Ozone exposure is known to cause oxidative stress. We investigated the acute effects of ozone (O3) on lung function in the elderly, a suspected risk group. We then investigated whether genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant genes (heme oxygenase-1 [HMOX1] and glutathione S-transferase pi [GSTP1]) modified these associations.
We studied 1,100 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study whose lung function (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1]) was measured every 3 years from 1995–2005. We genotyped the GSTP1 Ile105Val and Ala114Val polymorphisms and the (GT)n repeat polymorphism in the HMOX1 promoter, classifying repeats as short (n<25) or long (n 25). Ambient O3 was measured continuously at locations in the Greater Boston area. We used mixed linear models, adjusting for known confounders.
A 15 ppb increase in O3 during the previous 48 hours was associated with a 1.25% decrease in FEV1 (95% CI: −1.96%, −0.54%). This estimated effect was worsened with either the presence of a long (GT)n repeat in HMOX1 (−1.38%, 95% CI: −2.11%, −0.65) or the presence of an allele coding for Val105 in GSTP1 (−1.69%, 95% CI: −2.63%, −0.75). A stronger estimated effect of O3 on FEV1 was found in subjects carrying both the GSTP1 105Val variant and the HMOX1 long (GT)n repeat (−1.94%, 95% CI: −2.89%, −0.98%). Similar associations were also found between FVC and ozone exposure.
Our results suggest that ozone has an acute effect on lung function in the elderly, and the effects may be modified by the presence of specific polymorphisms in antioxidant genes.
FEV1; FVC; GSTP1; ozone; air pollution
Iron may be implicated in the generation of oxidative stress by the catalyzing the Haber–Weiss or Fenton reaction. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), encoded by the HMOX1 gene and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), encoded by the HMOX2 gene are important markers of iron-related oxidative stress and its consequences. Therefore, variability of the HMOX1 and HMOX2 genes might be implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD through the modulation of the cellular reaction to oxidative stress. In the present work, we investigated the association between AMD and a G → C transversion at the 19 position in the HMOX1 gene (the 19G>C-HMOX1 polymorphism, rs2071747) and a A → G transition at the −42 + 1444 position in the HMOX2 gene (the −42 + 1444A>G-HMOX2 polymorphism, rs2270363) and its modulation by some environmental factors. 279 patients with AMD and 105 controls were recruited in this study and the polymorphisms were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed an association between the occurrence of dry AMD and the G/A genotype of the −42 + 1444A>G-HMOX2 polymorphism (odds ratio (OR) 2.72), whereas the G/G genotype reduced the risk of dry AMD (OR 0.41). The G/C genotype and the C allele of the 19 G>C-HMOX1 polymorphism and the G/G genotype and the G allele of the −42 + 1444A>G-HMOX2 polymorphism were associated with progression of AMD from dry to wet form (OR 4.83, 5.20, 2.55, 1.69, respectively). On the other hand, the G/G genotype and the G allele of the 19 G>C-HMOX1 polymorphism and the A/G genotype and the A allele of the −42 + 1444A>G-HMOX2 polymorphism protected against AMD progression (OR 0.19, 0.19, 0.34, 0.59, respectively). Therefore, the 19G>C-HMOX1 and the −42 + 1444A>G-HMOX2 polymorphisms may be associated with the occurrence and progression of AMD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11033-011-0955-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Age-related macular degeneration; AMD; Heme oxygenase-1 and -2; HMOX1, HMOX2; Gene; Polymorphism
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) acts in cytoprotection against acute lung injury. The polymorphic (GT)n repeat in the HO-1 gene (HMOX1) promoter regulates HMOX1 expression. We investigated the associations of HMOX1 polymorphisms with ARDS risk and plasma HO-1 levels.
Unmatched, nested case-control study.
Academic medical center.
Consecutive patients with ARDS risk factors upon ICU admission were prospectively enrolled. Cases were 437 Caucasians who developed ARDS and controls were 1014 Caucasians who did not.
Measurements and results
We genotyped the (GT)n polymorphism and three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in 1451 patients, and measured the plasma HO-1 levels in 106 ARDS patients. We clustered the (GT)n repeats into: S-allele (< 24 repeats), M-allele (24–30 repeats) and L-allele (≥ 31 repeats). We found that longer (GT)n repeats were associated with reduced ARDS risk (Ptrend = 0.004 for both alleles and genotypes), but no individual tSNP was associated with ARDS risk. HMOX1 haplotypes were significantly associated with ARDS risk (global test, P = 0.016), and the haplotype S-TAG was associated with increased ARDS risk (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15–2.68; P = 0.010). Intermediate-phenotype analysis showed longer (GT)n repeats were associated with higher plasma HO-1 levels (Ptrend = 0.019 for alleles and 0.027 for genotypes).
