Background & objectives:
Hyperthyroidism causes bone loss, and its treatment may restore bone mass, however, concomitant vitamin D deficiency may prevent this. We undertook this study to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) 25 (OH) vitamin D levels in patients with Graves disease in our population which is predominently vitamin D deficient and how we change with when patients become euthyroid.
The biochemical, thyroid functions, serum vitamin D levels and BMD were estimated in 80 consecutive patients with Graves and 80 euthyroid controls. Patients were treated and rendered euthyroid. Fifty four completed one year, and 27 completed two years of follow up.
Patients had significant reduced BMD during hyperthyroid state compared to normal healthy controls. The mean vitamin D levels at baseline were in the insufficient range both patients (12.67±6.24 ng/ml) and controls (10.99±7.05 ng/ml). The BMD improved at all sites with antithyroid treatment. But, the BMD adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and age at all sites showed significant decrease with time.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Age and body mass index positively correlated with BMD. There was improvement in absolute BMD of patients at one and two years of follow up. When the BMD was adjusted for age and BMI, there was a decrease in BMD at one year which was less in the second year including that the damage in BMD caused by thyroid hormone excess is not made up even after two years of patient being euthyroid. Whether vitamin D replacement would change this needs to be studied.
Bone mineral density; Graves’disease; hyperthyroidism; vitamin D deficiency
To identify high-risk patients and provide pharmacological treatment is one of the effective approaches in prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This study investigated the effect of 12-month Alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover biochemical markers in postmenopausal women with one or more non-traumatic fractures, i.e. patients with established osteoporosis.
A total of 118 Hong Kong postmenopausal Chinese women aged 50 to 75 with low-energy fracture at distal radius (Colles' fracture) were recruited for BMD measurement at lumbar spine and non-dominant hip using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). 47 women with BMD T-score below -2 SD at either side were identified as patients with established osteoporosis and then randomized into Alendronate group (n = 22) and placebo control group (n = 25) for BMD measurement at spine and hip using DXA and distal radius of the non-fracture side by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and bone turnover markers, including bone forming alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and bone resorbing urinary Deoxypyridinoline (DPD). All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months.
Alendronate treatment significantly increased BMD, more in weight-bearing skeletons (5.1% at spine and 2.5% at hip) than in non-weight bearing skeleton (0.9% at distal radius) after 12 months treatment. Spine T-score was significant improved in Alendronate group (p < 0.01) (from -2.2 to -1.9) but not in control placebo group. The Alendronate treatment effect was explained by significant suppression of bone turnover.
12 months Alendronate treatment was effective to increase BMD at both axial and appendicular skeletons in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.
Background & objectives:
Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased food intake, energy expenditure and altered body composition. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of adipocytokines in weight homeostasis in patients with hyperthyroidism.
Patients (n=27, 11men) with hyperthyroidism (20 Graves’ disease, 7 toxic multinodular goiter) with mean age of 31.3±4.2 yr and 28 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls were studied. They underwent assessment of lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat (TBF) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA) and blood sample was taken in the fasting state for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids. Patients were re-evaluated after 3 months of treatment as by that time all of them achieved euthyroid state with carbimazole therapy.
The LBM was higher (P<0.001) in healthy controls as compared to hyperthyroid patients even after adjustment for body weight (BW), whereas total body fat was comparable between the two groups. Serum leptin levels were higher in patients with hyperthyroidism than controls (22.3±3.7 and 4.1±0.34 ng/ml, P<0.001), whereas adiponectin levels were comparable. Plasma acylated ghrelin was higher in patients than in controls (209.8±13.3 vs 106.2±8.2 pg/ml, P<0.05). Achievement of euthyroidism was associated with significant weight gain (P<0.001) and significant increase in lean body mass (P<0.001). The total body fat also increased but insignificantly from 18.4±1.8 to 19.9±1.8 kg. There was significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum leptin and acylated ghrelin but adiponectin levels remained unaltered after treatment. Serum leptin positively correlated with TBF and this correlation persisted even after adjustment for BW, BMI, gender and age (r=0.62, P=0.001). However, serum leptin and acylated ghrelin did not correlate with the presence or absence of hyperphagia.
