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1.  Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Observations from a 20-Year Registry in a Middle-Eastern Country 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40571.
Objectives
Clinical characteristics and trends in the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes in patients presented with ACS with or without a history of prior CABG over 2 decades.
Methods
Data were derived from hospital-based study for collected data from 1991 through 2010 of patients hospitalized with ACS in Doha, Qatar. Data were analyzed according to their history of prior CABG. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcome were compared.
Results
A total 16,750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied, of which 693 (4.1%) had prior CABG. Patients with prior CABG were older (mean 60.5±11 vs. 53±12 years; P = 0.001), more likely to be females and have more cardiovascular risk factors than the non-CABG group. Prior CABG patients had larger infarct size, were less likely to receive reperfusion therapy, early invasive therapy and more likely to receive evidence-based therapies when compared to non-CABG patients. In-hospital mortality and stroke rates were comparable between the 2 groups. Over 2 decades, there was reduction in the in-hospital mortality rates and stroke rates in both groups (CABG, death; 13.2% to 4%, stroke; 1.9% to 0.0%, non-CABG, death; 10% to 3.2%, stroke 1.0% to 0.1%; all, p = 0.001).
Conclusion
Significant reduction in-hospital morbidity and mortality among ACS patients with prior CABG over a 20-year period.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040571
PMCID: PMC3399890  PMID: 22815766
2.  Does prior coronary artery bypass surgery alter the gender gap in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome? A 20-year retrospective cohort study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e001969.
Objectives
Previous studies demonstrated women presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have poor outcomes when compared with men ‘the gender gap phenomenon’. The impact of prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) on women presenting with ACS is unknown. We hypothesised that the gender gap is altered in ACS patients with prior CABG. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients presenting with ACS according to their gender and history of prior CABG.
Design
Retrospective, observational (cohort) study.
Setting
Data were collected from hospital-based registry of patients hospitalised with ACS in Doha, Qatar, from 1991 through 2010. The data were analysed according to their gender and history of prior CABG.
Participants
A total of 16 750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied. In total, 693 (4.3%) patients had prior CABG; among them 125 (18%) patients were women.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Comparisons of clinical characteristics, inhospital treatment, and outcomes, including inhospital mortality and stroke were made.
Results
Women with or without prior CABG were older, less likely to be smokers, but more likely to have diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and renal impairment than men (p=0.001). Women were less likely to receive reperfusion and early invasive therapies. When compared with men, women without prior CABG carried higher inhospital mortality (11% vs 4.9%; p=0.001) and stroke rates (0.9% vs 0.3%; p=0.001). Female gender was independent predictor of poor outcome. Among prior CABG patients, despite the fact that women had worse baseline characteristics and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy, there were no significant differences in mortality or stroke rates between the two groups.
Conclusions
Consistent with the world literature, women presenting with ACS and without prior CABG had higher death rates compared with men. Patients with prior CABG had comparable death rates regardless of the gender status.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001969
PMCID: PMC3533054  PMID: 23194954
acute coronary syndrome; coronary artery bypass surgery; gender gap; outcome
3.  Patient-Centered Research Abstracts 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2000;15(Suppl 2):4-5.
PURPOSE
Timing of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has changed, and optimal timing is unclear. There is little population-based data on current practice or its outcomes. Our objectives were to establish: 1) current practice patterns, 2) in-hospital mortality, and 3) clinical, demographic and systems determinants of early CABG (defined as a CABG performed during the same hospitalization following an AMI).
METHODS
Data are from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project at AHRQ. The analytic dataset includes all CABGs (DRG 106/107) performed in short-stay, non-federal hospitals in CA, MA, NJ and WI from 1989–1996. CABGs are coded as early if an AMI (ICD-9 410*1) was the principal diagnosis. Cases were further narrowed to CABGs performed on days 3–8 to exclude unstable and post-operative AMI, and atypical cases after day 9. In-hospital mortality rates were calculated following early CABG. Independent impact of early CABG on in-hospital mortality is determined using multivariate logistic models, adjusting for demographic (age >70, gender, race), clinical (severity, comorbidity, PTCA performed), payer (public, private, HMO) hospital (teaching, volume) and state factors. The independent influence of state and payer on likelihood of receiving an early CABG are established using multivariate logistic models, adjusting for the same factors.
RESULTS
There were 367,387 CABGs performed across 4 states over 8 years. In 1989, 5–12% of CABGS were performed early following AMI. By 1996, 17–21% of CABGS were performed early following AMI, representing a 2–4 fold increase. In 1996, there were 12,616 CABGS performed day 3–8 in the 4 states; 413 or 3.33% died in-hospital. The death rate for early CABG versus other CABG (without AMI) was no different (3.37% vs. 3.31%). Using logistic regression, in-hospital death was not affected by timing, state or payer, but was twice as likely with age>71, coded comorbidity or complications. Use of early CABG was 50-60% less likely in CA (adjusted OR = 0.50), NJ (OR = .39) and WI (OR = .59) as compared to MA, 22% less likely in teaching hospitals (OR = .78), and 15–50% less likely with coded comorbidity or severity. Use of early CABG was 15% more likely in high volume hospitals, 16% more likely with private as compared to HMO insurance, and twice as likely following angioplasty.