Longer (GT)n repeats in the HMOX1 promoter are associated with higher plasma HO-1 levels and reduced ARDS risk. The common haplotype S-TAG is associated with increased ARDS risk. Our results suggest that HMOX1 variation may modulate ARDS risk through the promoter microsatellite polymorphism.
acute respiratory distress syndrome; genetic susceptibility; haplotypes; heme oxygenase-1; microsatellite polymorphism; molecular epidemiology
AIM: To investigate effects of iron on oxidative stress, heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and hepatitis C viral (HCV) expression in human hepatoma cells stably expressing HCV proteins.
METHODS: Effects of iron on oxidative stress, HMOX1, and HCV expression were assessed in CON1 cells. Measurements included mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels by Western blots.
RESULTS: Iron, in the form of ferric nitrilotriacetate, increased oxidative stress and up-regulated HMOX1 gene expression. Iron did not affect mRNA or protein levels of Bach1, a repressor of HMOX1. Silencing the up-regulation of HMOX1 nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by Nrf2-siRNA decreased FeNTA-mediated up-regulation of HMOX1 mRNA levels. These iron effects were completely blocked by deferoxamine (DFO). Iron also significantly decreased levels of HCV core mRNA and protein by 80%-90%, nonstructural 5A mRNA by 90% and protein by about 50% in the Con1 full length HCV replicon cells, whereas DFO increased them.
CONCLUSION: Excess iron up-regulates HMOX1 and down-regulates HCV gene expression in hepatoma cells. This probably mitigates liver injury caused by combined iron overload and HCV infection.
Deferoxamine; Core protein of hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis C; Iron; Heme oxygenase-1; Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2; Bach1; Oxidative stress; Nonstructural 5A protein of hepatitis C virus
Preclinical toxicity of adaphostin has been related to oxidative stress. This study investigated the regulatory mechanism underlying adaphostin induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) which plays a significant role in modulation of drug-induced toxicity in the non-small cell lung cancer cell line model, NCI-H522.
The transcriptional response of NCI-H522 to adaphostin prominently involved oxidative stress genes, particularly HMOX1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement was additionally established by generation of ROS prior to modulation of adaphostin-toxicity with antioxidants. To identify up-stream regulatory elements of HMOX1, immunofluorescence was used to evaluate nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), in the presence of adaphostin. The PI3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, was employed as a pharmacological inhibitor of this process.
Generation of ROS provided a substantial foundation for the sensitivity of NCI-H522 to adaphostin. However, in contrast to leukemia cell lines, transcriptional response to oxidative stress was associated with induction of HMOX1, which was dependent on nuclear translocation of the transcription factor, Nrf2. Pretreatment of cells with wortmannin inhibited translocation of Nrf2 and induction of HMOX1. Wortmannin pretreatment was also able to diminish adaphostin induction of HMOX1, and as a consequence, enhance the toxicity of adaphostin to NCI-H522.
Adaphostin-induced oxidative stress in NCI-H522 was mediated through nuclear translocation of Nrf2 leading to upregulation of HMOX1. Inhibition of Nrf2 translocation by wortmannin inhibited this cytoprotective response, and enhanced the toxicity of adaphostin, suggesting that inhibitors of the PI3K pathway, such as wortmannin, might augment the antiproliferative effects of adaphostin in solid tumors that depend on the Nrf2/ARE pathway for protection against oxidative stress.
Rationale: Although oxidative stress is a cardinal feature of asthma, the roles of oxidant air pollutants and antioxidant genes heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), catalase (CAT), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MNSOD) in asthma pathogenesis have yet to be determined.
Objectives: We hypothesized that the functional polymorphisms of HMOX-1 ([GT]n repeat), CAT (−262C>T −844C>T), and MNSOD (Ala-9Val) are associated with new-onset asthma, and the effects of these variants vary by exposure to ozone, a potent oxidant air pollutant.
Methods: We assessed this hypothesis in a population-based cohort of non-Hispanic (n = 1,125) and Hispanic white (n = 586) children who resided in 12 California communities and who were followed annually for 8 years to ascertain new-onset asthma.