Interpretation & conclusion:
Patients with hyperthyroidism predominantly had decreased lean body mass which increased after achievement of euthyroidism with carbimazole. The hyperphagia and the alterations in weight homeostasis associated with hyperthyroidism were independent of circulating leptin and ghrelin levels.
Adipocytokines; body composition; ghrelin; hyperphagia; hyperthyroidism
In men, idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) is often associated with low serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and reduced bone formation. The characteristics of premenopausal women with IOP are not well defined. We aimed to define the clinical, reproductive, and biochemical characteristics of premenopausal women with unexplained osteoporosis.
This is a cross-sectional study of 64 women with unexplained osteoporosis, 45 with fragility fractures, 19 with low bone mineral density (BMD; Z-score less than or equal to −2.0) and 40 normal controls. The following are the main outcome measures: clinical and anthropometric characteristics, reproductive history, BMD, gonadal and calciotropic hormones, IGF-1, and bone turnover markers (BTMs).
Subjects had lower BMI and BMD than controls, but serum and urinary calcium, serum estradiol, vitamin D metabolites, IGF-1, and most BTMs were similar. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the resorption marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), were significantly higher in both groups of subjects than controls and directly associated in all groups. Serum IGF-1 and all BTMs were directly associated in controls, but the association was not significant after controlling for age. There was no relationship between serum IGF-1 and BTMs in subjects. There were few differences between women with fractures and low BMD.
Higher serum TRAP5b and PTH suggest that increased bone turnover, possibly related to subclinical secondary hyperparathyroidism could contribute to the pathogenesis of IOP. The absence of differences between women with fractures and those with very low BMD indicates that this distinction may not be clinically useful to categorize young women with osteoporosis.
Bone turnover markers; IGF-1; Premenopausal osteoporosis
In men aged less than 60, the association of serum and urinary levels of biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) is weak or not significant. After this age, higher BTM levels are correlated weakly, but significantly, with lower BMD and faster bone loss. Limited data from the cohort studies suggest that BTM measurement does not improve the prediction of fragility fractures in older men in comparison with age, BMD, history of falls and fragility fractures. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) decreases bone resorption. During TRT, bone formation markers slightly increase (direct effect on osteoblasts), then decrease (slowdown of bone turnover). Bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronate) induce a rapid decrease in bone resorption followed by a milder decrease in bone formation. In men receiving antiresorptive therapy for prostate cancer, zoledronate, denosumab and toremifene decrease significantly levels of bone resorption and bone formation markers. Teriparatide induced a rapid increase in serum concentrations of bone formation markers followed by an increase in bone resorption. We need more studies on the utility of BTM measurement for the improvement of the persistence and adherence to the anti-osteoporotic treatment in men.
This study assessed whether relatives with low bone mineral density (BMD) could be identified in five large families using historical, biochemical, and genetic markers for osteoporosis. Fifty of 65 relatives had their bone density and bone turnover markers measured, together with an assessment of their risk factors for osteoporosis. Only 33% (5/15) of siblings, 50% (6/12) of children and 43% (10/23) of nephews and nieces had entirely normal BMD. There was no difference in life-style risk factors for osteoporosis, history of previous fractures or body mass index between normal subjects and those with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Osteopenic individuals had a significantly higher than normal osteocalcin value. Within families, there was no clear association between BMD and any of the genetic markers (vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, COL 1A1 and COL 1A2 polymorphisms of the collagen gene), either alone or in combination. The addition of genetic markers to the other risk factors for low BMD did not improve the prediction of BMD. In conclusion, we suggest that the presence of osteoporosis in a first degree relative should be one of the clinical indications for bone density measurement as the individuals at risk would not be picked up by other methods.
OBJECTIVES--To determine whether there was a generalised increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in spinal osteoarthrosis (OA), and to determine the mechanism of this possible protection against osteoporosis as assessed by biochemical markers of bone turnover. METHODS--We studied 375 women (ages 50 to 85) from a population based group. Spinal OA was defined from radiographs as the presence of degenerative changes affecting intervertebral or facet joints. BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total body (TB) was measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX). Bone turnover rates were estimated from measurement of biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption (urine deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr) and serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP)). RESULTS--BMD at each site was greater in the women with spinal OA (mean increase in LS-BMD 7.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 15.1; TB-BMD 8.4%, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.7; FN-BMD 6.4%, 95% CI 0.3 to 12.6). Twenty four hour urinary excretion of Dpyr, corrected for TB bone mineral content, and serum BAP were 19% lower in the women with spinal OA (95% CI for Dpyr 4.3 to 31.9%; for BAP 6.3 to 32.0%). CONCLUSIONS--Spinal OA is associated with a generalised increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone turnover. This suggests that the protective effect of spinal OA against osteoporosis may be mediated by decreased bone turnover.
Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IHC) is defined as a 24-hour urinary calcium excretion that exceeds 4 mg/kg/day, regardless of gender and in absence of systemic diseases or pharmacological treatments that may cause normocalcemic hypercalciuria (eg sarcoidosis, normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, hyperthyroidism). Patients with IHC and nephrolithiasis often present increased bone turnover, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased susceptibility to fragility fractures. Although the pathogenesis of IHC seems complex and multifactorial, recent evidences suggest that cells involved in bone resorption may play a critical role in the chain of events leading to the excessive urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it has been proposed that bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption, may have beneficial effects in hypercalciuric patients with low BMD. This manuscript reports recent findings regarding the role of bone tissue in the pathogenesis of IHC, and supports the use of bisphosphonates in such conditions. It also reviews the literature on the effects of bisphosphonates in subjects with osteoporosis-associated IHC.
bisphosphonates; idiopathic hypercalciuria (IHC); osteoporosis; treatment
The present study measured longitudinal changes in bone turnover markers in elderly patients with vertebral fracture and investigated the relationship among bone turnover markers, duration of bed rest and bone mineral density (BMD).
Criteria for patient selection were 50 years in age and older, and presence of VF. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured as a marker of bone formation. Urinary crosslinked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) was measured as a marker of bone resorption. In principle, samples were collected just after injury, within 24 h, and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks after. We also measured duration of bed rest and BMD.
The study population consisted of 42 cases. The average BMD of the lumbar vertebrae was 0.670 ± 0.174 g/cm2. Bed rest period was 17.9 ± 8.8 days. BAP showed significantly higher values at 2 and 3 weeks compared with the baseline value. Thereafter, BAP progressively decreased until 8 weeks. Urinary NTX was increased soon after the onset of pain with the same patterns in BAP. Urinary NTX values reached a peak at 3 weeks, and then they kept significantly higher values until 8 weeks. The peak value of serum BAP was affected by the duration of bed rest, although that of the urinary NTX was not. The peak values of serum BAP and urinary NTX showed negative correlations with the initial BMD values.
Bone turnover markers remained higher at 8 weeks, even patients symptom was healed after VF. Bone turnover markers were affected on physical activity and BMD.
Vertebral fracture; bone turnover marker; osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis in men has gained recognition as a public health problem, generating an interest in the search for risk factors. Isolation of individual risk factors could allocate disproportionate attention to relationships that may be of limited consequence.
The Boston Area Community Health/Bone (BACH/Bone) Survey is a population-based study of randomly-selected community-dwelling men (age 30-79 y). Bone mineral density (BMD) and lean mass were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Socioeconomic status, health history, and lifestyle factors were obtained via interview. Hormone levels and markers of bone turnover were obtained from non-fasting blood samples. Multivariate analyses measured relative contributions of covariates to femoral neck (hip), 1/3 distal radius (wrist), and lumbar spine BMD.
Factors positively associated with BMD in multivariate models at the three sites were black race and appendicular lean mass. Asthma was consistently negatively associated. Various other risk factors also contributed significantly to each of the individual sites. R2 values for the hip, wrist, and spine were 41%, 30%, and 24% respectively. Lean mass accounted for the most explained variance at all three sites.
These data emphasize the limitation of focusing on individual risk factors and highlight the importance of potentially modifiable lean mass in predicting BMD.
aging; body composition; bone mineral density; men; population studies
It is not clear whether bone turnover markers can be used to make inference regarding changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in untreated healthy elderly men. The present study was designed to address three specific questions: (i) is there a relationship between bone turnover markers and femoral neck BMD within an individual; (ii) is there a relationship between baseline measurements of bone turnover markers and subsequent change in BMD; and (iii) is there a relationship between changes in bone turnover markers and changes in femoral neck BMD?
