the external quantum efficiency response of SiNW solar cells is improved greatly in the wavelength range of 630 to 900 nm compared to the corresponding planar film solar cells.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-621
PMCID: PMC3503572  PMID: 23146105
Silicon nanowires; Microcrystalline; Solar cells
15.  Continuous-flow Mass Production of Silicon Nanowires via Substrate-Enhanced Metal-Catalyzed Electroless Etching of Silicon with Dissolved Oxygen as an Oxidant 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:3667.
Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attracting growing interest due to their unique properties and promising applications in photovoltaic devices, thermoelectric devices, lithium-ion batteries, and biotechnology. Low-cost mass production of SiNWs is essential for SiNWs-based nanotechnology commercialization. However, economic, controlled large-scale production of SiNWs remains challenging and rarely attainable. Here, we demonstrate a facile strategy capable of low-cost, continuous-flow mass production of SiNWs on an industrial scale. The strategy relies on substrate-enhanced metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon using dissolved oxygen in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution as an oxidant. The distinct advantages of this novel MCEE approach, such as simplicity, scalability and flexibility, make it an attractive alternative to conventional MCEE methods.
doi:10.1038/srep03667
PMCID: PMC3888973  PMID: 24413157
16.  The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):396.
Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-396
PMCID: PMC3848890  PMID: 24059343
Radial p-n SiNW solar cell; Hydrogenated amorphous silicon; Surface coverage; Open circuit voltage
17.  Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):463.
Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-463
PMCID: PMC4185383  PMID: 25288909
Silicon nanowires; Silicon nanoparticles; Photoluminescence; Bio-imaging; Cytotoxicity; Sonodynamic therapy; Theranostic
18.  Optical assessment of silicon nanowire arrays fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):216.
Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays were prepared on silicon substrates by metal-assisted chemical etching and peeled from the substrates, and their optical properties were measured. The absorption coefficient of the SiNW arrays was higher than that for the bulk silicon over the entire region. The absorption coefficient of a SiNW array composed of 10-μm-long nanowires was much higher than the theoretical absorptance of a 10-μm-thick flat Si wafer, suggesting that SiNW arrays exhibit strong optical confinement. To reveal the reason for this strong optical confinement demonstrated by SiNW arrays, angular distribution functions of their transmittance were experimentally determined. The results suggest that Mie-related scattering plays a significant role in the strong optical confinement of SiNW arrays.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-216
PMCID: PMC3669086  PMID: 23651912
Silicon nanowire; Optical confinement; Light scattering; Solar cells; 73.25.+i; 77.55.df; 78.67.Uh
19.  Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):361.
To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 μs at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 μm by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-361
PMCID: PMC3765971  PMID: 23968156
Silicon nanowire; Passivation; Atomic layer deposition; Lifetime; Simulation; Diffusion length; 62.23.Hj; 77.55.df; 81.65.Rv
20.  Effect of etching time on morphological, optical, and electronic properties of silicon nanowires 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):393.
Owing to their interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, and transport properties, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted much attention, giving opportunities to several potential applications in nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic devices, and silicon solar cells. For photovoltaic application, a superficial film of SiNWs could be used as an efficient antireflection coating. In this work we investigate the morphological, optical, and electronic properties of SiNWs fabricated at different etching times. Characterizations of the formed SiNWs films were performed using a scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible-near-infrared spectroscopy, and light-beam-induced-current technique. The latter technique was used to determine the effective diffusion length in SiNWs films. From these investigations, we deduce that the homogeneity of the SiNWs film plays a key role on the electronic properties.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-393
PMCID: PMC3479071  PMID: 22799265
Silicon nanowires; Reflectivity; Light-beam-induced-current; Diffusion length
21.  Quantitative Real-Time Measurements of DNA Hybridization with Alkylated Non-Oxidized Silicon Nanowires in Electrolyte Solution 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2006;128(50):16323-16331.
The quantitative, real time detection of single stranded oligonucleotides with silicon nanowires (SiNWs) in physiologically relevant electrolyte solution is demonstrated. Debye screening of the hybridization event is minimized by utilizing electrostatically adsorbed primary DNA on an amine-terminated NW surface. Two surface functionalization chemistries are compared: an amine terminated siloxane monolayer on the native SiO2 surface of the SiNW, and an amine terminated alkyl monolayer grown directly on a hydrogen-terminated SiNW surface. The SiNWs without the native oxide exhibit improved solution-gated field-effect transistor characteristics and a significantly enhanced sensitivity to single stranded DNA detection, with an accompanying two orders of magnitude improvement in the dynamic range of sensing. A model for the detection of analyte by SiNW sensors is developed and utilized to extract DNA binding kinetic parameters. Those values are directly compared with values obtained by the standard method of surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and demonstrated to be similar. The nanowires, however, are characterized by higher detection sensitivity. The implication is that Si NWs can be utilized to quantitate the solution phase concentration of biomolecules at low concentrations. This work also demonstrates the importance of surface chemistry for optimizing biomolecular sensing with silicon nanowires.
doi:10.1021/ja065923u
PMCID: PMC3695614  PMID: 17165787
22.  Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowire Arrays 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(11):1822-1828.