Measurements and Main Results: Air pollutants were continuously measured in each of the study communities during the 8 years of study follow-up. HMOX-1 “short” alleles (<23 repeats) were associated with a reduced risk for new-onset asthma among non-Hispanic whites (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.99). This protective effect was largest in children residing in low-ozone communities (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25–0.91) (interaction P value = 0.003). Little evidence for an association with HMOX-1 was observed among Hispanic children. In contrast, Hispanic children with a variant of the CAT-262 “T” allele (CT or TT) had an increased risk for asthma (HR, 1.78; P value = 0.01). The effects of these polymorphisms were not modified by personal smoking or secondhand-smoke exposure.
Conclusions: Functional promoter variants in CAT and HMOX-1 showed ethnicity-specific associations with new-onset asthma. Oxidant gene protection was restricted to children living in low-ozone communities.
asthma; catalase; heme oxygenase-1; MnSOD; oxidative stress; ozone
Oxidative stress activates the transcription factor NRF2, which in turn binds cis-acting antioxidant response element (ARE) enhancers and induces expression of protective antioxidant genes. In contrast, the transcriptional repressor BACH1 binds ARE-like enhancers in cells naïve to oxidative stress and antagonizes NRF2 binding until it becomes inactivated by pro-oxidants. Here, we describe the dynamic roles of BACH1 and NRF2 in the transcription of the heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene. HMOX1 induction, elicited by arsenite-mediated oxidative stress, follows inactivation of BACH1 and precedes activation of NRF2. BACH1 repression is dominant over NRF2-mediated HMOX1 transcription and inactivation of BACH1 is a prerequisite for HMOX1 induction. In contrast, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) is regulated by NRF2 but not by BACH1. By comparing the expression levels of HMOX1 with TXNRD1, we show that nuclear accumulation of NRF2 is not necessary for HMOX1 induction; rather, BACH1 inactivation permits NRF2 already present in the nucleus at low basal levels to bind the HMOX1 promoter and elicit HMOX1 induction. Thus, BACH1 confers an additional level of regulation to ARE-dependent genes that reveals a new dimension to the oxidative stress response.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is well known as a cytoprotective factor. Research has revealed that it is a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, an HMOX1 (HO-1 gene) enhancer-specific artificial zinc-finger protein (AZP) was designed using bioinformatical methods. Then, an artificial transcription factor (ATF) was constructed based on the AZP. In the ATF, the p65 functional domain was used as the effector domain (ED), and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was also included. We next analyzed the affinity of the ATF to the HMOX1 enhancer and the effect of the ATF on endogenous HMOX1 expression. The results suggest that the ATF could effectively upregulate endogenous HMOX1 expression in ECV304 cells. With further research, the ATF could be developed as a potential drug for cardiovascular diseases.
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an essential enzyme induced by heme and multiple stimuli associated with critical illness. In humans, polymorphisms in the HMOX1 gene promoter may influence the magnitude of HO-1 expression. In many diseases including murine malaria, HO-1 induction produces protective anti-inflammatory effects, but observations from patients suggest these may be limited to a narrow range of HO-1 induction, prompting us to investigate the role of HO-1 in malaria infection. In 307 Gambian children with either severe or uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, we characterized the associations of HMOX1 promoter polymorphisms, HMOX1 mRNA inducibility, HO-1 protein levels in leucocytes (flow cytometry), and plasma (ELISA) with disease severity. The (GT)n repeat polymorphism in the HMOX1 promoter was associated with HMOX1 mRNA expression in white blood cells in vitro, and with severe disease and death, while high HO-1 levels were associated with severe disease. Neutrophils were the main HO-1-expressing cells in peripheral blood, and HMOX1 mRNA expression was upregulated by heme-moieties of lysed erythrocytes. We provide mechanistic evidence that induction of HMOX1 expression in neutrophils potentiates the respiratory burst, and propose this may be part of the causal pathway explaining the association between short (GT)n repeats and increased disease severity in malaria and other critical illnesses. Our findings suggest a genetic predisposition to higher levels of HO-1 is associated with severe illness, and enhances the neutrophil burst leading to oxidative damage of endothelial cells. These add important information to the discussion about possible therapeutic manipulation of HO-1 in critically ill patients.