CONCLUSION
Early CABG represents as much as one-fifth of all CABGs performed in 4 states by 1996. Although mortality does not appear to be affected by timing, use of early CABG is influenced by state, hospital and payer characteristics. These findings provide evidence that market factors play a significant role in the timing of CABG following AMI. Future studies will examine which market factors, including physician, payer and hospital competition, are most important.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.15200-17.x
PMCID: PMC1495760
4.  Mid-term outcomes of patients with PCI prior to CABG in comparison to patients with primary CABG 
The number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) prior to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) increased drastically during the last decade. Patients are referred for CABG with more severe coronary pathology, which may influence postoperative outcome. Outcomes of 200 CABG patients, collected consecutively in an observational study, were compared (mean follow-up: 5 years). Group A (n = 100, mean age 63 years, 20 women) had prior PCI before CABG, and group B (n = 100, mean age 66, 20 women) underwent primary CABG. In group A, the mean number of administered stents was 2. Statistically significant results were obtained for the following preoperative criteria: previous myocardial infarction: 54 vs 34 (P = 0.007), distribution of CAD (P < 0.0001), unstable angina: 27 vs 5 (P < 0.0001). For intraoperative data, the total number of established bypasses was 2.43 ± 1.08 vs 2.08 ± 1.08 (P = 0.017), with the number of arterial bypass grafts being: 1.26 ± 0.82 vs 1.07 ± 0.54 (P = 0.006). Regarding the postoperative course, significant results could be demonstrated for: adrenaline dosage (0.83 vs 0.41 mg/h; [p is not significant (ns)]) administered in 67 group A vs 47 group B patients (P = 0.006), and noradrenaline dosage (0.82 vs 0.87 mg/h; ns) administered in 46 group A vs 63 group B patients (P = 0.023), CK/troponine I (P = 0.002; P < 0.001), postoperative resuscitation (6 vs 0; P = 0.029), intra aortic balloon pump 12 vs 1 (P = 0.003), and 30-day mortality (9% in group A vs 1% in group B; P = 0.018). Clopidogrel was administered in 35% of patients with prior PCI and in 19% of patients without prior PCI (P = 0.016). Patients with prior PCI presented for CABG with more severe CAD. Morbidity, mortality and reoperation rate during mid term were significantly higher in patients with prior PCI.
PMCID: PMC2922310  PMID: 20730065
CABG; CABG and PCI; CAD; outcome
5.  Regional use of combined carotid endarterectomy/coronary artery bypass graft and the effect of patient risk 
Journal of vascular surgery  2012;56(3):668-676.
Introduction
Although carotid artery stenosis and coronary artery disease often coexist, many debate which patients are best served by combined concurrent revascularization (carotid endarterectomy [CEA]/coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]). We studied the use of CEA/CABG in New England and compared indications and outcomes, including stratification by risk, symptoms, and performing center.
Methods
Using data from the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2009, we studied all patients who underwent combined CEA/CABG across six centers in New England. Our main outcome measure was in-hospital stroke or death. We compared outcomes between all patients undergoing combined CEA/CABG to a baseline CEA risk group comprised of patients undergoing isolated CEA at non-CEA/CABG centers. Further, we compared in-hospital stroke and death rates between high and low neurologic risk patients, defining high neurologic risk patients as those who had at least one of the following clinical or anatomic features: (1) symptomatic carotid disease, (2) bilateral carotid stenosis > 70%, (3) ipsilateral stenosis >70% and contralateral occlusion, or (4) ipsilateral or bilateral occlusion.
Results
Overall, compared to patients undergoing isolated CEA at non-CEA/CABG centers (n = 1563), patients undergoing CEA/CABG (n =109) were more likely to have diabetes (44% vs 29%; P =.001), creatinine >1.8 mg/dL (11% vs 5%; P =.007), and congestive heart failure (23% vs 10%; P < .001). Patients undergoing CEA/CABG were also more likely to take preoperative beta-blockers (94% vs 75%; P < .001) and less likely to take preoperative clopidogrel (7% vs 25%; P < .001). Patients undergoing CEA/CABG had higher rates of contralateral carotid occlusion (13% vs 5%; P = .001) and were more likely to undergo an urgent/emergent procedure (30% vs 15%; P < .001). The risk of complications was higher in CEA/CABG compared to isolated CEA, including increased risk of stroke (5.5% vs 1.2%; P < .001), death (5.5% vs 0.3%; P < .001), and return to the operating room for any reason (7.6% vs 1.2%; P <.001). Of 109 patients undergoing CEA/CABG, 61 (56%) were low neurologic risk and 48 (44%) were high neurologic risk but showed no demonstrable difference in stroke (4.9% vs 6.3%; P =.76), death, (4.9 vs 6.3%; P =.76), or return to the operating room (10.2% vs 4.3%; P = .25).
Conclusions
Although practice patterns in the use of CEA/CABG vary across our region, the risk of complications with CEA/CABG remains significantly higher than in isolated CEA. Future work to improve patient selection in CEA/CABG is needed to improve perioperative results with combined coronary and carotid revascularization.
doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2012.02.028
PMCID: PMC3574812  PMID: 22560308
6.  Coronary Revascularization Alone or with Mitral Valve Repair 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2009;36(5):416-424.
We sought to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of patients at our hospital who had moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation and who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone or with concomitant mitral valve repair (CABG+MVr).
A total of 83 patients had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and moderate mitral regurgitation: 28 patients underwent CABG+MVr, and 55 underwent CABG alone. Changes in mitral regurgitation, functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction were compared in both groups.
The mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 3.6 years (range, 0.1–15.1 yr). Reduction of 2 mitral-regurgitation grades was found in 85% of CABG+MVr patients versus 14% of CABG-only patients (P < 0.0001) at 1 year, and in 56% versus 14% at 5 years, respectively (P = 0.1), as well as improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction and functional class. One- and 5-year survival rates were similar in the CABG+MVr and CABG-only groups: 96% ± 3% versus 96% ± 4%, and 87% ± 5% versus 81% ± 8%, respectively (P = NS). Propensity analysis showed similar results. Recurrent (3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation was found in 22% and 47% at late follow-up, respectively.
In patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation, either surgical approach led to an improvement in functional class. Early and intermediate-term mortality rates were low with either CABG or CABG+MVr. However, an increased rate of late recurrent mitral regurgitation in the CABG+MVr group was observed.
