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1.  Factor Structure, Reliability and Convergent Validity of the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey for Older Adults 
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey (EMAS) (Goldberg, Brintnell, & Goldberg, 2002) in a sample of older adults living in the greater Los Angeles area. The EMAS evidenced moderate test-retest reliability (r = .56) and good internal consistency (α = .89). Exploratory factor analysis (principal components) discerned a two-component structure within the EMAS, indicative of Personal-Competence and Social-Experiential meaning. The EMAS demonstrated theoretically predicted zero-order correlations with measures of meaning and purpose in life, depressive symptomology, life satisfaction, and health-related quality of life. Regression analyses discerned that purpose and meaning in life consistently predicted the EMAS and its components. Furthermore, persons reporting greater levels of Social-Experiential relative to Personal-Competence meaning had the lowest levels of physical health-related quality of life. This study offers initial evidence in support of the EMAS as a valid measure of meaningful activity in older adults.
doi:10.3928/15394492-20090518-01
PMCID: PMC3172818  PMID: 21927592
Measurement; Meaning and Purpose in Life; Health-Related Qualify of Life; Life Satisfaction
2.  A tertiary approach to improving equity in health: quantitative analysis of the Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (MAPAS) process, 2008–2012 
Introduction
Achieving health equity for indigenous and ethnic minority populations requires the development of an ethnically diverse health workforce. This study explores a tertiary admission programme targeting Māori and Pacific applicants to nursing, pharmacy and health sciences (a precursor to medicine) at the University of Auckland (UoA), Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Application of cognitive and non-cognitive selection tools, including a Multiple Mini Interview (MMI), are examined.
Methods
Indigenous Kaupapa Māori methodology guided analysis of the Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (MAPAS) for the years 2008–2012. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the predicted effect of admission variables on the final MAPAS recommendation of best starting point for success in health professional study i.e. ‘CertHSc’ (Certificate in Health Sciences, bridging/foundation), ‘Bachelor’ (degree-level) or ‘Not FMHS’ (Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences). Regression analyses controlled for interview year, gender and ancestry.
Results
Of the 918 MAPAS interviewees: 35% (319) were Māori, 58% (530) Pacific, 7% (68) Māori/Pacific; 71% (653) school leavers; 72% (662) females. The average rank score was 167/320, 40–80 credits below guaranteed FMHS degree offers. Just under half of all interviewees were recommended ‘CertHSc’ 47% (428), 13% (117) ‘Bachelor’ and 38% (332) ‘Not FMHS’ as the best starting point. Strong associations were identified between Bachelor recommendation and exposure to Any 2 Sciences (OR:7.897, CI:3.855-16.175; p < 0.0001), higher rank score (OR:1.043, CI:1.034-1.052; p < 0.0001) and higher scores on MAPAS mathematics test (OR:1.043, CI:1.028-1.059; p < 0.0001). MMI stations had mixed associations, with academic preparation and career aspirations more consistently associated with recommendations.
Conclusions
Our findings raise concerns about the ability of the secondary education sector to prepare Māori and Pacific students adequately for health professional study. A comprehensive tertiary admissions process using multiple tools for selection (cognitive and non-cognitive) and the provision of alternative entry pathways are recommended for indigenous and ethnic minority health workforce development. The application of the MMI within an equity and indigenous cultural context can support a holistic assessment of an applicant’s potential to succeed within tertiary study. The new MAPAS admissions process may provide an exemplar for other tertiary institutions looking to widen participation via equity-targeted admission processes.
doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0133-7
PMCID: PMC4319228
Māori; Pacific; Indigenous; Ethnic minority; Health workforce development; Tertiary admission; Multiple mini interview; Widening participation; Secondary education
3.  Validation of a patient satisfaction questionnaire for anemia treatment, the PSQ-An 
Background
Treating anemia associated with chemotherapy and many cancers is often necessary. However, patient satisfaction with anemia treatment is limited by the lack of validated instruments. We developed and validated a new treatment-specific patient satisfaction instrument: the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Anemia Treatment (PSQ-An). Treatment burden and overall satisfaction scales were designed for ease of use in clinical practice.
Methods
312 cancer patients (141 breast, 69 gynecological, and 102 non-small cell lung) were targeted to complete the PSQ-An at 4 week intervals. Data from weeks 5 and 9 were analyzed. Patients also completed the MOS SF-36 Global Health assessment and questions concerning resources devoted to anemia treatment. Item reduction used endorsement rates, floor/ceiling effects, and item-item correlations. Factor analysis identified meaningful subscales. Test-retest reliability was assessed. Construct validity was tested, using Pearson's correlations, by comparing subscale scores to Global Health, hemoglobin levels, and resources devoted to anemia treatment.
Results
The overall response rate was 92.9% (264/284) at week 5. Most (84.2%) of the patients were female, and the mean (SD) age was 60.2 (± 11.8) years. Two distinct subscales were identified measuring treatment burden (7 items) and overall satisfaction (2 items). Test-retest reliability was examined (ICC: 0.45–0.67); both were internally consistent (alpha = 0.83). Both subscales exhibited convergent and divergent validity with independent measures of health. ANOVA results indicated that the PSQ-An Satisfaction subscale discriminated between 5 levels of MOS SF-36 Global Health (P = 0.006).
Conclusion
The PSQ-An is a validated, treatment-specific instrument for measuring satisfaction with anemia treatment for cancer patients. PSQ-An subscales reflect the burden of injection anemia treatment on cancer patients and their assessment of the overall treatment value.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-4-28
PMCID: PMC1526422  PMID: 16672069
4.  Value of the time trade off method for measuring utilities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(11):892-897.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the time trade off (TTO) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—The TTO was applied in 194 patients with RA with increasing difficulty in performing activities of daily living. The test-retest reliability was determined in 35 of these patients and was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was evaluated with the following sets of variables: measures of utility (rating scale), quality of life (RAND 36 item Health Status Survey (RAND-36) and RAQoL), functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire, grip strength, and walk test), and disease activity (doctor's global assessment, disease activity score, pain, and morning stiffness).