HO-1 is an important anti-inflammatory enzyme induced by several stimuli associated with critical illness. In humans, the amount of HO-1 produced is influenced by a genetic polymorphism in the gene promoter region. Using Plasmodium falciparum malaria that can cause a sepsis-like syndrome as an example, we characterize the associations between the (GT)n polymorphism, HO-1 protein levels and HMOX1-mRNA expression with severity of malaria in 307 Gambian children. Our results support the functionality of this polymorphism, demonstrate that P. falciparum infections increase HO-1 levels, and indicate that a genetic predisposition to strongly upregulate HO-1 is associated with severe forms of malaria and increased risk of dying. We identify neutrophils as the main HO-1-producing blood cells, and provide evidence that hemin-mediated induction of HMOX1 in neutrophils in vitro enhances the oxidative burst. In this way sequestered neutrophils may contribute to oxidative damage of endothelial cells, which may be part of a causal pathway explaining the association between short (GT)n repeats and increased disease severity. Our findings imply that the beneficial effects of HO-1 may be limited to a narrow window of concentrations, which should be born in mind when considering the therapeutic potential of manipulating HO-1 induction in critically ill patients.
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) genes encode enzymes that detoxify carcinogens and protect against oxidative stress. We studied gene-smoking interactions on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility.
549 matched Caucasian RA cases and controls were selected from the Nurses' Health Study. Genotyping by TaqMan and BioTrove identified GSTM1, GSTT1 homozygous deletions (null) and GSTP1 (rs1695), HMOX1 (rs2071746) alleles, respectively. We studied gene-smoking interactions on the risk of all RA and serologic RA phenotypes in separate logistic models adjusted for covariates. We assessed multiplicative interactions with product terms in the logistic models and additive interactions with the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). For replication, we repeated significant analyses in an independent case-control sample from the Epidemiologic Investigation of RA.
For all RA risk, we observed: multiplicative (p=0.05) and additive (AP=0.53, p=0.0005) interactions between GSTT1-null and smoking and multiplicative interaction (p=0.05) between HMOX1 and smoking. For seropositive RA risk, we found multiplicative (p=0.01) and additive (AP=0.63, p<0.0001) interactions between GSTT1-null and smoking and additive interaction (AP=0.41, p=0.03) between HMOX1 and smoking. After correction for multiple comparisons, additive interactions for GSTT1-null and smoking remained significant. GSTM1-null and GSTP1 did not show significant interactions. No associations were seen with seronegative RA. In replication analyses, we observed significant multiplicative (p=0.04) and additive (AP=0.32, p=0.02) interactions between GSTT1-null and smoking for ACPA-positive RA risk.
We observed significant gene-environment interactions between GSTT1-null and heavy smoking on RA risk. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of these interactions on RA prediction.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) directly induces oxidative stress and liver injury. Bach1, a zipper (bZip) mammalian transcriptional repressor, negatively regulates heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a key cytoprotective enzyme that has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs (~22 nt) that are important regulators of gene expression. Whether and how microRNAs regulate Bach1 or HCV are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether miR-196 regulates Bach1, HMOX1, and/or HCV gene expression. HCV replicon cell lines (Con1 and 9-13) of the Con1 isolate and J6/JFH1-based HCV cell culture system were used in this study. The effects of miR-196 mimic on Bach1, HMOX1 and HCV RNA and protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. The Dual Glo™ Luciferase Assay System was used to determine reporter activities. miR-196 mimic significantly down-regulated Bach1 and up-regulated HMOX1 gene expression, and inhibited HCV expression. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that transfection of miR-196 mimic resulted in a significant decrease in Bach1 3′-UTR-dependent luciferase activity but not in mutant Bach1 3′-UTR-dependent luciferase activity. Moreover, there was no detectable effect of mutant miR-196 on Bach1 3′-UTR-dependent luciferase activity.
miR-196 directly acts on the 3′-UTR of Bach1 mRNA and translationally represses the expression of this protein, and up-regulates HMOX1. miR-196 also inhibits HCV expression in HCV replicon cell lines (genotype 1b) and in J6/JFH1 (genotype 2a) HCV cell culture system. Thus, miR-196 plays a role in both HMOX1/Bach1 expression and the regulation of HCV expression in human hepatocytes. Over-expression of miR-196 holds promise as a potential novel strategy to prevent or ameliorate hepatitis C infection, and to protect against liver injury in chronic HCV infection.