PMCID: PMC2763474  PMID: 19876417
Cardiac surgical procedures; coronary artery bypass; coronary disease/complications/surgery; disease-free survival/trends; matched-pair analysis; mitral valve insufficiency/physiopathology/surgery; multivariate analysis; myocardial ischemia/complications/surgery; myocardial revascularization/methods/statistics & numerical data; postoperative period; recurrence; risk assessment
7.  Initial and long-term results of coronary angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery in patients of 75 or older. 
British Heart Journal  1993;70(2):122-125.
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate clinical outcome after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients of 75 or older who underwent either procedure between 1980 and 1987. SUBJECTS--93 patients aged 75-89 with angina pectoris class III-IV (Canadian Cardiovascular Society) who underwent PTCA and 81 patients aged 75-84 with angina class III-IV who underwent CABG. Follow up was 8.2 years in the PTCA group and 8.3 years in the CABG group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--In-hospital complications and survival at follow up. RESULTS--Primary success rate for PTCA was 84% (78/93). Two patients died, two had emergency CABG, three had a myocardial infarction, and one had a cerebrovascular accident. PTCA failed in seven patients (five underwent elective CABG and two were treated conservatively). Median hospital stay was 4.3 days. Primary success rate for CABG was 63% (53/81). Six patients died, two had a cerebrovascular accident, eight had a myocardial infarction, 10 had a rethoracotomy, and four the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Median hospital stay was 14.2 days. In the PTCA group during follow up eight patients died, three had a non-fatal myocardial infarction, two had elective CABG, 10 had repeat PTCA, and four had recurrence of angina. Sixty four patients were free of angina (69%). In the CABG group during follow up eight patients died, one had a non-fatal myocardial infarction, six had PTCA, and three had recurrence of angina. Fifty seven patients were free of angina AP (70%). Actuarial survival after 10 years was 92% for PTCA and 91% for CABG. CONCLUSIONS--PTCA is safe in elderly patients. The complication rate is lower and hospital stay significantly shorter compared with CABG (p < 0.05). Long-term follow up showed no significant difference between PTCA and CABG.
PMCID: PMC1025270  PMID: 8038020
8.  Coronary artery bypass graft surgery: socioeconomic inequalities in access and in 30 day mortality. A population-based study in Rome, Italy 
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate whether coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is equally provided among different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in accordance with need. To estimate the association between SES and mortality occurring 30 days after CABG surgery.
DESIGN—Individual socioeconomic index assigned with respect to the characteristics of the census tract of residence (level I = highest SES; level IV = lowest SES). Comparison of age adjusted hospital admission rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and CABG surgery among four SES groups. Retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent CABG surgery during 1996-97.
SETTING—Rome (2 685 890 inhabitants) and the seven cardiac surgery units in the city.
PARTICIPANTS—All residents in Rome aged 35 years or more. A cohort of 1875 CABG patients aged 35 years or more.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Age adjusted hospitalisation rates for CABG and IHD and rate of CABG per 100 IHD hospitalisations by SES group, taking level I as the reference group. Odds ratios of 30 day mortality after CABG surgery, adjusted for age, gender, illness severity at admission, and type of hospital where CABG was performed.
RESULTS—People in the lowest SES level experienced an excess in the age adjusted IHD hospitalisation rates compared with the highest SES level (an excess of 57% among men, and of 94% among women), but the rate of CABG per 100 IHD hospitalisations was lower, among men, in the most socially disadvantaged level (8.9 CABG procedures per 100 IHD hospital admissions in level IV versus 14.1 in level I rate ratio= 0.63; 95% CI 0.44, 0.89). The most socially disadvantaged SES group experienced a higher risk of 30 day mortality after CABG surgery (8.1%) than those in the highest SES group (4.8%); this excess in mortality was confirmed even when initial illness severity was taken into account (odds ratio= 2.89; 95% CI 1.44, 5.80).
CONCLUSIONS—The universal coverage of the National Health Service in Italy does not guarantee equitable access to CABG surgery for IHD patients. Factors related to SES are likely to influence poor prognosis after CABG surgery.


Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft; ischaemic heart disease; socioeconomic status
doi:10.1136/jech.54.12.930
PMCID: PMC1731596  PMID: 11076990
9.  Management of Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation and Subsequent Outcomes in Contemporary Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Insights from the CAPS-Care STS AF Registry 
Clinical cardiology  2013;37(1):7-13.
Background
Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a well-recognized complication of cardiac surgery, however, its management remains a challenge and the implementation and outcomes of various strategies in clinical practice remain unclear.
Methods
We compared patient characteristics, operative procedures, post-operative management, and outcomes between patients with and without POAF following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the Society for Thoracic Surgery multicenter CAPS-Care registry (2004–2005).
Results
Of 2,390 patients who underwent CABG, 676 (28%) had POAF. Compared with patients without POAF, those with POAF were older (median age 74 vs. 71, p<0.0001), more likely to have hypertension (86% vs. 83%, p=0.04), and impaired renal function (median estimated glomerular filtration rate, 56.9 vs. 58.6 mL/min/1.73m2, p=0.0001). A majority of patients with POAF were treated with amiodarone (77%) and beta-blockers (68%); few underwent cardioversion (9.9%). Patients with POAF were more likely to experience complications (57% vs.41%, p<0.0001), including acute limb ischemia (1.0% vs. 0.4%, p=0.03), stroke (4% vs. 1.9%, p=0.002), and reoperation (13% vs. 7.9%, p<0.0001). Length of stay (median 8 days vs. 6 days, p<0.0001), in-hospital mortality (6.8% vs. 3.7%, p=0.001), and 30-day mortality (7.8 vs. 3.9, p<0.0001) were all worse for patients with POAF. In adjusted analyses, POAF remained associated with increased length of stay following surgery (adjusted ratio of the mean 1.27, 95% CI 1.2–1.34, p<0.0001).