RESULTS—Ten patients (5%) did not complete the TTO. The median value of the TTO was 0.77 (range 0.03-1.0). The test-retest ICC of the TTO was 0.85 (p<0.001). Construct validity testing of the TTO showed poor to moderate correlations (Spearman's rs between 0.19 and 0.36, p<0.01) with all outcome measures except for the subscale role limitation (physical problem) of the RAND-36, the walk test, the doctor's global assessment of disease activity, and morning stiffness. Multiple regression analysis showed that only 17% of the variance of the TTO scores could be explained.
CONCLUSIONS—The TTO method appeared to be feasible and reliable in patients with RA. The poor to moderate correlations of the TTO with measures of quality of life, functional ability, and disease activity suggest that the TTO considers additional attributes of health status. This may have implications for the application of the TTO in clinical trials in patients with RA.


doi:10.1136/ard.59.11.892
PMCID: PMC1753018  PMID: 11053068
5.  Effects of P-MAPA Immunomodulator on Toll-Like Receptors and p53: Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Infectious Diseases and Cancer 
Background
Compounds that can act as agonists for toll-like receptors (TLRs) may be promising candidates for the development of drugs against infectious diseases and cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of P-MAPA on TLRs in vitro and in vivo, as well as to investigate its potential as adjuvant therapy in infectious diseases and cancer.
Methods
For these purposes, the activity of P-MAPA on TLRs was assayed in vitro through NF-κB activation in HEK293 cells expressing a given TLR, and using an in vivo animal model for bladder cancer (BC). The antimicrobial activity of P-MAPA was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in vitro in an MIC assay, and in vivo using an aerosol infection model of murine tuberculosis. Antitumor effects of P-MAPA were tested in an animal model with experimentally induced BC. Moxifloxacin (MXF) and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were used as positive controls in the animal models.
Results
The results showed that P-MAPA, administered alone or in combination with MXF, induced significant responses in vivo against TB. In contrast, the compound did not show antimicrobial activity in vitro. P-MAPA showed a significant stimulatory effect on human TLR2 and TLR4 in vitro. In BC, TLR2, TLR4 and p53 protein levels were significantly higher in the P-MAPA group than in the BCG group. The most common histopathological changes in each group were papillary carcinoma in BC group, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in BCG group and simple hyperplasia in P-MAPA group. Concerning the toxicological analysis performed during BC treatment, P-MAPA did not show evidence for hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
Conclusions
In conclusion, P-MAPA acted as TLR ligand in vitro and improved the immunological status in BC, increasing TLR2 and TLR4 protein levels. P-MAPA immunotherapy was more effective in restoring p53 and TLRs reactivities and showed significantly greater antitumor activity than BCG. The activation of TLRs and p53 may provide a hypothetical mechanism for the therapeutic effects in both cancer and infectious diseases. Taken together data obtained will encourage the further investigation of P-MAPA as a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.
doi:10.1186/1750-9378-7-14
PMCID: PMC3408364  PMID: 22709446
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin; Immunotherapy; Toll-like receptor; p53; Infectious diseases; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Bladder cancer.
6.  Design and validation of the Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward the Homeless Inventory (HPATHI) 
Background
Recent literature has called for humanistic care of patients and for medical schools to begin incorporating humanism into medical education. To assess the attitudes of health-care professionals toward homeless patients and to demonstrate how those attitudes might impact optimal care, we developed and validated a new survey instrument, the Health Professional Attitudes Toward the Homeless Inventory (HPATHI). An instrument that measures providers' attitudes toward the homeless could offer meaningful information for the design and implementation of educational activities that foster more compassionate homeless health care. Our intention was to describe the process of designing and validating the new instrument and to discuss the usefulness of the instrument for assessing the impact of educational experiences that involve working directly with the homeless on the attitudes, interest, and confidence of medical students and other health-care professionals.
Methods
The study consisted of three phases: identifying items for the instrument; pilot testing the initial instrument with a group of 72 third-year medical students; and modifying and administering the instrument in its revised form to 160 health-care professionals and third-year medical students. The instrument was analyzed for reliability and validity throughout the process.
Results
A 19-item version of the HPATHI had good internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 and a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.69. The HPATHI showed good concurrent validity, and respondents with more than one year of experience with homeless patients scored significantly higher than did those with less experience. Factor analysis yielded three subscales: Personal Advocacy, Social Advocacy, and Cynicism.
Conclusions
The HPATHI demonstrated strong reliability for the total scale and satisfactory test-retest reliability. Extreme group comparisons suggested that experience with the homeless rather than medical training itself could affect health-care professionals' attitudes toward the homeless. This could have implications for the evaluation of medical school curricula.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-5-2
PMCID: PMC545068  PMID: 15642125
7.  Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness 
Background
Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown.
Methods
We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships.
Results
We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness.
Conclusions
How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional readiness is essential, and meaningfulness is an important factor. Inadequate levels of tangible preparedness actions are accompanied by gaps in intangible readiness aspects, such as: 1) errors in perceived exposure to and salience of natural hazards, yielding circumscribed risk assessments; 2) unfamiliarity with the scope and span of preparedness; 3) underestimating disaster consequences; and 4) misinterpreting the personal resources required for self-managing disaster and uncertainty. Our results highlight that conceptualizing preparedness to include attitudes and behaviors of readiness, integrating well-being and meaningfulness into preparedness strategies, and prioritizing evacuation planning are critical for resiliency as a dynamic process and outcome.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-85
PMCID: PMC4062284  PMID: 24909780
Earthquake; Evacuation; Hazards; Health promotion; Health outcomes; Prevention; Integrative disaster resilience; Risk perception; Self-management; Tsunami
8.  Comparing the content of participation instruments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health 
Background
The concept of participation is recognized as an important rehabilitation outcome and instruments have been developed to measure participation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). To date, few studies have examined the content of these instruments to determine how participation has been operationalized. The purpose of this study was to compare the content of participation instruments using the ICF classification.