microRNA; heme oxygenase-1; hepatitis C virus; 3′-UTR; reporter gene assay
Inducible heme oxygenase (HO‐1) acts against oxidants that are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterised by impaired lung function. A (GT)n repeat polymorphism in the HO‐1 gene promoter can modulate the gene transcription in response to oxidative stress. We hypothesised that this polymorphism could be associated with the level of lung function and decline in subjects exposed to oxidative agression (smokers). We genotyped 749 French subjects (20–44 years, 50% men, 40% never smokers) examined in both 1992 and 2000 as part of the ECRHS. Lung function was assessed by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) ratio. We compared long (L) allele carriers ((GT)n ⩾33 repeats for one or two alleles) to non‐carriers. Cross sectionally, in 2000, L allele carriers showed lower FEV1/FVC than non‐carriers. During the 8 year period, the mean annual FEV1 and FEV1/FVC declines were −30.9 (31.1) ml/year and −1.8 (6.1) U/year, respectively. FEV1/FVC decline was steeper in L allele carriers than in non‐carriers (−2.6 (5.5) v −1.5 (6.4), p = 0.07). There was a strong interaction between the L allele and smoking. In 2000, the L allele was associated with lower FEV1 and FEV1/FVC in heavy smokers (⩾20 cigarettes/day) only (p for interaction = 0.07 and 0.002 respectively). Baseline heavy smokers carrying the L allele showed the steepest FEV1 decline (−62.0 (29.5 ml/year) and the steepest FEV1/FVC decline (−8.8 (5.4 U/year) (p for interaction = 0.009 and 0.0006).These results suggest that a long (L) HO‐1 gene promoter in heavy smokers is associated with susceptibility to develop airway obstruction.
lung function; decline; polymorphism; heme oxygenase; smoking
Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1β (IL-1β/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1β, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking, were associated with risk of CD and UC.
Allele frequencies of the IL-1β T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models.
Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, P = 0.004) and, furthermore, with risk of a diagnosis of CD and UC at young age (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10-1.96) and OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.76), respectively). No association was found between the IL-1β, IL-10 G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A, and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and CD or UC. No consistent interactions between smoking status and CD or UC genotypes were demonstrated.
The rs3024505 marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene was significantly associated with risk of UC and CD, whereas no association was found between IL-1β or HO-1 gene polymorphisms and risk of CD and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1β or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) is a cytoprotective enzyme degrading heme to biliverdin, iron ions, and carbon monoxide, whose expression is induced in response to oxidative stress. Its overexpression has been suggested as a strategy improving survival of transplanted muscle precursors. Results: Here we demonstrated that HMOX1 inhibits differentiation of myoblasts and modulates miRNA processing: downregulates Lin28 and DGCR8, lowers the total pool of cellular miRNAs, and specifically blocks induction of myomirs. Genetic or pharmacological activation of HMOX1 in C2C12 cells reduces the abundance of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206, which is accompanied by augmented production of SDF-1 and miR-146a, decreased expression of MyoD, myogenin, and myosin, and disturbed formation of myotubes. Similar relationships between HMOX1 and myomirs were demonstrated in murine primary satellite cells isolated from skeletal muscles of HMOX1+/+, HMOX1+/−, and HMOX1−/− mice or in human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of myogenic development is independent of antioxidative properties of HMOX1. Instead it is mediated by CO-dependent inhibition of c/EBPδ binding to myoD promoter, can be imitated by SDF-1, and partially reversed by enforced expression of miR-133b and miR-206. Control C2C12 myoblasts injected to gastrocnemius muscles of NOD-SCID mice contribute to formation of muscle fibers. In contrast, HMOX1 overexpressing C2C12 myoblasts form fast growing, hyperplastic tumors, infiltrating the surrounding tissues, and disseminating to the lungs. Innovation: We evidenced for the first time that HMOX1 inhibits differentiation of myoblasts, affects the miRNA processing enzymes, and modulates the miRNA transcriptome. Conclusion: HMOX1 improves the survival of myoblasts, but concurrently through regulation of myomirs, may act similarly to oncogenes, increasing the risk of hyperplastic growth of myogenic precursors. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 113–127.
Cumulative exposure to lead has been shown to be associated with depression of electrocardiographic conduction, such as QT interval (time from start of the Q wave to end of the T wave). Because iron can enhance the oxidative effects of lead, we examined whether polymorphisms in iron metabolism genes [hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TF) C2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX-1)] increase susceptibility to the effects of lead on QT interval in 613 community-dwelling older men.
We used standard 12-lead electrocardiograms, K-shell X-ray fluorescence, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure QT interval, bone lead, and blood lead levels, respectively.
