Integrins have emerged as key sensory molecules that translate chemical and physical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) into biochemical signals that regulate cell behavior. Integrins function by clustering into adhesion plaques, but the molecular mechanisms that drive integrin clustering in response to interaction with the ECM remain unclear. To explore how deformations in the cell-ECM interface influence integrin clustering, we developed a spatial-temporal simulation that integrates the micro-mechanics of the cell, glycocalyx, and ECM with a simple chemical model of integrin activation and ligand interaction. Due to mechanical coupling, we find that integrin-ligand interactions are highly cooperative, and this cooperativity is sufficient to drive integrin clustering even in the absence of cytoskeletal crosslinking or homotypic integrin-integrin interactions. The glycocalyx largely mediates this cooperativity and hence may be a key regulator of integrin function. Remarkably, integrin clustering in the model is naturally responsive to the chemical and physical properties of the ECM, including ligand density, matrix rigidity, and the chemical affinity of ligand for receptor. Consistent with experimental observations, we find that integrin clustering is robust on rigid substrates with high ligand density, but is impaired on substrates that are highly compliant or have low ligand density. We thus demonstrate how integrins themselves could function as sensory molecules that begin sensing matrix properties even before large multi-molecular adhesion complexes are assembled.
Critical cell decisions, including whether to live, proliferate, or assemble into tissue structures, are directed by cues from the extracellular matrix, the external protein scaffold that surrounds cells. Integrin receptors on the cell surface bind to the extracellular matrix and cluster into complexes that translate matrix cues into the set of instructions a cell follows. Using a newly developed model of the cell-matrix interface, in this work we detail a simple yet efficient mechanism by which integrins could “sense” important matrix properties, including chemical composition and mechanical stiffness, and cluster appropriately. This mechanism relies on mechanical resistance to integrin-matrix interaction provided by the glycocalyx, the slimy sugar and protein coating on the cell, as well as the stiffness of the matrix and the cell itself. In general, the resistance alters integrin-ligand reaction rates, such that integrin clustering is favored for many physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, the mechanical properties of the cell and ECM are altered in many prevalent diseases, such as cancer, and our work suggests how these mechanical perturbations might adversely influence integrin function.
The adhesion and aggregation of platelets during hemostasis and thrombosis represents one of the best-understood examples of cell–matrix adhesion. Platelets are exposed to a wide variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins once blood vessels are damaged and basement membranes and interstitial ECM are exposed. Platelet adhesion to these ECM proteins involves ECM receptors familiar in other contexts, such as integrins. The major platelet-specific integrin, αIIbβ3, is the best-understood ECM receptor and exhibits the most tightly regulated switch between inactive and active states. Once activated, αIIbβ3 binds many different ECM proteins, including fibrinogen, its major ligand. In addition to αIIbβ3, there are other integrins expressed at lower levels on platelets and responsible for adhesion to additional ECM proteins. There are also some important nonintegrin ECM receptors, GPIb-V-IX and GPVI, which are specific to platelets. These receptors play major roles in platelet adhesion and in the activation of the integrins and of other platelet responses, such as cytoskeletal organization and exocytosis of additional ECM ligands and autoactivators of the platelets.
Platelets express a variety of receptors (e.g., the major platelet-specific integrin αIIbβ3) that bind to a diverse array of extracellular matrix proteins exposed on injury (e.g., fibrinogen). Drugs targeting these receptor-ligand interactions are effective.
Agonist stimulation of integrin receptors, composed of transmembrane α and β subunits, leads cells to regulate integrin affinity (‘activation’), a process that controls cell adhesion and migration, and extracellular matrix assembly. A final step in integrin activation is the binding of talin to integrin β cytoplasmic domains. We used forward, reverse and synthetic genetics to engineer and order integrin activation pathways of a prototypic integrin, platelet αIIbβ3. PMA activated αIIbβ3 only after expression of both PKCα (protein kinase Cα) and talin at levels approximating those in platelets. Inhibition of Rap1 GTPase reduced αIIbβ3 activation, whereas expression of constitutively active Rap1A(G12V) bypassed the requirement for PKCα. Overexpression of a Rap effector, RIAM (Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule), activated αIIbβ3 and bypassed the requirement for PKCα and Rap1. In addition, shRNA (short hairpin RNA)-mediated knockdown of RIAM blocked talin interaction with and activation of integrin αIIbβ3. Rap1 activation caused the formation of an ‘activation complex’ containing talin and RIAM that redistributed to the plasma membrane and activated αIIbβ3. The central finding was that this Rap1-induced formation of an ’integrin activation complex’ leads to the unmasking of the integrin-binding site on talin, resulting in integrin activation.