Methods
A systematic literature search was conducted to identify instruments that assess participation according to the ICF. Instruments were considered to assess participation and were included if the domains contain content from a minimum of three ICF chapters ranging from Chapter 3 Communication to Chapter 9 Community, social and civic life in the activities and participation component. The instrument content was examined by first identifying the meaningful concepts in each question and then linking these concepts to ICF categories. The content analysis included reporting the 1) ICF chapters (domains) covered in the activities and participation component, 2) relevance of the meaningful concepts to the activities and participation component and 3) context in which the activities and participation component categories are evaluated.
Results
Eight instruments were included: Impact on Participation and Autonomy, Keele Assessment of Participation, Participation Survey/Mobility, Participation Measure-Post Acute Care, Participation Objective Participation Subjective, Participation Scale (P-Scale), Rating of Perceived Participation and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). 1351 meaningful concepts were identified in the eight instruments. There are differences among the instruments regarding how participation is operationalized. All the instruments cover six to eight of the nine chapters in the activities and participation component. The P-Scale and WHODAS II have questions which do not contain any meaningful concepts related to the activities and participation component. Differences were also observed in how other ICF components (body functions, environmental factors) and health are operationalized in the instruments.
Conclusion
Linking the meaningful concepts in the participation instruments to the ICF classification provided an objective and comprehensive method for analyzing the content. The content analysis revealed differences in how the concept of participation is operationalized and these differences should be considered when selecting an instrument.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-93
PMCID: PMC2785762  PMID: 19909555
9.  The reliability, validity, and preliminary responsiveness of the Eye Allergy Patient Impact Questionnaire (EAPIQ) 
Background
The Eye Allergy Patient Impact Questionnaire (EAPIQ) was developed based on a pilot study conducted in the US and focus groups with eye allergy sufferers in Europe. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the psychometric validation of the EAPIQ.
Methods
One hundred forty six patients from two allergy clinics completed the EAPIQ twice over a two-week period during the fall and winter allergy seasons, along with concurrent measures of health status, work productivity, and utility. Construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), concurrent, known-group, and clinical validities, and responsiveness of the EAPIQ were assessed. Known-group validity was assessed by comparing EAPIQ scale scores between patients grouped according to their self-rating of ocular allergy severity (no symptoms, very mild, mild, moderate, severe, very severe). Clinical validity was assessed by assessing differences in EAPIQ scores between groups of patients rated by their clinician as non-symptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe.
Results and Discussion
Results from the validation study suggested the deletion of 14 of 43 items (including embedded questions) that required patients to complete the percentage of time they were troubled by something (daily activity limitations/emotional troubles). These items yielded a significant amount of missing or inconsistent data (50%). The resulting factor analysis suggested four domains: symptoms, daily life impact, psychosocial impact, and treatment satisfaction. When included as separate scales, the symptom-bother and symptom-frequency scales were highly correlated (> 0.9). As a consequence, and due to superior discriminative validity, the symptom bother and frequency items were summed. All items met the tests for item convergent validity (item-scale correlation = 0.4). The success rate for item discriminant validity testing was 97% (item-scale correlation greater with own scale than with any other). The criterion for internal consistency reliability (alpha coefficient ≥ 0.70) was met for all EAPIQ scales (range 0.89–0.93), as was the criterion for test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation [ICC] ≥ 0.70). Largely moderate correlations between the scales of the EAPIQ and the mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (miniRQLQ) and low correlations with the Health Utilities Index 2/3 (HUI2/3) were indicative of satisfactory concurrent validity. The EAPIQ symptoms, Daily Life Impact, and Psychosocial Impact scales were able to distinguish between patients differing in eye allergy symptom severity, as rated by patients and clinicians, providing evidence of satisfactory known-group and clinical validities, respectively. Preliminary analyses indicated the EAPIQ Symptoms, Daily Life Impact, and Psychosocial Impact scales to be responsive to changes in eye allergies.
Conclusion
Following item reduction, construct validity, reliability, concurrent validity, known-group validity, and preliminary responsiveness were satisfactory for the EAPIQ in this population of ocular allergy patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-67
PMCID: PMC1291386  PMID: 16259630
Patient functioning; ocular allergy; psychometric validation; EAPIQ; patient reported outcomes
10.  Role of religion and spirituality in medical patients: Confirmatory results with the SpREUK questionnaire 
Background
Spirituality has become a subject of interest in health care as it is was recognized to have the potential to prevent, heal or cope with illness. There is less doubt that values and goals are important contributors to life satisfaction, physical and psychological health, and that goals are what gives meaning and purpose to people's lives. However, there is as yet but limited understanding of how patients themselves view the impact of spirituality on their health and well-being, and whether they are convinced that their illness may have "meaning" to them. To raise these questions and to more precisely survey the basic attitudes of patients with severe diseases towards spirituality/religiosity (SpR) and their adjustment to their illness, we developed the SpREUK questionnaire.
Methods
In order to re-validate our previously described SpREUK instrument, reliability and factor analysis of the new inventory (Version 1.1) were performed according to the standard procedures. The test sample contained 257 German subjects (53.3 ± 13.4 years) with cancer (51%), multiple sclerosis (24%), other chronic diseases (16%) and patients with acute diseases (7%).