The present study was part of the on-going Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, which was designed as a prospective investigation. Men who had had at least 3 sequential visits with serum samples available during follow-up were selected from the study population. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sICTP), N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (sPINP) and femoral neck BMD were measured by competitive radioimmunoassays. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by a densitometer (GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI). Various mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between the markers and changes in BMD.
One hundred and one men aged 70 ± 4.1 years (mean ± SD) met the criteria of selection for analysis. On average, sPINP decreased by 0.7% per year (p = 0.026), sICTP increased by 1.7% per year (p = 0.0002), and femoral neck BMD decreased by 0.4% per year (p < 0.01). Within-subject analysis indicated that changes in BMD were significantly associated with changes in sPINP (p = 0.022), but not with changes in sICTP (p = 0.84). However, neither baseline sPINP (p = 0.50) nor baseline sICTP (p = 0.63) was associated with subsequent changes in BMD. Moreover, changes in BMD were not significantly associated with previous changes in sPINP (p = 0.13) or sICTP (p = 0.95).
These results suggest that in elderly men of Caucasian background, changes in sPINP were inversely related to changes in BMD within an individual. However, neither sPINP nor sICTP was sufficiently sensitive to predict the rate of change in BMD for a group of individuals or for an individual.
India seems to have the highest prevalence of osteoporosis. With growing awareness of osteoporosis and its impact on life span especially in India, special attention is being paid to early detection, management and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Measurement of BMD and osteocalcin are of value in estimating bone turnover rates. The aim of this study is (1) to measure the specific, sensitive bone formation marker such as osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis women and postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women; (2) the follow up study to evaluate the impact of specific antiresorptive therapy (alendronate + calcium + vitamin D) regimen in postmenopausal osteoporosis by assaying osteocalcin and BMD. Sixty clinically diagnosed postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and 60 normal subjects (postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women) were recruited as control. Mean bone mineral density T score and Z score was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients as compared to controls. Highly significant increase in the mean score of BMD—T score and Z score from baseline to post therapy of 3 months was observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly increased (P < 0.001) as compared to control group. Serum osteocalcin levels were decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from baseline to post therapy of 3 months in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. BMD is the best quantifiable predictor of osteoporotic fracture and osteocalcin is specific, sensitive, promising, currently used marker for better prognosis of osteoporosis and for monitoring responses to antiresorptive therapy.
Bone formation marker; Bone mineral density; Postmenopausal osteoporosis
In 100 patients with various types of endocrine dysfunction, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the midradius (greater than 95% cortical bone) and distal radius (75% cortical and 25% trabecular bone) by single photon absorptiometry and at the lumbar spine (greater than 66% trabecular bone) using the new technique of dual photon absorptiometry. BMD in each endocrine disorder deviated in at least one site from the sex-specific age regression of 187 normal subjects. For patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercortisolism, and hyperthyroidism this deviation was negative (suggesting bone loss), whereas for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure, acromegaly, and postsurgical hypoparathyroidism it was positive (suggesting bone gain). When all six states of endocrine dysfunction were compared concomitantly by multivariate analysis of variance, the profile of the changes in BMD differed significantly (P less than 0.001), indicating a nonuniform response of bone to the various hormonal alterations. When values for BMD at each of the three scanning sites were compared the midradius and distal radius did not differ significantly; either of the radius measurements, however, differed significantly (P less than 0.001) from the lumbar spine. Thus, the BMD of the axial skeleton cannot be reliably predicted from measurements made in the appendicular skeleton. We conclude that the effects of endocrine dysfunction on bone density are complex and are both disease and site specific.
Hyperthyroidism can lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk particularly in postmenopausal women, but the mechanism behind is still unclear.
Prospective examination of the influence of thyroid hormones and/or thyroid autoantibodies on BMD in premenopause.
We have examined 32 premenopausal women with untreated active Graves' disease from time of diagnosis, during 18 months of antithyroid drug therapy (ATD) and additionally 18 months after discontinuing ATD. Variables of thyroid metabolism, calcium homeostasis and body composition were measured every 3 months. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured at baseline, 18 ± 3 and 36 ± 3 months. Data were compared to base line, a sex- and age matched control group and a group of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with non-suppressive doses of levothyroxine.