Conclusions
In conclusion, post-operative AF is common following CABG, and such patients continue to have higher rates of post-operative complications. Post-operative AF is significantly associated with increased length of stay following surgery.
doi:10.1002/clc.22230
PMCID: PMC3975246  PMID: 24353215
atrial fibrillation; coronary artery bypass surgery; postoperative care; outcomes
10.  Influence of concomitant coronary artery bypass graft on outcome of surgery of the ascending aorta/arch 
Heart  2006;93(2):232-237.
Background
Surgery of the ascending aorta with or without arch is being performed in an increasingly elderly population with risks of coexisting coronary artery disease.
Aim
To define specific groups requiring coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and to analyse the influence of concomitant CABG on outcome.
Design
Over a 10‐year period in a single institution, 296 consecutive procedures on the ascending aorta with or without arch were carried out in 291 patients. CABG was required in 42 (14.2%) procedures. In 24 (57%) patients, CABG was planned preoperatively and in 18 (43%) patients, on a salvage basis.
Results
In‐hospital mortality for patients undergoing concomitant CABG was higher (21.4% v 11%, p<0.06). Adjusting for baseline and operative characteristics, this was attributable to operative priority, and was not a consequence of concomitant CABG (adjusted OR 0.30, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.31; p = 0.48). However, in‐hospital mortality was significantly higher when CABG was performed as salvage rather than as a planned procedure (38.9% v 8.9%, p = 0.025), and this difference remained after adjusting for confounding variables (adjusted OR 16.2, 95% CI 1.03 to >200; p = 0.047). The 3‐year survival was significantly lower with concomitant CABG (59% v 81.9%, p<0.001).
Conclusions
In association with surgery of the ascending aorta with or without arch planned concomitant CABG did not entail any added operative risk. However, salvage CABG, which occurred almost exclusively in association with emergency cases, was associated with a higher early mortality. Patients needing concomitant CABG had worse survival at 3 years compared with those requiring isolated surgery of the ascending aorta with or without arch.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.090860
PMCID: PMC1861367  PMID: 16914487
11.  Impact of invasive treatment strategy on health-related quality of life six months after non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome 
Background
Few studies have compared change in the health-related quality of life (HRQL) following treatment of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study is to compare changes in HRQL six months after hospital discharge between NSTE-ACS patients who underwent either PCI or CABG.
Methods
HRQL was assessed using the Seattle angina questionnaire at admission and six months after discharge in 1012 consecutive patients with NSTE-ACS. To assess associations of PCI and CABG with HRQL changes, logistic regression models were constructed treating changes in the score of each dimension of the Seattle angina questionnaire as dependent variables.
Results
Although both the PCI and CABG groups experienced angina relief and other improvements at 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001), the CABG relative to PCI group showed more significant improvements in angina frequency (P = 0.044) and quality of life (P = 0.028). In multivariable logistic analysis, CABG also was an independent predictor for both improvement of angina frequency (OR: 1.62, 95%CI: 1.09−4.63, P = 0.042) and quality of life (OR: 2.04, 95%CI: 1.26−6.92, P = 0.038) relative to PCI.
Conclusions
In patients with NSTE-ACS, both PCI and CABG provide great improvement in disease-specific health status at six months, with that of CABG being more prominent in terms of angina frequency and quality of life.
doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2014.03.003
PMCID: PMC4178511  PMID: 25278968
Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome; Quality of life; Therapeutic strategy
12.  A case study of hospital closure and centralization of coronary revascularization procedures 
Background
Despite nation-wide efforts to reduce health care costs through hospital closures and centralization of services, little is known about the impact of such actions. We conducted this study to determine the effect of a hospital closure in Calgary and the resultant centralization of coronary revascularization procedures from 2 facilities to a single location.
Methods
Administrative data were used to identify patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), including those who had combined CABG and valve procedures, and patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) in the Calgary Regional Health Authority from July 1994 to March 1998. This period represents the 21 months preceding and the 24 months following the March 1996 hospital closure. Measures, including mean number of discharges, length of hospital stay, burden of comorbidity and in-hospital death rates, were compared before and after the hospital closure for CABG and PTCA patients. Multivariate analyses were used to derive risk-adjustment models to control for sociodemographic variables and comorbidity.
Results
The number of patients undergoing CABG was higher in the year following than in the year preceding the hospital closure (51.6 per 100 000 before v. 67.3 per 100 000 after the closure); the same was true for the number of patients undergoing PTCA (129.8 v. 143.6 per 100 000). The burden of comorbidity was significantly higher after than before the closure, both for CABG patients (comorbidity index 1.3 before v. 1.5 after closure, p < 0.001) and for PTCA patients (comorbidity index 1.0 before v. 1.1 after, p = 0.04). After adjustment for comorbidity, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower after than before the closure for CABG patients (by 1.3 days) and for PTCA patients (by 1.0 days). The adjusted rates of death were slightly lower after than before the closure in the CABG group. The adjusted rates of death or CABG in the PTCA group did not differ significantly between the 2 periods.
Interpretation
Hospital closure and the centralization of coronary revascularization procedures in Calgary was associated with increased population rates of procedures being performed, on sicker patients, with shorter hospital stays, and, for CABG patients, a trend toward more favourable short-term outcomes. Our findings indicate that controversial changes to the structure of the health care system can occur without loss of efficiency and reduction in quality of care.
PMCID: PMC81069  PMID: 11387915
13.  Early and Midterm Outcome of Redo Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: On-Pump versus Off-Pump Bypass 
Background
Redo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still associated with increased morbidity and mortality as compared to the first-time operation. Further, the application of the off-pump technique to redo CABG is limited due to technical difficulties. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze early and midterm results after redo CABG and compare the outcome of redo on-pump and off-pump CABG.