Results
As some items of the SpREUK construct require a positive attitude towards SpR, these items (item pool 2) were separated from the others (item pool 1). The reliability of the 15-item the construct derived from the item pool 1 respectively the 14-item construct which refers to the item pool 2 both had a good quality (Cronbach's alpha = 0.9065 resp. 0.9525). Factor analysis of item pool 1 resulted in a 3-factor solution (i.e. the 6-item sub-scale 1: "Search for meaningful support"; the 6-item sub-scale 2: "Positive interpretation of disease"; and the 3-item sub-scale 3: "Trust in external guidance") which explains 53.8% of variance. Factor analysis of item pool 2 pointed to a 2-factor solution (i.e. the 10-item sub-scale 4: "Support in relations with the External life through SpR" and the 4-item sub-scale 5: "Support of the Internality through SpR") which explains 58.8% of variance. Generally, women had significantly higher SpREUK scores than male patients. Univariate variance analyses revealed significant associations between the sub-scales and SpR attitude and the educational level.
Conclusions
The current re-evaluation of the SpREUK 1.1 questionnaire indicates that it is a reliable, valid measure of distinct topics of SpR that may be especially useful of assessing the role of SpR in health related research. The instrument appears to be a good choice for assessing a patients interest in spiritual concerns which is not biased for or against a particular religious commitment. Moreover it addresses the topic of "positive reinterpretation of disease" which seems to be of outstanding importance for patients with life-changing diseases.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-10
PMCID: PMC550666  PMID: 15705195
Questionnaires; Religion and Medicine; Spirituality and Religion; coping; chronic disease, cancer
11.  Psychometric Evaluation of a Self-Medication Assessment Tool in an Elderly Population 
Background:
Most community-dwelling older adults are engaged in medication self-management activities. Deviation in these activities can lead to adverse outcomes for patients and an increased burden on the health care system. Successful medication self-management involves a complex interaction among cognitive, functional, and psychosocial variables. Several assessment instruments have been developed, but there remains a need for an effective and comprehensive tool.
Objective:
To evaluate the psychometric properties (inter-rater reliability, test–retest reliability, and validity), as well as the usability, of the Self-Medication Assessment Tool (SMAT), an instrument designed to measure elderly patients’ ability to manage their medications.
Methods:
The study enrolled patients 65 years of age or older who were living independently and were admitted to family medicine beds in a community hospital in eastern Canada. Three subsamples of the population were identified. The inter-rater reliability group was videotaped and scored independently by 2 pharmacists. The test–retest reliability group was tested with the SMAT and was retested with the same tool a week later. The usability group was interviewed after using the SMAT to determine their satisfaction. Standard neuropsychological measures (Cognitive Competency Test, clock-drawing test, and Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]) were used to determine convergent and divergent validity. Pill counts, refill rates, and use of adherence aids or reminders before study enrolment were used as measures of concurrent validity.
Results:
A total of 121 patients (mean age 81.5 years) were enrolled. The scales of the SMAT were determined to have good internal consistency and high inter-rater and test–retest reliability. Convergent validity was evidenced by the high positive correlation between the functional scale of the SMAT and the results of the clock-drawing and Cognitive Competency tests (p < 0.01) and between the cognitive and recall scales of the SMAT and the results of the clock-drawing test (p < 0.05), the MMSE (p < 0.01), and the Cognitive Competency Test (p < 0.01). Patients reported being highly satisfied with their experience.
Conclusion:
The SMAT is a practical, reliable, comprehensive instrument with demonstrated convergent validity, strong patient acceptability, and various internally consistent scales that assess multiple dimensions of elderly patients’ ability to self-manage their medications. Further testing is required to show that the SMAT correlates with medication adherence.
PMCID: PMC3053188  PMID: 22479024
medication therapy management; geriatric assessment; psychometrics; self-care; medication adherence; gestion du traitement médicamenteux; évaluation gériatrique; psychométrie; autosoins; observance du traitement médicamenteux
12.  Housing and inequalities in health: a study of socioeconomic dimensions of housing and self reported health from a survey of Vancouver residents 
Study objective: To investigate the relation between housing, socioeconomic status, and self reported general and mental health. This study is an empirical investigation of social and economic dimensions of housing, specifically, demand, control, and material (affordability, dwelling type) and meaningful (pride in dwelling, home as a refuge) dimensions of everyday life as they occur in the domestic environment.
Design: A cross sectional telephone survey was administered to a random sample of households. Survey items included measures of demand, control, and meaningfulness of the domestic environment, as well as standard measures of socioeconomic status and social support. Main outcome measures were self reported health (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor) and self reported frequency of feeling "downhearted and blue" in the two weeks before interview (from the Rand Mental Health Index).
Setting: Households (n=650) from 12 neighbourhood areas in the city of Vancouver, Canada.
Participants: One randomly selected adult from each of 650 households completed the interview and constitute the sample for this study.
Main results: In bivariate analyses, measures of housing demand, control and meaningfulness exhibited strong and significantly graded relations with self reported health and somewhat less strong relations with mental health. In logistic regression analyses housing demand and control variables made significant contributions to health both general and mental health. Respondents were more likely to report fair/poor health if they: reported that they couldn't stand to be at home sometimes (OR=2.29, p<0.05); rated their domestic housework as somewhat or quite a strain (OR=5.71, p<0.001); were somewhat or very dissatisfied with their social activities (OR=3.41, p<0.001); and reported that they were constantly under stress a good bit of the time or more (OR=3.56, p<0.05). In terms of mental health, respondents were more likely to report poorer mental health if they: lived longer in their neighbourhood (OR=1.05, p<0.05); reported their housework duties to be somewhat or quite a strain (OR=5.55, p<0.001); reported that they did not have somebody that could help them if they needed it (OR=9.28, p<0.001); and reported that they were constantly under stress a good bit of the time or more in the two weeks before the interview (OR=5.26, p<0.001). One of the main hypotheses investigated—that meaningful dimensions of housing are associated with health status—found support in bivariate analyses without controls, but did not contribute to multivariable models.