cell adhesion; integrin; Rap1; signal transduction; talin; thrombosis
Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A164 in mice) and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Nevertheless, Nrp1 null embryos display vascular defects that differ from those of mice lacking either VEGF-A164 or Sema3A proteins. Furthermore, it has been recently reported that Nrp1 is required for endothelial cell (EC) response to both VEGF-A165 and VEGF-A121 isoforms, the latter being incapable of binding Nrp1 on the EC surface. Taken together, these data suggest that the vascular phenotype caused by the loss of Nrp1 could be due to a VEGF-A164/SEMA3A-independent function of Nrp1 in ECs, such as adhesion to the extracellular matrix. By using RNA interference and rescue with wild-type and mutant constructs, we show here that Nrp1 through its cytoplasmic SEA motif and independently of VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A specifically promotes α5β1-integrin-mediated EC adhesion to fibronectin that is crucial for vascular development. We provide evidence that Nrp1, while not directly mediating cell spreading on fibronectin, interacts with α5β1 at adhesion sites. Binding of the homomultimeric endocytic adaptor GAIP interacting protein C terminus, member 1 (GIPC1), to the SEA motif of Nrp1 selectively stimulates the internalization of active α5β1 in Rab5-positive early endosomes. Accordingly, GIPC1, which also interacts with α5β1, and the associated motor myosin VI (Myo6) support active α5β1 endocytosis and EC adhesion to fibronectin. In conclusion, we propose that Nrp1, in addition to and independently of its role as coreceptor for VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A, stimulates through its cytoplasmic domain the spreading of ECs on fibronectin by increasing the Rab5/GIPC1/Myo6-dependent internalization of active α5β1. Nrp1 modulation of α5β1 integrin function can play a causal role in the generation of angiogenesis defects observed in Nrp1 null mice.
The vascular system is a hierarchical network of blood vessels lined by endothelial cells that, by means of the transmembrane integrin proteins, bind to the surrounding proteinaceous extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrins are required for proper cardiovascular development and exist in bent (inactive) and extended (active) shapes that are correspondingly unable and able to attach to the ECM. Extracellular guidance cues, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and semaphorins, bind the transmembrane protein neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) and then activate biochemical signals that, respectively, activate or inactivate endothelial integrins. Here, we show that Nrp1, via its short cytoplasmic domain and independently of vascular endothelial growth factor and semaphorins, specifically promotes endothelial cell attachment to the ECM protein fibronectin, which is known to be crucial for vascular development. Notably, Nrp1 favors cell adhesion by associating with fibronectin-binding integrins and promoting the fast vesicular traffic of their extended form back and forth from the endothelial cell-to-ECM contacts. Binding of the Nrp1 cytoplasmic domain with the adaptor protein GIPC1, which in turn associates with proteins required for integrin internalization and vesicle motility, is required as well. It is likely that such an integrin treadmill could act as a major regulator of cell adhesion in general.
The transmembrane protein neuropilin-1 promotes endothelial cell attachment to the extracellular matrix by enhancing active integrin treadmilling at cell-adhesion sites.
Alterations in the expression of integrin receptors for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are strongly associated with the acquisition of invasive and/or metastatic properties by human cancer cells. Despite this, comparatively little is known of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate the expression of integrin genes in cells. Here we demonstrate that the Ras-activated Raf–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway can specifically control the expression of individual integrin subunits in a variety of human and mouse cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 in a number of human melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines led to reduced cell surface expression of α6- and β3-integrin. Consistent with this, conditional activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway in NIH 3T3 cells led to a 5 to 20-fold induction of cell surface α6- and β3-integrin expression. Induced β3-integrin was expressed on the cell surface as a heterodimer with αv-integrin; however, the overall level of αv-integrin expression was not altered by Ras or Raf. Raf-induced β3-integrin was observed in primary and established mouse fibroblast lines and in mouse and human endothelial cells. Consistent with previous reports of the ability of the Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway to induce β3-integrin gene transcription in human K-562 erythroleukemia cells, Raf activation in NIH 3T3 cells led to elevated β3-integrin mRNA. However, unlike immediate-early Raf targets such as heparin binding epidermal growth factor and Mdm2, β3-integrin mRNA was induced by Raf in a manner that was cycloheximide sensitive. Surprisingly, activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway by growth factors and mitogens had little or no effect on β3-integrin expression, suggesting that the expression of this gene requires sustained activation of this signaling pathway. In addition, despite the robust induction of cell surface αvβ3-integrin expression by Raf in NIH 3T3 cells, such cells display decreased spreading and adhesion, with a loss of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. These data suggest that oncogene-induced alterations in integrin gene expression may participate in the changes in cell adhesion and migration that accompany the process of oncogenic transformation.