The study showed significantly (p < 0.002) lower BMD in the thyrotoxic state compared to the control group with subsequent significant improvement during 18 ± 3 months of ATD compared to baseline (p < 0.001). However, during the following 18 months after stopping ATD femoral neck BMD decreased again unrelated to age (more than 0.4% per year, p < 0,002). The wellestablished effect of thyrotoxicosis on calcium homeostasis was confirmed. The positive predictor for best BMD was TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) while free T4 correlated negatively in the thyrotoxic female Graves' patients (p < 0.02 and p < 0.003). In healthy controls and patients with treated Graves' disease both TSH and T4 correlated negatively to the bone mass (BMC) (p < 0.003).
The results indicated a clinically relevant impact of thyroid function on bone modulation also in premenopausal women with Graves' disease, and further indicated the possibility for a direct action of TRAb on bones.
Hormone ablation therapy (HALT) for breast or prostate cancer accelerates the development of osteoporosis in both men and women by causing estrogen deficiency, which increases the risk for fracture by promoting bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits osteoclast formation and function, increases bone mass in patients undergoing hormone ablation therapy. In the HALT study of 1,468 men with prostate cancer on androgen-deprivation therapy, denosumab significantly reduced the risk of new vertebral fractures, increased bone mineral density (BMD), and reduced markers of bone turnover. In a study of 252 women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, denosumab increased BMD at 12 and 24 months, overall and in all patient subgroups. The overall rates of adverse events were similar to placebo. Clinicians should consider fracture risk assessment and therapies such as denosumab to increase bone mass in patients on hormone ablation therapy who are at high risk for fracture.
denosumab; treatment-induced bone loss; hormone-ablation therapy; breast cancer; prostate cancer
The objectives of this study were to determine whether type-2 diabetes was associated with a higher bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women and to evaluate the differences in mineral metabolism between diabetic and normal subjects by using biochemical bone turnover markers. In this study, 52 patients (37 females/15 males) aged 41-64 with type-2 diabetes mellitus and 48 nondiabetic control subjects (34 females/14 males) were evaluated. In men, BMD was significantly higher in diabetics at the forearm (p <0.05), whereas in women tended to be higher at the hip (p=0.002). Serum osteocalcin (p<0.0001), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) (p<0.05) and carboxyterminal telopeptide (CTx) (p<0.05) were higher in the control group than in diabetics. In men, serum osteocalcin (p<0.05) and CTx (p<0.005) and, in women, serum osteocalcin (p<0.0001) and BAP (p<0.05) were lower in diabetic subjects. In conclusion, our findings suggest that although bone formation is decreased in type-2 diabetes, diabetic patients are not susceptible to bone resorption. This low bone turnover can slow the rate of bone loss and cause a higher bone density than expected for their age.
The comparative effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover have already been established in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. An open-labeled prospective study was conducted to compare the treatment effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on hip BMD and bone turnover in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia with clinical risk factors for fractures.
Materials and Methods
One hundred twelve men with osteoporosis or osteopenia with clinical risk factors for fractures (mean age: 71.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups of 56 patients each: the alendronate (5 mg daily) and alfacalcidol (1 µg daily) groups. The BMD of the total hip, urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX), and serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) were measured during the 12-month-treatment period.
Forty-five patients in the alendronate group and 42 patients in the alfacalcidol group completed the trial. Alendronate increased BMD (+2.3% at 12 months) following reductions in the urinary level of NTX (-46.4% at 3 months) and serum level of BSAP (-34.1% at 12 months), while alfacalcidol sustained BMD (-1.9% at 12 months) as well as the urinary level of NTX (+13.2% at 3 months) and serum level of BSAP (+1.8% at 12 months).
The present study confirmed that alendronate has better efficacy than alfacalcidol (active control) in increasing hip BMD and reducing bone turnover in Japanese men with osteoporosis or osteopenia with clinical risk factors for fractures.
Alendronate; alfacalcidol; fracture risk; men; osteoporosis; osteopenia
Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD) than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean) and osteoporotic fracture.
Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women) with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.
The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (−42.5% at 3 months and −18.9% at 3 years), and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years), compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.