Conclusions: The influence of housing demand and control variables superseded a well known correlate of health status, educational attainment, attesting to their importance. The findings of this paper lend support to the hypothesis that features of the domestic environment, especially as they pertain to the exercise of control and the experience of demand, are significant predictors of self reported general and mental health status. Housing is a concrete manifestation of socioeconomic status, which has an important part to play in the development of explanations of the social production of health inequalities.
doi:10.1136/jech.56.9.671
PMCID: PMC1732232  PMID: 12177083
13.  Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Concussion Scales and Checklists 
Journal of Athletic Training  2012;47(2):221-223.
Reference/Citation:
Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3–i12.
Clinical Question:
Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion?
Data Sources:
Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria.
Study Selection:
Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included.
Data Extraction:
From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity.
Main Results:
The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate articles were removed, 290 articles remained and were added to 17 articles found during the hand search, for a total of 307 articles; of those, 295 were available in full text. Sixty articles met the inclusion criteria and were used in the systematic review. The quality of the included studies ranged from 9 to 15 points out of a maximum quality score of 17. The included articles were published between 1995 and 2008 and included a collective total of 5864 concussed athletes and 5032 nonconcussed controls, most of whom participated in American football. The majority of the studies were descriptive studies monitoring the resolution of concussive self-report symptoms compared with either a preseason baseline or healthy control group, with a smaller number of studies (n = 8) investigating the development of a scale.
The authors initially identified 20 scales that were used among the 60 included articles. Further review revealed that 14 scales were variations of the Pittsburgh Steelers postconcussion scale (the Post-Concussion Scale, Post-Concussion Scale: Revised, Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT, Post-Concussion Symptom Scale: Vienna, Graded Symptom Checklist [GSC], Head Injury Scale, McGill ACE Post-Concussion Symptoms Scale, and CogState Sport Symptom Checklist), narrowing down to 6 core scales, which the authors discussed further. The 6 core scales were the Pittsburgh Steelers Post-Concussion Scale (17 items), Post-Concussion Symptom Assessment Questionnaire (10 items), Concussion Resolution Index postconcussion questionnaire (15 items), Signs and Symptoms Checklist (34 items), Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) postconcussion symptom scale (25 items), and Concussion Symptom Inventory (12 items). Each of the 6 core scales includes symptoms associated with sport-related concussion; however, the number of items on each scale varied. A 7-point Likert scale was used on most scales, with a smaller number using a dichotomous (yes/no) classification.
Only 7 of the 20 scales had published psychometric properties, and only 1 scale, the Concussion Symptom Inventory, was empirically driven (Rasch analysis), with development of the scale occurring before its clinical use. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) was reported for the Post-Concussion Scale (.87), Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item (.88–.94), Head Injury Scale 9-item (.78), and Head Injury Scale 16-item (.84). Test-retest reliability has been reported only for the Post-Concussion Scale (Spearman r = .55) and the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item (Pearson r = .65). With respect to validity, the SCAT postconcussion scale has demonstrated face and content validity, the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item and Head Injury Scale 9-item have reported construct validity, and the Head Injury Scale 9-item and 16-item have published factorial validity.
Sensitivity and specificity have been reported only with the GSC (0.89 and 1.0, respectively) and the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item when combined with the neurocognitive component of ImPACT (0.819 and 0.849, respectively). Meaningful change scores were reported for the Post-Concussion Scale (14.8 points), Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item (6.8 points), and Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item (standard error of the difference = 7.17; 80% confidence interval = 9.18).
Conclusions:
Numerous scales exist for measuring the number and severity of concussion-related symptoms, with most evolving from the neuropsychology literature pertaining to head-injured populations. However, very few of these were created in a systematic manner that follows scale development processes and have published psychometric properties. Clinicians need to understand these limitations when choosing and using a symptom scale for inclusion in a concussion assessment battery. Future authors should assess the underlying constructs and measurement properties of currently available scales and use the ever-increasing prospective data pools of concussed athlete information to develop scales following appropriate, systematic processes.
PMCID: PMC3418135  PMID: 22488289
mild traumatic brain injuries; evaluation; reliability; validity; sensitivity; specificity
14.  Measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) cancer module scale 
Background
The use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurements has been increased progressively in health surveys. These measurements document the functional and psychosocial outcomes of health conditions and complement clinical indicators to provide a comprehensive description of individuals and populations' health. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) is a promising instrument with age-appropriate versions. The objective of the current paper was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Cancer Module cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was developed with 190 Brazilian families of individuals from 2 to 18 years of age, of both genders, with cancer in various phases of treatment or control. Subjects were recruited by means of convenience samples from the Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Centers at two public hospitals. 'In-treatment' status was defined as individuals who were receiving medical care to induce remission. 'Off-treatment' status was defined as individuals for whom all therapy was completed for a period of at least one month. Reliability was determined through test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The validity of the Cancer Module was determined through discriminant and convergent validity. Correlations between the scores obtained by the children/adolescents with cancer and their guardians were assessed.
Results
Test-retest reliability demonstrated good correlation (0.69–0.90 for children/adolescents; 0.71–0.93 for guardians) and adequate agreement of the items (0.26–0.85 for children/adolescents; 0.25–0.87 for guardians). Internal consistency demonstrated adequate indices in comparisons between groups (α = 0.78–0.80 for children and adolescents; 0.68–0.88 for guardians). The 'pain and hurt', 'nausea', 'procedural anxiety' and 'treatment anxiety' subscales proved capable of distinguishing the groups of children in treatment and off treatment (p < 0.05). Positive significant correlations were observed between the scores of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Cancer Module and the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core scales. Weak correlations were found between the reports of the children and those of the guardians.