β1 integrin regulates multiple epithelial cell functions by connecting cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). While β1 integrin-mediated signaling in murine epithelial stem cells is well-studied, its role in human adult epithelial progenitor cells (ePCs) in situ remains to be defined. Using microdissected, organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles (HFs) as a clinically relevant model for studying human ePCs within their natural topobiological habitat, β1 integrin-mediated signaling in ePC biology was explored by β1 integrin siRNA silencing, specific β1 integrin-binding antibodies and pharmacological inhibition of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a key component of the integrin-induced signaling cascade. β1 integrin knock down reduced keratin 15 (K15) expression as well as the proliferation of outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs). Embedding of HF epithelium into an ECM rich in β1 integrin ligands that mimic the HF mesenchyme significantly enhanced proliferation and migration of ORSKs, while K15 and CD200 gene and protein expression were inhibited. Employing ECM-embedded β1 integrin-activating or -inhibiting antibodies allowed to identify functionally distinct human ePC subpopulations in different compartments of the HF epithelium. The β1 integrin-inhibitory antibody reduced β1 integrin expression in situ and selectively enhanced proliferation of bulge ePCs, while the β1 integrin-stimulating antibody decreased hair matrix keratinocyte apoptosis and enhanced transferrin receptor (CD71) immunoreactivity, a marker of transit amplifying cells, but did not affect bulge ePC proliferation. That the putative ILK inhibitor QLT0267 significantly reduced ORSK migration and proliferation and induced massive ORSK apoptosis suggests a key role for ILK in mediating the ß1 integrin effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ePCs in human HFs require β1 integrin-mediated signaling for survival, adhesion, and migration, and that different human HF ePC subpopulations differ in their response to β1 integrin signaling. These insights may be exploited for cell-based regenerative medicine strategies that employ human HF-derived ePCs.
Cell adhesion and migration depend on engagement of extracellular matrix ligands by integrins. Integrin activation is dynamically regulated by interactions of various cytoplasmic proteins, such as filamin and integrin activators, talin and kindlin, with the cytoplasmic tail of the integrin β subunit. Although filamin has been suggested to be an inhibitor of integrin activation, direct functional evidence for the inhibitory role of filamin is limited. Migfilin, a filamin-binding protein enriched at cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contact sites, can displace filamin from β1 and β3 integrins and promote integrin activation. However, its role in activation and functions of different β integrins in human vascular cells is unknown. In this study, using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that filamin inhibits β1 and αIIbβ3 integrin activation, and migfilin can overcome its inhibitory effect. Migfilin protein is widely expressed in different adherent and circulating blood cells and can regulate integrin activation in naturally-occurring vascular cells, endothelial cells and neutrophils. Migfilin can activate β1, β2 and β3 integrins and promote integrin mediated responses while migfilin depletion impairs the spreading and migration of endothelial cells. Thus, filamin can act broadly as an inhibitor and migfilin is a promoter of integrin activation.
Integrin clustering plays a pivotal role in a host of cell functions. Hetero-dimeric integrin adhesion receptors regulate cell migration, survival, and differentiation by communicating signals bidirectionally across the plasma membrane. Thus far, crystallographic structures of integrin components are solved only separately, and for some integrin types. Also, the sequence of interactions that leads to signal transduction remains ambiguous. Particularly, it remains controversial whether the homo-dimerization of integrin transmembrane domains occurs following the integrin activation (i.e. when integrin ectodomain is stretched out) or if it regulates integrin clustering. This study employs molecular dynamics modeling approaches to address these questions in molecular details and sheds light on the crucial effect of the plasma membrane. Conducting a normal mode analysis of the intact αllbβ3 integrin, it is demonstrated that the ectodomain and transmembrane-cytoplasmic domains are connected via a membrane-proximal hinge region, thus merely transmembrane-cytoplasmic domains are modeled. By measuring the free energy change and force required to form integrin homo-oligomers, this study suggests that the β-subunit homo-oligomerization potentially regulates integrin clustering, as opposed to α-subunit, which appears to be a poor regulator for the clustering process. If α-subunits are to regulate the clustering they should overcome a high-energy barrier formed by a stable lipid pack around them. Finally, an outside-in activation-clustering scenario is speculated, explaining how further loading the already-active integrin affects its homo-oligomerization so that focal adhesions grow in size.
Focal adhesions are complex, dynamic structures of multiple proteins that act as the cell's mechanical anchorage to its surrounding. Integrins are proteins linking the cell inner and outer environments, which act as a bridge that crosses the cell membrane. Integrins respond to mechanical loads exerted to them by changing their conformations. Several diseases, such as atherosclerosis and different types of cancer, are caused by altered function of integrins. Essential to the formation of focal adhesions is the process of integrin clustering. Bidirectional integrin signaling involves conformational changes in this protein, clustering, and finally the assembly of a large intracellular adhesion complex. Integrin clustering is defined as the interaction of integrins to form lateral assemblies that eventually lead to focal adhesion formation. The effect of the plasma membrane on formation of integrin clusters has been largely neglected in current literature; subsequently some apparently contradictory data has been reported by a number of researchers in the field. Using a molecular dynamics modeling approach, a computational method that simulates systems in a full-atomic scale, we probe the role of the plasma membrane in integrin clustering and hypothesize a clustering scenario that explains the relationship between integrin activation and focal adhesion growth.