Methods
From June 1996 to October 2011, elective redo CABG was performed in 32 patients. Mean age was 64.8 years (on pump 64.3 years vs. off pump 65.5 years; p=0.658), and 21 patients were male. Among these patients, 14 (43.8%) underwent on-pump CABG, and 18 (56.2%) underwent off-pump CABG.
Results
Internal thoracic artery was used in 22 patients (68.8%), and total arterial revascularization was achieved in 17 patients (53.1%). The average number of distal anastomoses was 2.13, and the rate of incomplete revascularization was 43.8%. The rate of total arterial revascularization was higher in the off-pump group (14.3% vs. 83.3%, p<0.001), and the use of saphenous vein graft was more in the on-pump group (78.6% vs. 16.7%, p<0.001). Overall hospital mortality was 3.1% (n=1) and was comparable in both groups (on pump 7.1% vs. off pump 0%; p=0.249). Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients (64.2%), and the rate of complications was high in the on-pump group without statistical significance (64.2% vs. 33.3%, p=0.082). The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 years, and overall survival at 10 years was 86.0%±10.5%. There was no significant difference in the 10-year survival rate between the two groups (79.6% vs. 100%, p=0.225).
Conclusion
Redo CABG can be safely performed with acceptable mortality. Redo off-pump coronary artery bypass is feasible with low mortality and morbidity, comparable target vessel bypass grafting, and long-term survival. The off-pump technique might be considered a safe option for redo CABG in high-risk patients.
doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2014.47.3.225
PMCID: PMC4157472  PMID: 25207219
1. Reoperation; 2. Coronary artery bypass; 3. Coronary artery bypass, off-pump
14.  Survival enhancing indications for coronary artery bypass graft surgery in California 
Background
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed because of anticipated survival benefit, improvement in quality of life, or both. We performed this study to explore variations in clinical indications for CABG surgery among California hospitals and surgeons.
Methods
Using California CABG Outcomes Reporting Program data, we classified all isolated CABG cases in 2003–2004 as having "probable survival enhancing indications (SEIs)", "possible SEIs" or "non-SEIs." Patient and hospital characteristics associated with SEIs were examined.
Results
While 82.9% of CABG were performed for probable SEIs, the range extended from 68% to 96% among hospitals and 51% to 100% among surgeons. SEI rates were higher among patients aged ≥ 65 compared with those aged 18–64 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] > 1.29 for age groups 65–69, 70–74 and ≥ 75; all p < 0.001), among Asians and Native Americans compared with Caucasians (AOR 1.22 and 1.15, p < 0.001); and among patients with hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease and congestive heart failure compared to patients without these conditions (AOR > 1.09, all p < 0.001). Variations in indications for surgery were more strongly related to patient mix than to surgeon or hospital effects (intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.04 for hospital; ICC = 0.01 for surgeon).
Conclusion
California hospitals and surgeons vary in their distribution of indications for CABG surgery. Further research is required to identify the roles of market factors, referral patterns, patient preferences, and local clinical culture in producing the observed variations.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-257
PMCID: PMC2621199  PMID: 19087305
15.  Coronary-Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction 
The New England journal of medicine  2011;364(17):1607-1616.
BACKGROUND
The role of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure has not been clearly established.
METHODS
Between July 2002 and May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to medical therapy alone (602 patients) or medical therapy plus CABG (610 patients). The primary outcome was the rate of death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included the rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes.
RESULTS
The primary outcome occurred in 244 patients (41%) in the medical-therapy group and 218 (36%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.04; P = 0.12). A total of 201 patients (33%) in the medical-therapy group and 168 (28%) in the CABG group died from an adjudicated cardiovascular cause (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.00; P = 0.05). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 411 patients (68%) in the medical-therapy group and 351 (58%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.85; P<0.001). By the end of the follow-up period (median, 56 months), 100 patients in the medical-therapy group (17%) underwent CABG, and 555 patients in the CABG group (91%) underwent CABG.
CONCLUSIONS
In this randomized trial, there was no significant difference between medical therapy alone and medical therapy plus CABG with respect to the primary end point of death from any cause. Patients assigned to CABG, as compared with those assigned to medical therapy alone, had lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Abbott Laboratories; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1100356
PMCID: PMC3415273  PMID: 21463150
16.  Predictors and outcomes of early coronary angiography in patients with prior coronary artery bypass surgery presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction 
Open Heart  2014;1(1):e000059.
Introduction
The best strategy in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) who present with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) remains less well defined. We compare the characteristics, therapeutic interventions and outcomes of patients with prior CABG presenting with NSTEMI.
Methods
All patients who presented to our hospital during 2007–2012 with available electronic records were analysed retrospectively. Outcomes were compared between patients who underwent coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus those who were treated medically.
Results
A total of 117 patients were analysed. Of that, 79 patients were managed medically while 38 underwent early angiography, of which only 11 (9.5%) received PCI. Patients treated medically (did not undergo angiography) were older (74±10 vs70±8; p=0.05). ECG changes were the only independent predictor for early angiography (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.99; p=0.05) while recurrent chest pain (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.97; p=0.05) predicted PCI on multivariate analysis. The PCI group had higher Global Registry of Acute Cardiac Events (GRACE) score (176±29 vs 150±31; p=0.01). No significant difference was found in readmission rates, morbidity (unstable angina pectoris, NSTEMI, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), or combination) or mortality at 12 months between the groups who underwent angiography, PCI, or treated medically on univariate and multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
The opportunity to intervene in prior CABG patients presenting with NSTEMI is often low. Initial medical management may be a reasonable option in carefully selected patients particularly in the absence of ongoing symptoms, ECG changes or very high GRACE scores. Further studies are required to evaluate the safety of non-invasive strategies in managing this population.
doi:10.1136/openhrt-2014-000059
PMCID: PMC4195928  PMID: 25332800
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE; CARDIAC SURGERY
17.  Dementia and Depression with Ischemic Heart Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Comparing Interventional Approaches to Medical Management 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e17457.