Conclusion
The Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Cancer Module exhibited good measurement properties regarding reproducibility and construct validity.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-7
PMCID: PMC2266904  PMID: 18211688
15.  Developing a tool to measure satisfaction among health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa 
Background
In sub-Saharan Africa, lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction have been cited as causes of poor healthcare quality and outcomes. Measurement of health workers’ satisfaction adapted to sub-Saharan African working conditions and cultures is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure satisfaction among health professionals in the sub-Saharan African context.
Methods
A survey was conducted in Senegal and Mali in 2011 among 962 care providers (doctors, midwives, nurses and technicians) practicing in 46 hospitals (capital, regional and district). The participation rate was very high: 97% (937/962). After exploratory factor analysis (EFA), construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The discriminant validity of our subscales was evaluated by comparing the average variance extracted (AVE) for each of the constructs with the squared interconstruct correlation (SIC), and finally for criterion validity, each subscale was tested with two hypotheses. Two dimensions of reliability were assessed: internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha subscales and stability over time using a test-retest process.
Results
Eight dimensions of satisfaction encompassing 24 items were identified and validated using a process that combined psychometric analyses and expert opinions: continuing education, salary and benefits, management style, tasks, work environment, workload, moral satisfaction and job stability. All eight dimensions demonstrated significant discriminant validity. The final model showed good performance, with a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.0508 (90% CI: 0.0448 to 0.0569) and a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.9415. The concurrent criterion validity of the eight dimensions was good. Reliability was assessed based on internal consistency, which was good for all dimensions but one (moral satisfaction < 0.70). Test-retest showed satisfactory temporal stability (intra class coefficient range: 0.60 to 0.91).
Conclusions
Job satisfaction is a complex construct; this study provides a multidimensional instrument whose content, construct and criterion validities were verified to ensure its suitability for the sub-Saharan African context. When using these subscales in further studies, the variability of the reliability of the subscales should be taken in to account for calculating the sample sizes. The instrument will be useful in evaluative studies which will help guide interventions aimed at improving both the quality of care and its effectiveness.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-11-30
PMCID: PMC3704923  PMID: 23826720
Job satisfaction; Sub-Saharan Africa; Health workers; Measurement
16.  Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses 
Background
The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale.
Methods
We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational.
Results
Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model.
Conclusion
This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional CVF subscales to non-supervisors, and underscores the importance of assessing psychometric properties of instruments in each new context and population to which they are applied. It also further highlights the challenges management scholars face in assessing organizational culture in a reliable and comparable way. More research is needed to determine if the emergent two-subscale solution is a valid or meaningful alternative and whether these findings generalize beyond VHA.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-2-13
PMCID: PMC1865551  PMID: 17459167
17.  Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults 
Background
Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity.
Methods
Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability.
Results
Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed.
Conclusion
The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older Thai adults in both community and clinical practice settings.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S66069
PMCID: PMC4116362  PMID: 25092971
active aging; scale development; psychometric evaluation; culturally sensitive measure; Thai elderly
18.  Test-retest reliability of IPAQ environmental- module in an African population 
Background
There is overwhelming evidence of the benefits of physical activity and the physical environment is increasingly recognized as a promising determinant of physical activity participation. The influence of the environment on physical activity has not been evaluated among black Africans and no specific measure exists for assessing environmental factors related to physical activity in an African environment. The IPAQ E- module was designed to assess environmental factors for physical activity participation and was considered to be relevant to all countries regardless of the stage of economic development. The objective of this study was to assess the test- retest reliability of IPAQ E- module in an African population.
Methods
One hundred and three clinical students of a University in Nigeria were invited to participate in the reliability testing of IPAQ E- module. Sixteen of the 17- items on the environmental measure were assessed for test- retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% Confidence interval (CI) overall and by gender. The measure addressed items regarding residential density, access to destinations, neighborhood infrastructures, aesthetic qualities, social environment, street connectivity and neighborhood safety.
Results
Of the total respondents, 51.5% were males and 48.5% were females. Overall, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.43 to 0.91. The item regarding many interesting things to look at (aesthetic) produced the overall highest reliability score (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86 – 0.94), while the item regarding safety from crime during the day (neighborhood safety) produced the lowest overall score (ICC = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26 – 0.57). Reliability of items on neighborhood infrastructures ranged between substantial agreement to almost perfect agreement overall (ICC = 0.66 – 0.88) and by gender (male- ICC = 0.68 – 0.90 and female- ICC = 0.63 – 0.86). The access to destination items (ICC = 0.49 – 0.74), social environment (ICC = 0.62) and street connectivity (ICC = 0.78) all had acceptable reliability overall. Meaningful differences were found between males and females on two items on neighborhood safety and one item on access to destinations.
Conclusion
The test- retest of IPAQ E- module resulted in moderate to almost perfect agreement for most of the items with few meaningful differences by gender. Environmental items of physical activity in an African population exhibited reliability similar to that in other environments. These results suggest that IPAQ E- module may be a useful measure for assessing environmental correlates of physical activity among population in Africa.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-38
PMCID: PMC2531132  PMID: 18680599
19.  Determining the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (KDQOL-36™) 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:115.
Background
Health-related quality of life is a crucial outcome for the chronic kidney disease population, the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) questionnaire is commonly used as an integral part of clinical evaluations. The abbreviated version of the KDQOL-36™ has been translated into Mandarin Chinese, but has not been tested for use in the Chinese patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the KDQOL-36™ with a sample of Chinese patients.