In vitro analysis confirms talin binding is sufficient for activation and extension of membrane-embedded integrin.
Increased affinity of integrins for the extracellular matrix (activation) regulates cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix assembly, and mechanotransduction. Major uncertainties concern the sufficiency of talin for activation, whether conformational change without clustering leads to activation, and whether mechanical force is required for molecular extension. Here, we reconstructed physiological integrin activation in vitro and used cellular, biochemical, biophysical, and ultrastructural analyses to show that talin binding is sufficient to activate integrin αIIbβ3. Furthermore, we synthesized nanodiscs, each bearing a single lipid-embedded integrin, and used them to show that talin activates unclustered integrins leading to molecular extension in the absence of force or other membrane proteins. Thus, we provide the first proof that talin binding is sufficient to activate and extend membrane-embedded integrin αIIbβ3, thereby resolving numerous controversies and enabling molecular analysis of reconstructed integrin signaling.
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion is involved in many essential normal cellular and pathological functions including cell survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory responses, platelet aggregation, tissue repair and tumor invasion. 24 different heterodimerized transmembrane integrin receptors are combined from 18 different α and 8 different β subunits. Each integrin subunit contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain and a usually short cytoplasmic domain. Integrins bind extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through their large extracellular domain, and engage the cytoskeleton via their short cytoplasmic tails. These integrin-mediated linkages on either side of the plasma membrane are dynamically linked. Thus, integrins communicate over the plasma membrane in both directions, i.e., outside-in and inside-out signaling. In outside-in signaling through integrins, conformational changes of integrin induced by ligand binding on the extracellular domain altered the cytoplasmic domain structures to elicit various intracellular signaling pathways. Inside-out signaling originates from non-integrin cell surface receptors or cytoplasmic molecules and it activates signaling pathways inside the cells, ultimately resulting in the activation/deactivation of integrins. Integrins are one of key family proteins for cell adhesion regulation through binding to a large number of ECM molecules and cell membrane proteins. Lack of expression of integrins may result in a wide variety of effects ranging from blockage in pre-implantation to embryonic or perinatal lethality and developmental defects. Based on both the key role they played in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development and easy accessibility as cell surface receptors interacting with extracellular ligands, the integrin superfamily represents the best opportunity of targeting both antibodies and small-molecule antagonists for both therapeutic and diagnostic utility in various key diseases so far.
Integrin; inside-out signaling; outside-in signaling; cell adhesion molecule; angiogenesis.
The interactions between tumour cells and the microvasculature, including the adhesion of tumour cells to endothelium and extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as their migratory ability, are prerequisites for metastasis to occur. In this study we showed that thrombin is capable of enhancing in vitro tumour cell metastatic potential in terms of adhesive properties and migratory response. Following exposure to subclotting concentrations of thrombin, SW-480 human colon adenocarcinoma cells exhibited increased adhesion to both the endothelium and ECM component (i.e. fibronectin). Likewise, the pretreatment of thrombin enhanced the migratory ability of SW-480 cells. The enhanced adhesion was significantly inhibited by complexing of thrombin with its inhibitor hirudin, or by serine proteinase inhibition with 3,4-DCI, but was unaffected by pretreatment of tumour cells with actinomycin D or cycloheximide. The effect of thrombin resulted in an upregulated cell-surface expression of beta 3 integrins, a group of receptors mediating interactions between tumour cells and endothelial cells, and between tumour cells and ECM. Antibodies against beta 3 integrins effectively blocked both the enhanced adhesion and migration. This thrombin-mediated up-regulation of beta 3 integrins involved the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) as thrombin-enhanced adhesion was diminished by PKC inhibition. Rhodostomin, an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing antiplatelet snake venom peptide that antagonises the binding of ECM toward beta 3 integrins on SW-480 cells, was about 600 and 500 times, more potent that RGDS in inhibiting thrombin-enhanced adhesion and migration respectively. Our data suggest that PKC inhibitors as well as rhodostomin may serve as inhibitory agents in the prevention of thrombin-enhanced metastasis.
The detailed interactions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with their extracellular matrix (ECM) and the resulting effects on MSC differentiation are still largely unknown. Integrins are the main mediators of cell-ECM interaction. In this study, we investigated the adhesion of human MSCs to fibronectin, vitronectin and osteopontin, three ECM glycoproteins which contain an integrin-binding sequence, the RGD motif. We then assayed MSCs for their osteogenic commitment in the presence of the different ECM proteins.