A one-interquartile-range increase in tibia lead level (13 μg/g) was associated with a 11.35-msec [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.05–18.65 msec] and a 6.81-msec (95% CI, 1.67–11.95 msec) increase in the heart-rate–corrected QT interval among persons carrying long HMOX-1 alleles and at least one copy of an HFE variant, respectively, but had no effect in persons with short and middle HMOX-1 alleles and the wild-type HFE genotype. The lengthening of the heart-rate–corrected QT interval with higher tibia lead and blood lead became more pronounced as the total number (0 vs. 1 vs. ≥2) of gene variants increased (tibia, p-trend = 0.01; blood, p-trend = 0.04). This synergy seems to be driven by a joint effect between HFE variant and HMOX-1 L alleles.
We found evidence that gene variants related to iron metabolism increase the impacts of low-level lead exposure on the prolonged QT interval. This is the first such report, so these results should be interpreted cautiously and need to be independently verified.
gene–environment interaction; heme oxygenase-1; hemochromatosis; iron; lead; transferrin
Case-control studies have successfully identified many significant genetic associations for complex diseases, but lack of replication has been a criticism of case-control genetic association studies in general. We selected 12 candidate genes with reported associations to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and genotyped 29 polymorphisms in a family-based study and in a case-control study. In the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study families, significant associations with quantitative and/or qualitative COPD-related phenotypes were found for the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α −308G>A promoter polymorphism (P < 0.02), a coding variant in surfactant protein B (SFTPB Thr131Ile) (P = 0.03), and the (GT)31 allele of the heme oxygenase (HMOX1) promoter short tandem repeat (P = 0.02). In the case-control study, the SFTPB Thr131Ile polymorphism was associated with COPD, but only in the presence of a gene-by-environment interaction term (P = 0.01 for both main effect and interaction). The 30-repeat, but not the 31-repeat, allele of HMOX1 was associated (P = 0.04). The TNF −308G>A polymorphism was not significant. In addition, the microsomal epoxide hydrolase “fast” allele (EPHX1 His139Arg) was significantly associated in the case-control study (P = 0.03). Although some evidence for replication was found for SFTPB and HMOX1, none of the previously published COPD genetic associations was convincingly replicated across both study designs.
association studies; case-control studies; emphysema; genetics; single nucleotide polymorphism
Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is the rate limiting enzyme in heme degradation and a key regulator of inflammatory processes. In animal models the course of pancreatitis was ameliorated by up-regulation of HMOX1 expression. Additionally, carbon monoxide released during heme breakdown inhibited proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells and might thereby prevent the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Transcription of HMOX1 in humans is influenced by a GT-repeat located in the promoter. As such, HMOX1 variants might be of importance in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.
The GT-repeat and SNP rs2071746 were investigated with fluorescence labelled primers and by melting curve analysis in 285 patients with acute pancreatitis, 208 patients with alcoholic CP, 207 patients with idiopathic/hereditary CP, 147 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and in 289 controls, respectively. GT-repeat analysis was extended to a total of 446 alcoholic CP patients. In addition, we performed DNA sequencing in 145 patients with alcoholic CP, 138 patients with idiopathic/hereditary CP, 147 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and 151 controls. Exon 3 screening was extended to additional patients and controls.
S- and L-alleles of the GT-repeat, genotypes and alleles of SNP rs2071746 and non-synonymous variants detected by sequencing were found with similar frequencies in all groups.
Although functional data implicate a potential influence of HMOX1 variants on the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, we did not find any association. As rare non-synonymous HMOX1 variants were found in patients and controls, it is rather unlikely that they will have functional consequences essential for pancreatitis development.
Analogs of the malaria therapeutic, artemisinin, possess in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity. In this study, two dimeric artemisinins (NSC724910 and 735847) were studied to determine their mechanism of action. Dimers were >1000 fold more active than monomer and treatment was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis induction. Dimer activity was inhibited by the anti-oxidant L-NAC, the iron chelator desferroxamine, and exogenous hemin. Similarly, induction of heme oxygenase (HMOX) with CoPPIX inhibited activity while inhibition of HMOX with SnPPIX enhanced it. These results emphasize the importance of iron, heme and ROS in activity. Microarray analysis of dimer treated cells identified DNA damage; iron/heme and cysteine/methionine metabolism, antioxidant response, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as affected pathways. Detection of an ER-stress response was relevant because in malaria, artemisinin inhibits pfATP6, the plasmodium orthologue of mammalian ER-resident SERCA Ca2+-ATPases. A comparative study of NSC735847 with thapsigargin, a specific SERCA inhibitor and ER-stress inducer showed similar behavior in terms of transcriptomic changes, induction of endogenous SERCA and ER calcium mobilization. However, thapsigargin had little effect on ROS production, modulated different ER-stress proteins and had greater potency against purified SERCA1. Furthermore, an inactive derivative of NSC735847 that lacked the endoperoxide had identical inhibitory activity against purified SERCA1, suggesting that direct inhibition of SERCA has little inference on overall cytotoxicity. In summary, these data implicate indirect ER-stress induction as a central mechanism of artemisinin dimer activity.