Herein, we prepare vertical and single crystalline porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) via a two-step metal-assisted electroless etching method. The porosity of the nanowires is restricted by etchant concentration, etching time and doping lever of the silicon wafer. The diffusion of silver ions could lead to the nucleation of silver nanoparticles on the nanowires and open new etching ways. Like porous silicon (PS), these porous nanowires also show excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties. The PL intensity increases with porosity, with an enhancement of about 100 times observed in our condition experiments. A “red-shift” of the PL peak is also found. Further studies prove that the PL spectrum should be decomposed into two elementary PL bands. The peak at 850 nm is the emission of the localized excitation in the nanoporous structure, while the 750-nm peak should be attributed to the surface-oxidized nanostructure. It could be confirmed from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. These porous SiNW arrays may be useful as the nanoscale optoelectronic devices.
doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9719-6
PMCID: PMC2964481  PMID: 21124633
Porous silicon nanowires; Electroless etching; Silver catalyst; Photoluminescence; Porosity
23.  Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowire Arrays 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(11):1822-1828.
Herein, we prepare vertical and single crystalline porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) via a two-step metal-assisted electroless etching method. The porosity of the nanowires is restricted by etchant concentration, etching time and doping lever of the silicon wafer. The diffusion of silver ions could lead to the nucleation of silver nanoparticles on the nanowires and open new etching ways. Like porous silicon (PS), these porous nanowires also show excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties. The PL intensity increases with porosity, with an enhancement of about 100 times observed in our condition experiments. A “red-shift” of the PL peak is also found. Further studies prove that the PL spectrum should be decomposed into two elementary PL bands. The peak at 850 nm is the emission of the localized excitation in the nanoporous structure, while the 750-nm peak should be attributed to the surface-oxidized nanostructure. It could be confirmed from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. These porous SiNW arrays may be useful as the nanoscale optoelectronic devices.
doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9719-6
PMCID: PMC2964481  PMID: 21124633
Porous silicon nanowires; Electroless etching; Silver catalyst; Photoluminescence; Porosity
24.  Dependence of Performance of Si Nanowire Solar Cells on Geometry of the Nanowires 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:358408.
The dependence of performance of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) solar cells on the growth condition of the SiNWs has been described. Metal-assisted electroless etching (MAE) technique has been used to grow SiNWs array. Different concentration of aqueous solution containing AgNO3 and HF for Ag deposition is used. The diameter and density of SiNWs are found to be dependent on concentration of solution used for Ag deposition. The diameter and density of SiNWs have been used to calculate the filling ratio of the SINWs arrays. The filling ratio is increased with increase in AgNO3 concentration, whereas it is decreased with increase in HF concentration. The minimum reflectance value achieved is ~1% for SiNWs of length of ~1.2 μm in the wavelength range of 300–1000 nm. The performance and diode parameters strongly depend on the geometry of SiNWs. The maximum short circuit current density achieved is 35.6 mA/cm2. The conversion efficiency of solar cell is 9.73% for SiNWs with length, diameter, and wire density of ~1.2 μm, ~75 nm, and 90 μm−2, respectively.
doi:10.1155/2014/358408
PMCID: PMC3915552  PMID: 24574884
25.  Nanowire Biosensors for Label-Free, Real-Time, Ultrasensitive Protein Detection 
Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Among recent research advances exploiting new nanomaterials for biomolecule analysis, silicon nanowires (SiNWs), which are configured as field-effect transistors (FETs), have emerged as one of the most promising and powerful platforms for label-free, real-time, and highly-sensitive electrical detection of proteins, as well as, many other biological species. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for realizing SiNW biosensors for protein detection that includes SiNW synthesis, FET device fabrication, surface receptor functionalization, and electrical sensing measurements. Moreover, incorporating both p-type and n-type SiNWs in the same sensor array provides a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification.
doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-319-6_18
PMCID: PMC3623691  PMID: 21948419
nanowire; chemical vapor deposition; FET; surface modification; cancer marker; isoelectric point

Results 1-25 (322064)