As early as 2 hours after seeding, human MSCs displayed increased adhesion when plated on fibronectin, whereas no significant difference was observed when adhering either to vitronectin or osteopontin. Over a 10-day observation period, cell proliferation was increased when cells were cultured on fibronectin and osteopontin, albeit after 5 days in culture. The adhesive role of fibronectin was further confirmed by measurements of cell area, which was significantly increased on this type of substrate. However, integrin-mediated clusters, namely focal adhesions, were larger and more mature in MSCs adhering to vitronectin and osteopontin. Adhesion to fibronectin induced elevated expression of α5-integrin, which was further upregulated under osteogenic conditions also for vitronectin and osteopontin. In contrast, during osteogenic differentiation the expression level of β3-integrin was decreased in MSCs adhering to the different ECM proteins. When MSCs were cultured under osteogenic conditions, their commitment to the osteoblast lineage and their ability to form a mineralized matrix in vitro was increased in presence of fibronectin and osteopontin.
Taken together these results indicate a distinct role of ECM proteins in regulating cell adhesion, lineage commitment and phenotype of MSCs, which is due to the modulation of the expression of specific integrin subunits during growth or osteogenic differentiation.
mesenchymal stem cells; extracellular matrix; osteogenic differentiation; integrins; cell adhesion.
Tissue engineering seeks to create functional tissues and organs by integrating natural or synthetic scaffolds with bioactive factors and cells. Creating biologically active scaffolds that support key aspects of tissue regeneration, including the re-establishment of a functional extracellular matrix (ECM), is a challenge currently facing this field. During tissue repair, fibronectin is converted from an inactive soluble form into biologically active ECM fibrils through a cell-dependent process. ECM fibronectin promotes cell processes critical to tissue regeneration and regulates the deposition and organization of other ECM proteins. We previously developed biomimetics of ECM fibronectin by directly coupling the heparin-binding fragment of the first type III repeat of fibronectin (FNIII1H) to the integrin-binding repeats (FNIII8–10). As adhesive substrates, fibronectin matrix mimetics promote cell growth, migration, and contractility through a FNIII1H-dependent mechanism. Here, we analyzed fibronectin matrix mimetic variants designed to include all or part of the integrin-binding domain for their ability to support new ECM assembly. We found that specific modifications of the integrin-binding domain produced adhesive substrates that selectively engage different integrin receptors to, in turn, regulate the amount of fibronectin and collagen deposited into the ECM. The ability of fibronectin matrix mimetics to direct cell–substrate interactions and regulate ECM assembly makes them promising candidates for use as bioactive surfaces, where precise control over integrin-binding specificity and ECM deposition are required.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation during angiogenesis. Cell adhesion to ECM is mediated by binding of cell surface integrin receptors, which both activate intracellular signaling cascades and mediate tension-dependent changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal structure. Although the growth control field has focused on early integrin and growth factor signaling events, recent studies suggest that cell shape may play an equally critical role in control of cell cycle progression. Studies were carried out to determine when cell shape exerts its regulatory effects during the cell cycle and to analyze the molecular basis for shape-dependent growth control. The shape of human capillary endothelial cells was controlled by culturing cells on microfabricated substrates containing ECM-coated adhesive islands with defined shape and size on the micrometer scale or on plastic dishes coated with defined ECM molecular coating densities. Cells that were prevented from spreading in medium containing soluble growth factors exhibited normal activation of the mitogen-activated kinase (erk1/erk2) growth signaling pathway. However, in contrast to spread cells, these cells failed to progress through G1 and enter S phase. This shape-dependent block in cell cycle progression correlated with a failure to increase cyclin D1 protein levels, down-regulate the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, and phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein in late G1. A similar block in cell cycle progression was induced before this same shape-sensitive restriction point by disrupting the actin network using cytochalasin or by inhibiting cytoskeletal tension generation using an inhibitor of actomyosin interactions. In contrast, neither modifications of cell shape, cytoskeletal structure, nor mechanical tension had any effect on S phase entry when added at later times. These findings demonstrate that although early growth factor and integrin signaling events are required for growth, they alone are not sufficient. Subsequent cell cycle progression and, hence, cell proliferation are controlled by tension-dependent changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal structure that act by subjugating the molecular machinery that regulates the G1/S transition.