Methods
The Mandarin Chinese version of the KDQOL-36™ has been translated by Amgen, Inc. and the MAPI Institution following the instrument translation specifications provided by the RAND health. The translated instrument was further reviewed by a Chinese expert panel for content validity and translational equivalence. The KDQOL-36™ along with Beck depression Inventory-II were administrated to 103 chronic renal disease patients recruited through convenience sampling procedure from the renal wards and an outpatient dialysis clinic. The convergent validity was determined through investigating the correlational evidence of the KDQOL-36™ with the Beck depression Inventory-II and the overall health rating. Known-group validity was supported by the evidence that the instrument could differentiate subgroups of patients. The internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach’s α and test-retest reliability was examined using an intraclass correlation coefficient.
Results
For the convergent validity, there were positive correlations between the overall health rating and most of the KDQOL-36™ subscales, and the Beck depression inventory score was inversely correlated with the mental component summary score and disease-specific scores of the scale. Significant correlations were noted between disease-targeted and generic dimensions of the KDQOL-36™. The results of the known-group comparisons indicated females, the unemployed, and patients had a longer dialysis history reported a worse quality of life. With regard to the reliability, the Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.69 to 0.78, and the intraclass correlation test-retest was higher than 0.70.
Conclusions
The Mandarin Chinese version of the KDQOL-36™ is a brief, valid, and reliable instrument for use in examining the quality of life of chronic kidney disease patients in China.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-115
PMCID: PMC4115482  PMID: 25015224
20.  Patient centred assessment of quality of life for patients with four common conditions 
Quality in Health Care : QHC  1999;8(1):22-29.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a new quality of life measure, the patient generated index (PGI) of quality of life, in patients with four common clinical conditions. DESIGN: Prospective one year follow up study. SETTING: Outpatient departments and four general practices in Grampian, Scotland. SUBJECTS: 1746 patients consulting a general practitioner in one of four practices, or referred to outpatients from all Grampian practices over a four month period, with low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, and varicose veins. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postal questionnaire including the PGI, SF-36 health survey, and clinically derived condition specific measures of disease severity. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for group comparisons (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.65). Validity was confirmed by the observed association of the PGI with the SF-36, condition specific instruments, and sociodemographic variables. For low back pain, the PGI and the SF- 36 pain scale were found to be most responsive to clinical change. For patients with menorrhagia and suspected peptic ulcer, only the condition specific instruments detected larger changes than the PGI. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to develop a patient generated index of quality of life that not only assesses the extent to which patients' expectations are matched by reality but also satisfies criteria of reliability and responsiveness to change. Further work is required to make the PGI more acceptable and meaningful to patients, but it is believed that it offers an exciting new approach to the evaluation of medical care.
PMCID: PMC2483625  PMID: 10557665
21.  The SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): development and psychometric properties 
Background
Rising prevalence of secondary conditions among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused recent attention to potential health promotion programs designed to reduce such adverse health conditions. A healthy lifestyle for people with SCI, including and specifically, the adoption of a vigorous exercise routine, has been shown to produce an array of health benefits, prompting many providers to recommend the implementation of such activity to those with SCI. Successfully adopting such an exercise regimen however, requires confidence in one's ability to engage in exercise or exercise self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy has not been assessed adequately for people with SCI due to a lack of validated and reliable scales, despite self efficacy's status as one of the most widely researched concepts and despite its broad application in health promotion studies. Exercise self efficacy supporting interventions for people with SCI are only meaningful if appropriate measurement tools exist. The objective of our study was to develop a psychometrically sound exercise self-efficacy self-report measure for people with SCI.
Methods
Based on literature reviews, expert comments and cognitive testing, 10 items were included and made up the 4-point Likert SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) in its current form. The ESES was administered as part of the first wave of a nationwide survey (n = 368) on exercise behavior and was also tested separately for validity in four groups of individuals with SCI. Reliability and validity testing was performed using SPSS 12.0.
Results
Cronbach's alpha was .9269 for the ESES. High internal consistency was confirmed in split-half (EQ Length Spearman Brown = .8836). Construct validity was determined using principal component factor analysis by correlating the aggregated ESES items with the Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE). We found that all items loaded on one factor only and that there was a statistically significant correlation between Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) and Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Spearman RHO = .316; p < .05; n = 53, 2-sided).
Conclusion
Preliminary findings indicate that the ESES is a reliable instrument with high internal consistency and scale integrity. Content validity both in terms of face and construct validity is satisfactory.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-34
PMCID: PMC2034591  PMID: 17760999
22.  Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale 
Experimental Neurobiology  2013;22(4):330-336.
The sibling relationship and its potential impact on neurodevelopment and mental health are important areas of neuroscientific research. Validation of the tools assessing the quality of the sibling relationship would be the first essential step for conducting neurobiological and psychosocial studies related to the sibling relationship. However, to the best of our knowledge, no sibling relationship assessment tools have been empirically validated in Korean. We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS), which is one of the most commonly used self-report questionnaires to assess the quality of the sibling relationship. A total of 109 adults completed a series of self-report questionnaires including the LSRS, the mental health subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form 36 version 2 (SF36v2), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). The internal consistency, subscale intercorrelations, one-week test-retest reliability, convergent validity, divergent validity, and the construct validity were assessed. All six subscale scores and the total score of the LSRS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.85-0.94) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.77-0.92). Correlations of the LSRS with the SF36v2 mental health score (r=0.32, p=0.01) and with the SLS (r=0.27, p=0.04) supported the good convergent validity. The divergent validity was shown by the non-significant correlation of the LSRS with the MC-SDS (r=0.15, p=0.26). Two factors were extracted through factor analysis, which explained 78.63% of the total variance. The three Adult subscales loaded on the first factor and the three Child subscales loaded on the second factor. Results suggest that the Korean version of the LSRS is a reliable and valid tool for examining the sibling relationship.
doi:10.5607/en.2013.22.4.330
PMCID: PMC3897695  PMID: 24465149
sibling relationships; validity; reliability; lifespan sibling relationship scale; psychometrics
23.  Patient-reported outcome data generated in a clinical intervention in community mental health care - psychometric properties 
BMC Psychiatry  2012;12:113.