Background
We compared the proportion of ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients newly diagnosed with dementia and depression across three treatment groups: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and medical management alone (IHD-medical).
Methods and Findings
De-identified, individual-level administrative records of health service use for the population of Manitoba, Canada (approximately 1.1 million) were examined. From April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1998, patients were identified with a diagnosis of IHD (ICD-9-CM codes). Index events of CABG or PCI were identified from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 2003. Outcomes were depression or dementia after the index event. Patients were followed forward to March 31, 2006 or until censored. Proportional hazards regression analysis was undertaken. Independent variables examined were age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and income quintile, medical management alone for IHD, or intervention by PCI or CABG. Age, sex, diabetes, and presence of hypertension were all strongly associated with the diagnosis of depression and dementia. There was no association with income quintile. Dementia was less frequent with PCI compared to medical management; (HR = 0.65; p = 0.017). CABG did not provide the same protective effect compared to medical management (HR = 0.90; p = 0.372). New diagnosis depression was more frequent with interventional approaches: PCI (n = 626; hazard ratio = 1.25; p = 0.028) and CABG (n = 1124, HR = 1.32; p = 0.0001) than non-interventional patients (n = 34,508). Subsequent CABG was nearly 16-fold higher (p<0.0001) and subsequent PCI was 22-fold higher (p<0.0001) for PCI-managed than CABG-managed patients.
Conclusions
Patients managed with PCI had the lowest likelihood of dementia—only 65% of the risk for medical management alone. Both interventional approaches were associated with a higher risk of new diagnosed depression compared to medical management. Long-term myocardial revascularization was superior with CABG. These findings suggest that PCI may confer a long-term protective effect from dementia. The mechanism(s) of dementia protection requires elucidation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017457
PMCID: PMC3046165  PMID: 21387018
18.  Impact of waiting time on the quality of life of patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting 
Background
A lack of resources has created waiting lists for many elective surgical procedures within Canada's universal health care system. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the treatment of atherosclerotic ischemic heart disease is one of these affected surgical procedures. We studied the impact of waiting times on the quality of life of patients awaiting CABG.
Methods
A prospective cohort of 266 patients from 3 hospitals in Montreal was used. Patients who gave informed consent were followed from the time they were registered for CABG until 6 months after surgery; recruitment began in November 1993, and the last follow-up was completed in July 1995. Patient groups were classified according to the duration of the wait for CABG (≤ 97 days or >> 97 days). We measured the following outcomes: quality of life (using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form [SF-36]), incidence of chest pain (using the New York Heart Association angina classification), frequency of symptoms (using the Cardiac Symptom Inventory) and rates of complications and death before and after surgery.
Results
There were no differences in quality of life at baseline between the 2 groups. Immediately before surgery, compared with patients who waited 97 days or less, those who waited longer had significantly reduced physical functioning (change from baseline SF-36 score 0 v. –4 respectively, p = 0.001), vitality (change from baseline score –0.1 v. –1.3, p = 0.01), social functioning (change from baseline score 0.4 v. –0.4, p = 0.03) and general health (change from baseline score 1.1 v. –1.7, p = 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, compared with patients who waited 97 days or less for CABG, those who waited longer had reduced physical functioning (change from baseline SF-36 score 4.0 v. –0.1 respectively, p = 0.001), physical role (change from baseline score 0.8 v. 0.0, p = 0.001), vitality (change from baseline score 2.2 v. 0.9, p = 0.001), mental health (change from baseline score 1.2 v. 0.0, p = 0.001) and general health (change from baseline score 1.8 v. –0.3, p = 0.001). The incidence of postoperative adverse events was significantly greater among the patients with longer waits for CABG than among those with shorter waits (32 v. 14 events respectively, p = 0.005). Longer waits before CABG were associated with an increased likelihood of not returning to work after surgery (p = 0.08): 10 (53%) of the 19 patients with longer waiting times remained employed after CABG, as compared with 17 (85%) of the 20 with shorter waiting times.
Interpretation
The significant decrease in physical and social functioning, both before and after surgery, for patients waiting more than 3 months for CABG is an important observation. Longer waiting times were also associated with increased postoperative adverse events. By decreasing waiting times for CABG, we may improve patients' quality of life and decrease the psychological morbidity associated with CABG.
PMCID: PMC81367  PMID: 11531051
19.  The Impact of Coronary Artery Endarterectomy on Outcomes During Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting 
Journal of cardiac surgery  2011;26(3):247-253.
Background
The impact of coronary artery endarterectomy during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been debated. We examined the early and late outcomes of CABG with endarterectomy (CE) compared to CABG alone.
Methods
Patients undergoing isolated CABG operations from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 99 patients who underwent CE and 3:1 propensity matched them to 297 CABG-alone patients based upon clinical factors: Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) predicted risk of mortality, age, gender, year of surgery, and ejection fraction. Patient risk factors as well as short-and long-term outcomes were compared by univariate and Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Results
Preoperative risk factors were similar between patients undergoing CE or CABG alone. Cross-clamp times (95.6 vs. 71.8 minutes, p = 0.0001) and perfusion times (121.8 vs. 92.7 minutes, p = 0.0001) were longer in patients undergoing CE. Operative mortality (4.0% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.112) and postoperative complications were not significantly different between groups. Patients undergoing coronary endarterectomy incurred longer ICU (75.06 vs. 48.64 hours, p = 0.001) and hospital stays (9.01 vs. 7.7 days, p = 0.034). Long-term mortality (mean follow-up = 27.7 ± 17.7 months) was equivalent despite revascularization technique (p = 0.13); however, patients undergoing CE encountered worse overall freedom from myocardial infarction (MI) (p = 0.03).