Integrin αIIbβ3 mediates platelet aggregation and “outside-in” signaling. It is regulated by changes in receptor conformation and affinity and/or by lateral diffusion and receptor clustering. To document the relative contributions of conformation and clustering to αIIbβ3 function, αIIb was fused at its cytoplasmic tail to one or two FKBP12 repeats (FKBP). These modified αIIb subunits were expressed with β3 in CHO cells, and the heterodimers could be clustered into morphologically detectable oligomers upon addition of AP1510, a membrane-permeable, bivalent FKBP ligand. Integrin clustering by AP1510 caused binding of fibrinogen and a multivalent (but not monovalent) fibrinogen-mimetic antibody. However, ligand binding due to clustering was only 25–50% of that observed when αIIbβ3 affinity was increased by an activating antibody or an activating mutation. The effects of integrin clustering and affinity modulation were additive, and clustering promoted irreversible ligand binding. Clustering of αIIbβ3 also promoted cell adhesion to fibrinogen or von Willebrand factor, but not as effectively as affinity modulation. However, clustering was sufficient to trigger fibrinogen-independent tyrosine phosphorylation of pp72Syk and fibrinogen-dependent phosphorylation of pp125FAK, even in non-adherent cells. Thus, receptor clustering and affinity modulation play complementary roles in αIIbβ3 function. Affinity modulation is the predominant regulator of ligand binding and cell adhesion, but clustering increases these responses further and triggers protein tyrosine phosphorylation, even in the absence of affinity modulation. Both affinity modulation and clustering may be needed for optimal function of αIIbβ3 in platelets.
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers clustering of CD147 and integrin-β1 via interaction with β1,6-branched N-glycans on RPE cells and hypothesize that Gal-3 acts as a positive regulator for CD147/integrin-β1 clustering and therefore modifies RPE cell behavior contributing to the pathogenesis of PVR. Further investigations at this pathway may aid in the development of specific therapies for PVR.
Tissue organization during embryonic development and wound healing depends on the ability of cells on the one hand to exchange adhesive bonds during active rearrangement and on the other to become fixed in place as tissue homeostasis is reached. Cells achieve these contradictory tasks by regulating either cell-cell adhesive bonds, mediated by cadherins, or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) connections, regulated by integrins. Integrin α5β1 and soluble fibronectin (sFN) are key players in cell-ECM force generation and in ECM polymerization. Here, we explore the interplay between integrin α5β1 and sFN and its influence on tissue mechanical properties and cell sorting behavior.
We generated a series of cell lines varying in α5β1 receptor density. We then systematically explored the effects of different sFN concentrations on aggregate biomechanical properties using tissue surface tensiometry. We found previously unreported complex behaviors including the observation that interactions between fibronectin and integrin α5β1 generates biphasic tissue cohesion profiles. Specifically, we show that at constant sFn concentration, aggregate cohesion increases linearly as α5β1 receptor density is increased from low to moderate levels, producing a transition from viscoelastic-liquid to pseudo viscoelastic-solid behavior. However, further increase in receptor density causes an abrupt drop in tissue cohesion and a transition back to viscoelastic-liquid properties. We propose that this may be due to depletion of sFn below a critical value in the aggregate microenvironment at high α5β1 levels. We also show that differential expression of α5β1 integrin can promote phase-separation between cells.
The interplay between α5-integrin and sFn contributes significantly to tissue cohesion and, depending on their level of expression, can mediate a shift from liquid to elastic behavior. This interplay represents a tunable level of control between integrins and the ECM that can influence tissue cohesion and other mechanical properties, which may translate to the specification of tissue structure and function. These studies provide insights into important biological processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, and for tissue engineering applications.
Syndecans function as receptors for extracellular matrix (ECM) with integrins in cell spreading. However, the molecular mechanism of their specific involvement in cell migration or in wound healing has not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that a synthetic peptide, PEP75, which contains the syndecan-binding sequence of the laminin α3LG4 module, induces keratinocyte migration in in vitro and in vivo. Soluble PEP75 induced the clustering of syndecan-4 and conformation-modified integrin β1 colocalized with syndecan-4 in soluble PEP75-induced clusters. Treatment of cells in solution with PEP75 resulted in the exposure of the P4G11 antibody epitope of integrin β1 in immunostaining as well as in flow cytometry and augmented integrin β1–dependent cell adhesion to ECM. Pulldown assays demonstrated that PEP75 bound to syndecan-4, but not to integrin β1. A siRNA study revealed a role for syndecan-4 in PEP75-induced up-regulation of P4G11 antibody binding and migration of HaCaT cells. We conclude that binding of soluble PEP75 to syndecan-4 induces the coupling of integrin β1, which is associated with integrin β1-conformational changes and activation, and leads to keratinocyte migration. To activate integrin function through syndecans could be a novel therapeutic approach for chronic wound.