Artemisinin dimer; reactive oxygen species (ROS); UPR; thapsigargin; SERCA
Heme oxygenase–1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1) dampens inflammatory reactions via the catabolism of heme into CO, Fe, and biliverdin. We report that expression of HO-1 dictates the pathologic outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE in Hmox1–/– C57BL/6 mice led to enhanced CNS demyelination, paralysis, and mortality, as compared with Hmox1+/+ mice. Induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX) administration after EAE onset reversed paralysis in C57BL/6 and SJL/J mice and disease relapse in SJL/J mice. These effects were not observed using zinc protoporphyrin IX, which does not induce HO-1. CoPPIX protection was abrogated in Hmox1–/– C57BL/6 mice, indicating that CoPPIX acts via HO-1 to suppress EAE progression. The protective effect of HO-1 was associated with inhibition of MHC class II expression by APCs and inhibition of Th and CD8 T cell accumulation, proliferation, and effector function within the CNS. Exogenous CO mimicked these effects, suggesting that CO contributes to the protective action of HO-1. In conclusion, HO-1 or exposure to its end product CO counters autoimmune neuroinflammation and thus might be used therapeutically to treat MS.
Increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and administration of heme degradation products CO and biliverdin inhibit vascular inflammation and vasoocclusion in mouse models of sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, an albumin (alb) promoter-driven Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase plasmid with a wild-type rat hmox-1 (wt-HO-1) transposable element was delivered by hydrodynamic tail vein injections to SCD mice. Eight weeks after injection, SCD mice had three- to five-fold increases in HO-1 activity and protein expression in liver, similar to hemin-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased perinuclear HO-1 staining in hepatocytes. Messenger RNA transcription of the hmox-1 transgene in liver was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (qRT-PCR RFLP) with no detectible transgene expression in other organs. The livers of all HO-1 overexpressing mice had activation of nuclear phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-Akt, decreased nuclear expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and decreased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in serum. Hypoxia-induced stasis, a characteristic of SCD, but not normal mice, was inhibited in dorsal skin fold chambers in wt-HO-1 SCD mice despite the absence of hmox-1 transgene expression in the skin suggesting distal effects of HO activity on the vasculature. No protective effects were seen in SCD mice injected with nonsense (ns-) rat hmox-1 that encodes carboxy-truncated HO-1 with little or no enzyme activity. We speculate that HO-1 gene delivery to the liver is beneficial in SCD mice by degrading pro-oxidative heme, releasing anti-inflammatory heme degradation products CO and biliverdin/bilirubin into circulation, activating cytoprotective pathways and inhibiting vascular stasis at sites distal to transgene expression.
Gene therapy; Heme oxygenase; Sickle cell disease; Sleeping Beauty
Variation in ADAM33 has been shown to be important in the development of asthma and altered lung function. This relationship however, has not been investigated in the population susceptible to COPD; long term tobacco smokers. We evaluated the association between polymorphisms in ADAM33 gene with COPD and lung function in long term tobacco smokers.
Caucasian subjects, at least 50 year old, who smoked ≥ 20 pack-years (n = 880) were genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM33. COPD was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and percent-predicted (pp)FEV1 < 75% (n = 287). The control group had an FEV1/FVC ratio ≥ 70% and ppFEV1 ≥ 80% (n = 311) despite ≥ 20 pack years of smoking. Logistic and linear regressions were used for the analysis. Age, sex, and smoking status were considered as potential confounders.
Five SNPs in ADAM33 were associated with COPD (Q-1, intronic: p < 0.003; S1, Ile → Val: p < 0.003; S2, Gly → Gly: p < 0.04; V-1 intronic: p < 0.002; V4, in 3' untranslated region: p < 0.007). Q-1, S1 and V-1 were also associated with ppFEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and ppFEF25–75 (p values 0.001 – 0.02). S2 was associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (p < 0.05). The association between S1 and residual volume revealed a trend toward significance (p value < 0.07). Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses suggested that S1 had the strongest degree of association with COPD and pulmonary function abnormalities.
Five SNPs in ADAM33 were associated with COPD and lung function in long-term smokers. Functional studies will be needed to evaluate the biologic significance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of COPD.