Conclusion
Patients undergoing CABG with coronary CE required longer ventilatory support and ICU stay yet have comparable operative mortality, major complication rates, and long-term survival to isolated CABG. Coronary endarterectomy should be considered an acceptable adjunct to CABG for patients with extensive coronary artery disease to achieve complete revascularization.
doi:10.1111/j.1540-8191.2011.01247.x
PMCID: PMC3117196  PMID: 21477101
20.  Secondary prevention of ischaemic cardiac events 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0206.
Introduction
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in resource-rich countries, and is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries. Secondary prevention in this context is long-term treatment to prevent recurrent cardiac morbidity and mortality in people who have had either a prior acute myocardial infarction (MI) or acute coronary syndrome, or who are at high risk due to severe coronary artery stenoses or prior coronary surgical procedures. Secondary prevention in people with an acute MI or acute coronary syndrome within the past 6 months is not included.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of antithrombotic treatment; other drug treatments; cholesterol reduction; blood pressure reduction; non-drug treatments; and revascularisation procedures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 137 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to eat less fat, advice to eat more fibre, advice to increase consumption of fish oils, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor blockers plus ACE inhibitors, antioxidant vitamin combinations, antiplatelet agents, aspirin, beta-blockers, beta-carotene, blood pressure reduction, calcium channel blockers, cardiac rehabilitation including exercise, class I antiarrhythmic agents, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), fibrates, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), Mediterranean diet, multivitamins, non-specific cholesterol reduction, oral anticoagulants, oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), psychosocial treatment, smoking cessation, statins, vitamin C, and vitamin E.
Key Points
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in resource-rich countries, and is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries. Secondary prevention in this context is long-term treatment to prevent recurrent cardiac morbidity and mortality in people who have had either a prior MI or acute coronary syndrome, or who are at high risk due to severe coronary artery stenoses or prior coronary surgical procedures.
Of the antithrombotic treatments, there is good evidence that aspirin (especially combined with clopidogrel in people with acute coronary syndromes or MI), clopidogrel (more effective than aspirin), and anticoagulants all effectively reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Oral anticoagulants substantially increase the risk of haemorrhage. These risks may outweigh the benefits when combined with antiplatelet treatments.Adding oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors to aspirin seems to increase the risk of mortality compared with aspirin alone.
Other drug treatments that reduce mortality include beta-blockers (after MI and in people with left ventricular dysfunction), ACE inhibitors (in people at high risk, after MI, or with left ventricular dysfunction), and amiodarone (in people with MI and high risk of death from cardiac arrhythmia). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of calcium channel blockers. Some types may be effective at reducing mortality in the absence of heart failure, whereas others may be harmful.Contrary to decades of large observational studies, multiple RCTs show no cardiac benefit from HRT in postmenopausal women.
Lipid-lowering treatments effectively reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events in people with CHD.
There is good evidence that statins reduce the risk of mortality and cardiac events in people at high risk, but the evidence is less clear for fibrates.
The magnitude of cardiovascular risk reduction in people with coronary artery disease correlates directly with the magnitude of blood pressure reduction.
Cardiac rehabilitation (including exercise) and smoking cessation reduce the risk of cardiac events in people with CHD. Antioxidant vitamins (such as vitamin E, beta-carotene, or vitamin C) have no effect on cardiovascular events in high-risk people, and in some cases may actually increase risk of cardiac mortality.We don't know whether changing diet alters the risk of cardiac episodes, although a Mediterranean diet may have some survival benefit over a Western diet. Advice to increase fish oil consumption or fish oil consumption may be beneficial in some population groups. However, evidence was weak.Some psychological interventions may be more effective than usual care at improving some cardiovascular outcomes. However, evidence was inconsistent.
In selected people, such as those with more-extensive coronary disease and impaired left ventricular function, CABG may improve survival compared with an initial strategy of medical treatment. We don't know how PTCA compares with medical treatment.
We found no consistent difference in mortality or recurrent MI between CABG and PTCA with or without stenting, because of varied results among subgroups and insufficient evidence on stenting when comparing the interventions. CABG may be more effective than PTCA with or without stenting at reducing some composite outcomes, particularly those including repeat revascularisation rates. PTCA with stenting may be more effective than PTCA alone.
PMCID: PMC3217663  PMID: 21875445
21.  Comparison of Economic and Patient Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Versus Traditional Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Techniques 
Annals of surgery  2008;248(4):638-646.
Background
Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (miniCABG) decreases in-hospital morbidity versus traditional sternotomy CABG. We performed a prospective cohort study (NCT00481806) to assess the impact of miniCABG on costs and metrics that influence quality of life after hospital discharge.
Methods
One hundred consecutive miniCABG cases performed using IMA grafting ± coronary stenting were compared with a matched group of 100 sternotomy CABG patients using IMA and saphenous veins, both treating equivalent number of target coronaries (2.7 vs. 2.9), off-pump. We compared perioperative costs, time to return to work/normal activity, and risk of major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 1 year: myocardial infarction (elevated troponin or EKG changes), target vessel occlusion (CT angiography at 1 year), stroke, or death.
Results
For miniCABG, robotic instruments and stents increased intraoperative costs; postoperative costs were decreased from significantly less intubation time (4.80 ± 6.35 vs. 12.24 ± 6.24 hours), hospital stay (3.77 ± 1.51 vs. 6.38 ± 2.23 days), and transfusion (0.16 ± 0.37 vs. 1.37 ± 1.35 U) leading to no significant differences in total costs. Undergoing miniCABG independently predicted earlier return to work after adjusting for confounders (t = − 2.15; P = 0.04), whereas sternotomy CABG increased MACCE (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4 –7.6), largely from lower target-vessel patency.