Therapeutic protein engineering combines genetic, biochemical, and functional information to improve existing proteins or invent new protein technologies. Using these principles, we developed an approach to deliver extracellular matrix (ECM) fibronectin-specific signals to cells. Fibronectin matrix assembly is a cell-dependent process that converts the inactive, soluble form of fibronectin into biologically-active ECM fibrils. ECM fibronectin stimulates cell functions required for normal tissue regeneration, including cell growth, spreading, migration, and collagen reorganization. We have developed recombinant fibronectin fragments that mimic the effects of ECM fibronectin on cell function by coupling the cryptic heparin-binding fragment of fibronectin’s first type III repeat (FNIII1H) to the integrin-binding domain (FNIII8-10). GST/III1H,8-10 supports cell adhesion and spreading and stimulates cell proliferation to a greater extent than plasma fibronectin. Deletion and site-specific mutant constructs were generated to identify the active regions in GST/III1H,8-10 and reduce construct size. A chimeric construct in which the integrin-binding, RGDS loop was inserted into the analogous site in FNIII8 (GST/III1H,8RGD), supported cell adhesion and migration, and enhanced cell proliferation and collagen gel contraction. GST/III1H,8RGD was expressed in bacteria and purified from soluble lysate fractions by affinity chromatography. Fibronectin matrix assembly is normally up-regulated in response to tissue injury. Decreased levels of ECM fibronectin are associated with non-healing wounds. Engineering fibronectin matrix mimetics that bypass the need for cell-dependent fibronectin matrix assembly in chronic wounds is a novel approach to stimulating cellular activities critical for tissue repair.
fibronectin; recombinant protein; extracellular matrix; cell proliferation; cell adhesion
The speed of cell migration on 2-dimensional (2D) surfaces is determined by the rate of assembly and disassembly of clustered integrin receptors known as focal adhesions. Different modes of cell migration that have been described in 3D environments are distinguished by their dependence on integrin-mediated interactions with the extra-cellular matrix. In particular, the mesenchymal invasion mode is the most dependent on focal adhesion dynamics. The focal adhesion protein NEDD9 is a key signalling intermediary in mesenchymal cell migration, however whether NEDD9 plays a role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics has not previously been reported. As NEDD9 effects on 2D migration speed appear to depend on the cell type examined, in the present study we have used mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from mice in which the NEDD9 gene has been depleted (NEDD9 −/− MEFs). This allows comparison with effects of other focal adhesion proteins that have previously been demonstrated using MEFs. We show that focal adhesion disassembly rates are increased in the absence of NEDD9 expression and this is correlated with increased paxillin phosphorylation at focal adhesions. NEDD9−/− MEFs have increased rates of migration on 2D surfaces, but conversely, migration of these cells is significantly reduced in 3D collagen gels. Importantly we show that myosin light chain kinase is activated in 3D in the absence of NEDD9 and is conversely inhibited in 2D cultures. Measurement of adhesion strength reveals that NEDD9−/− MEFs have decreased adhesion to fibronectin, despite upregulated α5β1 fibronectin receptor expression. We find that β1 integrin activation is significantly suppressed in the NEDD9−/−, suggesting that in the absence of NEDD9 there is decreased integrin receptor activation. Collectively our data suggest that NEDD9 may promote 3D cell migration by slowing focal adhesion disassembly, promoting integrin receptor activation and increasing adhesion force to the ECM.
Integrin activation is essential for dynamically linking the extracellular environment and cytoskeletal/signaling networks. Activation is controlled by integrins' short cytoplasmic tails (CTs). It is widely accepted that the head domain of talin (talin-H) can mediate integrin activation by binding to two sites in integrin β's CT; in integrin β3 this is an NPLY747 motif and the membrane-proximal region. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of integrin β3 CT, composed of a conserved TS752T region and NITY759 motif, supports integrin activation by binding to a cytosolic binding partner, kindlin-2, a widely distributed PTB domain protein. Co-transfection of kindlin-2 with talin-H results in a synergistic enhancement of integrin αIIbβ3 activation. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of endogenous kindlin-2 impairs talin-induced αIIbβ3 activation in transfected CHO cells and blunts αvβ3-mediated adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. Our results thus identify kindlin-2 as a novel regulator of integrin activation; it functions as a coactivator.
While it is well known that individual integrins are critical mediators of cell behavior, recent work has shown that when multiple types of integrins simultaneously engage the ECM, cell functions are enhanced. However, it is not known how integrins spatially coordinate to regulate cell adhesion because no reliable method exists to segregate integrins on the cell membrane. Here, we use a microcontact printing-based strategy to pattern multiple ECMs that bind distinct integrins in order to study how integrins might interact. In our technique, proteins are first adsorbed uniformly to a poly(dimethyl siloxane) stamp, and then selectively “de-inked.” Our strategy overcomes several inherent limitations of conventional microcontact printing, including stamp collapse and limited functionality of the surface patterns. We show that integrins spatially segregate on surfaces patterned with multiple ECMs, as expected. Interestingly, despite spatial segregation of distinct integrins, cells could form adhesions and migrate across multicomponent surfaces as well as they do on single component surfaces. Together, our data indicate that although cells can segregate individual integrins on the cell surface to mediate ECM-specific binding, integrins function cooperatively to guide cell adhesion and migration.