Background
DIALOG is an intervention to structure the communication between patient and key worker, which has been shown to improve patient outcomes in community mental health care. As part of the intervention, patients provide ratings of their subjective quality of life (SQOL) on eight Likert type items and their treatment satisfaction on three such items. This study explored the psychometric qualities of the outcome data generated in the DIALOG intervention to explore whether they may be used for evaluating treatment outcomes.
Method
Data were taken from 271 patients who received the DIALOG intervention. All patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder and treated in community mental health care. For SQOL and treatment satisfaction as assessed in the DIALOG intervention, we established the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), the convergent validity of SQOL items (correlation with Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life [MANSA]) and treatment satisfaction items (correlation with Client Satisfaction Questionnaire [CSQ]), the concurrent validity (correlations with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]) and the sensitivity to change (t-test comparing ratings of the first and last intervention). We also explored the factorial structure of the eight SQOL items.
Results
The internal consistency of the eight SQOL items was .71 and of the three treatment satisfaction items .57. SQOL scores were correlated with the MANSA (r = .95) and PANSS scores (general psychopathology: r = −.37, positive symptoms: r = −.27, negative symptoms: r = −.27). Treatment satisfaction scores were correlated with the CSQ (r = 0.36) and the PANSS (r = −.29, -.20, -.20). SQOL and treatment satisfaction score improved significantly over time. SQOL items loaded on two meaningful factors, one capturing health and personal safety and one reflecting other life domains.
Conclusions
The psychometric qualities of the SQOL scores generated in DIALOG are strong. The properties of the three treatment satisfaction items may be seen as acceptable. Although DIALOG has been designed as a therapeutic intervention, it can generate outcome data on SQOL and treatment satisfaction with acceptable psychometric qualities.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-113
PMCID: PMC3499293  PMID: 22900667
24.  The Chinese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) 3.0 Asthma Module: reliability and validity 
Background
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been recognized as an important health outcome measurement for pediatric patients. One of the most promising instruments in measuring pediatric HRQOL emerged in recent years is the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module, one of the PedsQL™disease-specific scales, was designed to measure HRQOL dimensions specifically tailored for pediatric asthma. The present study is aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module.
Methods
The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was translated into Chinese following the PedsQL™ Measurement Model Translation Methodology. The Chinese version scale was administered to 204 children with asthma and 337 parents of children with asthma from four Triple A hospitals. The psychometric properties were then evaluated.
Results
The percentage of missing value for each item of the scale ranged from 0.00% to 8.31%. All child self-report subscales and parent proxy-report subscales approached or exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70 for alpha coefficient, except 3 subscales of Young Child (aged 5-7) self-report (alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.68). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) which exceeded the recommended standard of 0.80 in all subscales. Correlation coefficients between items and their hypothesized subscales were higher than those with other subscales. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module distinguished between outpatients and inpatients. Patients with mild asthma reported higher scores than those with moderate/severe asthma in majority of subscales. The intercorrelations among the PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module subscales and the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were in medium to large effect size. The child self-report scores were consistent with the parent proxy-report scores.
Conclusions
The Chinese version of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module has acceptable psychometric properties, except the internal consistency reliability for Young Child (aged 5-7) self-report. Further studies should be focused on testing responsiveness of the Chinese version scale in longitudinal studies, evaluating the reliability and validity of the scale for the patients with severe asthma or teens independently, and assessing HRQOL of children with asthma in other areas.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-64
PMCID: PMC3161836  PMID: 21819618
Asthma; Children; Health-related quality of life; Reliability; Validity; PedsQL
25.  Considering the Balance: Development of a Scale to Assess Patient Views on Tradeoffs in Competing Health Outcomes 
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Tradeoffs among competing health outcomes complicate the treatment of older, multimorbid adults, but little is known about patient attitudes towards these tradeoffs. This study describes the development of a scale assessing participants’ attitudes regarding two commonly encountered tradeoffs: quality versus quantity of life, and present versus future health.
DESIGN
Observational cohort study.
SETTING
Community.
PARTICIPANTS
Three hundred and fifty seven community-dwelling adults age ≥ 65.
MEASUREMENTS
An initial set of 20 items rated on a 5-point Likert scale of agreement was reduced using principal components analysis. Construct validity was evaluated through comparison of the scale with other tools addressing the same tradeoffs and analysis of participant characteristics associated with attitudes favoring quality over quantity of life and present over future health. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).
RESULTS
The scale consists of two subscales, each addressing one tradeoff, with a total of 10 items. All factor loadings were ≥ .5 and subscale scores were significantly different (p≤.05) in the expected directions when comparing with other tools and with participant race, education, and religious identity. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s α .85 and .84), and test-retest reliability was fair (ICC .63 and .47). Subscale scoremedians fell near the middle of each scale with narrow interquartile ranges, butover 15% of the sample scored at an extreme of each subscale.
CONCLUSION
This new scale captures patient views on two common tradeoffs in healthcare. While test-retest reliability was modest, its high validity suggests this tool can be used to familiarize patients with common tradeoffs and further explore influences on patient attitudes.
doi:10.1111/jgs.12358
PMCID: PMC3743932  PMID: 23869795
Health priorities; decision-making; geriatric assessment/methods; quality of life; comorbidity

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