The first mature cells to arise in the developing mammalian embryo belong to the erythroid lineage. This highlights the immediacy of the need for red blood cells during embryogenesis and for survival. Linked with this pressure is the necessity of the embryo to obtain and transport iron, synthesize hemoglobin, and then dispose of the potentially toxic heme via the stress-induced protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1 in the mouse). Null mutation of Hmox1 results in significant embryonic mortality as well as anemia and defective iron recycling. Here, we discuss the interrelated nature of this critical enzyme with iron trafficking, erythroid cell function, and embryonic survival.
Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) develops insidiously in nearly half of all lung transplant recipients. Although typically preceded by a CD8+ T cell–rich lymphocytic bronchitis, it remains unresponsive to conventional immunosuppression. Using an airflow permissive model to study the role of gases flowing over the transplanted airway, it is shown that prolonged inhalation of sublethal doses of carbon monoxide (CO), but not nitric oxide (NO), obliterate the appearance of the obstructive airway lesion. Induction of the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of CO, heme oxygenase (Hmox) 1, increased carboxyhemoglobin levels and suppressed lymphocytic bronchitis and airway luminal occlusion after transplantation. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a competitive inhibitor of Hmox, increased airway luminal occlusion. Compared with wild-type allografts, expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which promotes the influx of cytoeffector leukocytes and airway graft rejection, was strikingly reduced by either enhanced expression of Hmox-1 or exogenous CO. Hmox-1/CO decreased nuclear factor (NF)-κB binding activity to the iNOS promoter region and iNOS expression. Inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase did not interfere with the ability of CO to suppress OB, implicating a cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate–independent mechanism through which CO suppresses NF-κB, iNOS transcription, and OB. Prolonged CO inhalation represents a new immunosuppresive strategy to prevent OB.
Heme oxygenase-1 is an inducible cytoprotective enzyme which handles oxidative stress by generating anti-oxidant bilirubin and vasodilating carbon monoxide. A (GT)n dinucleotide repeat and a -413A>T single nucleotide polymorphism have been reported in the promoter region of HMOX1 to both influence the occurrence of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. We sought to validate these observations in persons scheduled for coronary angiography.
We included 3219 subjects in the current analysis, 2526 with CAD including a subgroup of CAD and MI (n = 1339) and 693 controls. Coronary status was determined by coronary angiography. Risk factors and biochemical parameters (bilirubin, iron, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) were determined by standard procedures. The dinucleotide repeat was analysed by PCR and subsequent sizing by capillary electrophoresis, the -413A>T polymorphism by PCR and RFLP.
In the LURIC study the allele frequency for the -413A>T polymorphism is A = 0,589 and T = 0,411. The (GT)n repeats spread between 14 and 39 repeats with 22 (19.9%) and 29 (47.1%) as the two most common alleles. We found neither an association of the genotypes or allelic frequencies with any of the biochemical parameters nor with CAD or previous MI.
Although an association of these polymorphisms with the appearance of CAD and MI have been published before, our results strongly argue against a relevant role of the (GT)n repeat or the -413A>T SNP in the HMOX1 promoter in CAD or MI.
Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are a class of organometallo compounds capable of delivering controlled quantities of CO gas to cells and tissues thus exerting a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. CO-RMs containing transition metal carbonyls were initially implemented to mimic the function of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), a stress inducible defensive protein that degrades heme to CO and biliverdin leading to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Ten years after their discovery, the research on the chemistry and biological activities of CO-RMs has greatly intensified indicating that their potential use as CO delivering agents for the treatment of several pathological conditions is feasible. Although CO-RMs are a class of compounds that structurally diverge from traditional organic-like pharmaceuticals, their behaviour in the biological environments is progressively being elucidated revealing interesting features of metal-carbonyl chemistry towards cellular targets. Specifically, the presence of carbonyl groups bound to transition metals such as ruthenium, iron or manganese appears to make CO-RMs unique in their ability to transfer CO intracellularly and amplify the mechanisms of signal transduction mediated by CO. In addition to their well-established vasodilatory activities and protective effects against organ ischemic damage, CO-RMs are emerging for their striking anti-inflammatory properties which may be the result of the multiple activities of metal carbonyls in the control of redox signaling, oxidative stress and cellular respiration. Here, we review evidence on the pharmacological effects of CO-RMs in models of acute and chronic inflammation elaborating on some emerging concepts that may help to explain the chemical reactivity and mechanism(s) of action of this distinctive class of compounds in biological systems.
Inflammation; Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs); Oxidative stress; Inflammatory mediators; Bactericidal activities