We have shown recently that α2β1 integrin-mediated type I collagen adhesion promotes a more malignant phenotype in pancreatic cancer cell lines than other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. MiaPaCa-2 cells, by contrast, do not express collagen-binding integrins, but are metastatic in our orthotopic mouse model and migrate maximally on laminin-1 (Ln-1). It has also been shown that CXCR4 and IL-8 expression correlates directly with metastasis in pancreatic cancer in vivo. We therefore examined the potential of the ECM to regulate CXCR4 and IL-8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
We cultured 8 pancreatic cancer cell lines on fibronectin (Fn), types I and IV collagen, Ln-1 and vitronectin (Vn), and examined cell lysates for CXCR4 by immunoblotting and media for IL-8 by ELISA. We also conducted cell migration assays with stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) as the chemoattractant to examine integrin-binding specificity and CXCR4 function.
All cell lines expressed CXCR4 protein. MiaPaCa-2 cell growth on Ln-1 increased significantly CXCR4 and IL-8 expression relative to other ECM proteins. Migration inhibition studies showed that both the α6β1 and α3β1 integrins mediate MiaPaCa-2 migration on Ln-1.Growth studies showed further that CXCR4 expression on Ln-1 was mediated by the α6β1 integrin whereas IL-8 expression was mediated by both the α6β1 and α3β1 integrins. The expression of functional CXCR4 was also shown in migration assays, where SDF-1 significantly increased pancreatic cancer cell chemotaxis on Ln-1.
These data indicate that integrin-mediated Ln-1 adhesion upregulates CXCR4 and IL-8 expression and may play a mechanistic role in pancreatic cancer metastases.
Motile chick skeletal fibroblasts adhere to a laminin substrate by means of clustered beta 1 integrins. These integrin "macroaggregates" are similar to classic focal contacts but do not appear dark under interference-reflection microscopy. They contain alpha 5 integrin and are associated with extracellular fibronectin. To study their behavior during cell movement, time-lapse, low-light video microscopy was used to image integrins on living cells tagged with a fluorescent anti-beta 1 integrin antibody. Integrin macroaggregates remain fixed with respect to the substratum, despite the fact that they fluctuate in size, density, and shape over a period of minutes. Upon detachment of the cell rear, as much as 85% of the beta 1 integrin density of a macroaggregate remains behind on the substrate, along with both alpha 5 integrin and fibronectin. Release of the cell rear does not involve cleavage of the beta 1 integrin cytoplasmic domain from the remainder of the protein. These results indicate that cell motility does not require regulated detachment of integrin receptors from the substrate. On the other hand, cytoskeletal components and a variable fraction of the integrins are carried forward with the cell during detachment, suggesting that some type of cortical disassembly process does occur. Integrin macroaggregate structures are not recycled intact after detachment of the cell rear from the substrate. They do not persist on the cell surface, nor can they be seen to be engulfed by vesicles; yet, some of the individual integrins that make up these macroaggregates are eventually transported forward by both vesicular and cell-surface routes. Antibody-tagged integrins accumulate in dense patches at the lateral edges and dorsal surface of the cell, and move forward on the cell surface. The tagged integrins also enter cytoplasmic vesicles, which move forward within the cytoplasm. Macroaggregates generally form and grow at the cell front; however, application of fluorescent antibody causes integrins to disappear from the leading edge. Therefore, it has not been possible to directly visualize the recycling of the forward moving tagged integrins into new macroaggregates at the cell front. Surprisingly, under these conditions cells move normally despite the absence of any delivery of tagged integrin to the leading edge, indicating that recycling of integrins to the lamella is not required for apparently normal motility.
Integrins play a key role in cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Artificial surfaces grafted with integrin ligands, mimicking natural interfaces, have been used to study integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Here we report the use of a new chemical engineering technology in combination with single-molecule nanomechanical measurements to quantify peptide binding to integrins. We prepared latex beads with covalently-attached dextran. The beads were then functionalized with the bioactive peptides, cyclic RGDFK (cRGD) and the fibrinogen γC-dodecapeptide (H12), corresponding to the active sites for fibrinogen binding to the platelet integrin αIIbβ3. Using optical tweezers-based force spectroscopy to measure non-specific protein–protein interactions, we found the dextran-coated beads nonreactive towards fibrinogen, thus providing an inert platform for biospecific modifications. Using periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination, we functionalized the bead-attached dextran with either cRGD or H12 and used the peptide-grafted beads to measure single-molecule interactions with the purified αIIbβ3. Bimolecular force spectroscopy revealed that the peptide-functionalized beads were highly and specifically reactive with the immobilized αIIbβ3. Further, the cRGD- and H12-functionalized beads displayed a remarkable interaction profile with a bimodal force distribution up to 90 pN. The cRGD–αIIbβ3 interactions had greater binding strength than that of H12–αIIbβ3, indicating that they are more stable and resistant mechanically, consistent with the platelet reactivity of RGD-containing ligands. Thus, the results reported here describe the mechanistic characteristics of αIIbβ3–ligand interactions, confirming the utility of peptide-functionalized latex beads for the quantitative analysis of molecular recognition.