The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.
osteoporosis; fragility fracture; bone mineral density; bone turnover
We investigated bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in female bipolar patients who were undergoing long-term treatment with valproate combined with a low-dose atypical antipsychotic.
Nineteen premenopausal women with bipolar disorder who were treated with valproate combined with atypical antipsycho-tics for at least 2 years were evaluated. The BMD was measured at lumbar spine and femur sites using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DE-XA). The biochemical markers of bone turnover and circulating levels of gonadal hormones were assessed. Subjects with abnormal DEXA scans were compared to those with normal scans.
Nine (47%) of nineteen subjects showed osteopenia or osteoporosis. The T-score for subjects with abnormal DEXA scans was -1.988. Decreased BMD was more prominent in the proximal femur than in the lumbar spine. Subjects with abnormal DEXA scans had high phosphorus and low testosterone levels relative to subjects with normal scans (p=0.008 and p=0.028, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between phosphorus, osteocalcin, and femur neck BMD (p<0.05). However, multivariate analysis did not show a significant association between femur and lumbar BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover.
Long-term treatment with valproate combined with low-dose atypical antipsychotics may adversely affect BMD in premenopausal women with bipolar disorder. A prospective, controlled-study with a larger population is warranted, and assessment of BMD and bone metabolism should be taken into consideration in long-term therapy with valproate and atypical antipsychotics.
Bipolar disorder; Bone density; Bone metabolism; Females; Valproate
To review the clinical value of bone turnover markers (BTM), to initiate and/or monitor anti-resorptive treatment for osteoporosis compared with bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate suitable BTM and changes in BTM levels for significance of treatment efficiency.
Consensus meeting generating guidelines for clinical practice after review and discussion of the randomised controlled trials or meta-analyses on the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Although the correlation between BMD and BTM is statistically significant, BTM cannot be used as predictive markers of BMD in an individual patient. Both are independent predictors of fracture risk, but BTM can only be used as an additional risk factor in the decision to treat. Current data do not support the use of BTM to select the optimal treatment. However, they can be used to monitor treatment efficiency before BMD changes can be evaluated. Early changes in BTM can be used to measure the clinical efficacy of an anti-resorptive treatment and to reinforce patient compliance.
Determining a threshold of BTM reflecting an optimal long-term effect is not obvious. The objective should be the return to the premenopausal range and/or a decrease at least equal to the least significant change (30%). Preanalytical and analytical variability of BTM is an important limitation to their use. Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), procollagen 1 N terminal extension peptide and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP) appear to be the most suitable.
Consensus regarding the use of BTM resulted in guidelines for clinical practice. BMD determines the indication to treat osteoporosis. BTM reflect treatment efficiency and can be used to motivate patients to persist with their medication.
To investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on bone, body composition, muscle, physical function, and safety in older men.
Design, Setting, Participants
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was done at a major medical institution of 131 men (mean 77.1 ± 7.6 yr) with low testosterone level, history of fracture or bone mineral density (BMD) T-score of < −2.0 AND frailty.
Participants received 5 mg/d testosterone (AndroGel™) or placebo for 12–24 months; all received calcium (1500 mg/d diet and supplement) and cholecalciferol (1000 IU/d).
BMD of hip, lumbar spine, and mid-radius, body composition, sex and calcium regulating hormones, bone turnover markers, strength, physical performance, and safety parameters.
Ninety -nine men (75.6%) completed 12 months and 62 men (47.3%) completed end therapy (mean 23 months; range 16–24 months for 62 men in this group). Study adherence was 54%, 40% of subjects maintaining 70% or greater adherence. Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone levels at 12 months were 583 ng/dL and 157 ng/dL in the treatment group. BMD on testosterone increased 1.38% at the femoral neck, 3.25% at the lumbar spine (p=.005) and decreased by 1.29% at the mid-radius (p=.0008). There was an increase in lean mass and decrease in fat mass in the testosterone group, but no differences in strength or physical performance. Finally, there were no differences in safety parameters.
Older, frail men receiving testosterone replacement increased testosterone levels, had favorable changes in body composition, modest changes in axial BMD, and no substantial changes physical function.
testosterone; osteoporosis; frailty; hypogonadism
AIM—To study bone turnover
following renal transplantation using a panel of biochemical markers
and to correlate the results with both areal and volumetric bone
mineral density (BMD).
PATIENTS—A total of 31 patients
aged 18.1 years were transplanted 5.4 years before this study. Control
patients (n = 31) were age and gender matched.
METHODS—In addition to measurement
of biochemical markers, BMD was measured by single photon
absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography
on the non-dominant radius.
RESULTS—Patients had reduced
glomerular filtration rate, raised concentrations of serum
phosphate, serum procollagene type I carboxy terminal propeptide,
osteocalcin, and serum procollagene type I cross linked carboxy
terminal telopeptide. The differences were still significant if only
patients with normal intact parathyroid hormone were considered.
BMD single photon absorptiometry Z score for age was significantly
decreased. Following standardisation for height the differences were no
longer present. With volumetric techniques patients had normal
trabecular but decreased cortical and total BMD compared to age matched
controls, but there was no difference from height matched controls.
CONCLUSION—Markers of bone turnover
are increased following renal transplantation. However, the biochemical
analysis did not allow conclusions to be drawn on the bone mineral
content. BMD single photon absorptiometry Z score corrected for height
and BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography compared to height
matched controls were normal in paediatric renal transplantation
patients. Height matched controls should be used in both areal and
volumetric BMD measurements in states of growth failure.
Osteoporosis is prevalent among the elderly and is a major cause of bone fracture in this population. Bone integrity is maintained by the dynamic processes of bone resorption and bone formation (bone remodeling). Osteoporosis results when there is an imbalance of the two counteracting processes. Bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry has been the primary method to assess fracture risk for decades. Recent studies demonstrated that measurement of bone turnover markers allows for a dynamic assessment of bone remodeling, while imaging techniques, such as dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, do not. The application of proteomics has permitted discoveries of new, sensitive, bone turnover markers, which provide unique information for clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with bone diseases. This review summarizes the recent findings of proteomic studies on bone diseases, properties of mesenchymal stem cells with high expansion rates and osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, with emphasis on the role of quantitative proteomics in the study of signaling dynamics, biomarkers and discovery of therapeutic targets.
bone mineral density; bone remodeling; bone turnover marker; osteoporosis; quantitative proteomics
The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), such as Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), appear to develop as a result of complex interactions between predisposing genes and environmental triggers. Susceptibility to AITDs is conferred by genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and genes unlinked to HLA, including the CTLA-4 gene. Recently, estrogen receptor (ER) β, located at human chromosome 14q23-24.1, was identifed. We analyzed a dinucleotide (CA)n repeat polymorphism located in the flanking region of ERβ gene in patients with AITDs and in normal subjects. High heterozygosity makes this polymorphism a useful marker in the genetic study of disorders affecting female endocrine systems. We also correlated a ERβ gene microsatellite polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) in the distal radius and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with GD in remission.
Fourteen different alleles were found in 133 patients with GD, 114 patients with HT, and 179 controls subjects. The various alleles were designated as allele*1 through allele*14 according to the number of the repeats, from 18 to 30. There was no significant difference in the distributions of ERβ alleles between patient groups and controls. Although recent study demonstrated a significant relation between a allele*9 in the ERβ gene and BMD in postmenopausal Japanese women, there were no statistically significant interaction between this allele and BMD in the distal radius, nor biochemical markers in patients with GD in remission.
The present results do not support an association between the ERβ microsatellite marker and AITD in the Japanese population. We also suggest that the ERβ microsatellite polymorphism has at most a minor pathogenic importance in predicting the risk of osteoporosis as a complication of GD.
The study was made to evaluate bone turnover in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients undergoing long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Thirty-eight female patients with established SLE were compared with a control group consisting from 160 age-matched healthy women. Serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and some biochemical markers of osteoporosis (osteocalcin, total and bone alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type I carboxyterminal propeptide, carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen--CTx) were measured. Additionally, morning urine excretions of deoxypyridinoline and calcium/creatinin ratios were determined. The forearm densitometry (DXA) was performed in all patients. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the SLE group was not significantly different from the controls, and no relationship was found between the glucocorticoid exposure and the BMC/BMD. However, biochemical markers of bone resorption--CTx and calcium/creatinin ratio--were significantly increased in the patient group. Our results suggest that BMD/BMC is preserved in glucocorticoid-treated SLE patients despite accelerated bone turnover.