Conclusions
MiniCABG shortens patient recovery time, minimizes MACCE risk at 1 year, and showed superior quality and outcome metrics versus standard-of-care CABG. These findings occurred without increasing costs and with superior target vessel graft patency.
doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e31818a15b5
PMCID: PMC2649713  PMID: 18936577
22.  Long-term outcomes of isolated aortic valve replacement and concomitant AVR and coronary artery bypass grafting 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2012;20(3):110-117.
Background
It is well established that concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has a higher operative mortality rate than isolated AVR. However, studies report conflicting results on the long-term mortality. The aim of this prospective study was to explore and compare the outcomes and risk factors of isolated AVR and concomitant AVR and CABG in a consecutive Dutch patient population.
Methods
From January 2001 through January 2010, 332 consecutive patients underwent AVR with or without CABG at a single institution (197 isolated AVR and 135 concomitant AVR and CABG). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors for long-term mortality after aortic valve replacement.
Results
All 332 consecutive, referred patients who underwent aortic valve surgery were followed for up to 10 years. Median follow-up length was 48 months. The population had a median age of 73 years (IQR 65–78) and predominantly consisted of males (62%). Patients in the combined AVR and CABG group were older, had worse cardiac risk profiles and had worse preoperative cardiac statuses than those receiving isolated AVR. Five-year survival was 85% in AVR and 73% in AVR-CABG (p-value 0.012). Independent risk factors for mortality were higher creatinine values, previous CABG and increasing age.
Conclusion
Unselected, consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement surgery and who received concomitant bypass surgery between 2001–2010 had higher 5-year mortality than their counterparts without CABG. Prior CABG, renal function, age but not concomitant CABG remained independently associated with increased mortality. Finally, the observed mortality rate in this consecutive patient group compared favourably with preoperative risk assessment using the EuroSCORE.
doi:10.1007/s12471-011-0238-6
PMCID: PMC3286529  PMID: 22311176
Aortic valve replacement; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Long term; Outcome; Survival; EuroSCORE; Concomitant; Valve; Surgery; AVR; CABG
23.  The Presence of Angiographic Collaterals in Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction is a Predictor of Long-Term Clinical Outcomes 
Objectives
To determine whether the presence of angiographic coronary collaterals is a predictor of long-term clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
Background
The presence of coronary collaterals on angiography provides prognostic information in patients with STEMI, but it is unknown whether they provide prognostic information in patients with NSTEMI.
Methods
This was a prospective cohort study of 931 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography of which 269 (29%) had a NSTEMI. Baseline characteristics, angiographic details, and long-term clinical outcomes including death, recurrent MI, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF) were collected. Each clinical outcome as well as the combined endpoint of death, recurrent MI, CABG, PCI stroke and CHF was compared in subjects with and without collaterals.
Results
At one year, individuals with collaterals had significantly increased rates of the combined endpoint compared to those without (25% vs 16%, p=0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the presence of collaterals was a strong predictor of the combined endpoint of death, recurrent MI, CABG, PCI, stroke and CHF (HR 1.95, CI 95% 1.08–3.52; p=0.027). Similarly, in the subset of 115 patients (43%) in whom the culprit artery was identified, the presence of collaterals was a strong negative predictor (HR 3.71, CI 1.31–10.57, p=0.014), driven by a 13-fold increase in subsequent CABG.
Conclusions
In patients with NSTEMI the presence of angiographic coronary collaterals is a predictor of long-term clinical outcomes primarily driven by increased rates of surgical revascularization.
doi:10.1002/ccd.25021
PMCID: PMC3858448  PMID: 23703721
coronary collaterals; non-ST elevation myocardial infarction
24.  Effect of Statin Use on Acute Kidney Injury Risk Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting 
The American journal of cardiology  2012;111(6):823-828.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of cardiovascular surgery. While some non-experimental studies suggest statin use may reduce post-surgical AKI, methodological differences in study designs leave uncertainty regarding the reality or magnitude of the effect. We estimated the effect of pre-operative statin initiation on post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) AKI using an epidemiologic approach more closely simulating a randomized controlled trial in a large CABG patient population. We utilized healthcare claims from large, employer-based and Medicare insurance databases for the years 2000 – 2010. To minimize healthy user bias, we identified patients undergoing non-emergency CABG who either newly initiated a statin within 20 days prior to surgery or were unexposed for 200+ days prior to CABG. AKI was identified within 15 days following CABG. We calculated multivariable adjusted risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with Poisson regression. Analyses were repeated using propensity score methods adjusted for clinical and healthcare utilization variables. We identified 17,077 CABG patients. Post-CABG AKI developed in 3.4% of statin initiators and 6.2% of non-initiators. After adjustment, we observed a protective effect of statin initiation on AKI (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.63, 0.96). This effect differed by age: ≥65 years, RR=0.91 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.20); <65 years, RR=0.62 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.86), although AKI was more common in the older age group (7.7 vs. 4.0%). In conclusion, statin initiation immediately prior to CABG may modestly reduce the risk of post-operative AKI, particularly in younger CABG patients.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.11.047
PMCID: PMC3637989  PMID: 23273532
statins; bypass; heart surgery; acute kidney injury; pharmacoepidemiology
25.  Risks of Death and Graft Failure After Surgical Versus Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization in Renal Transplant Patients 
Background
Reliable data regarding absolute and relative risks of death and graft failure after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in renal transplant patients are unavailable.
Methods and Results
Renal transplant patients undergoing inpatient CABG (n=1400) or PCI (n=4097) were identified from United States Renal Data System data. Cumulative incidence of nonfatal graft failure and death was reported for observed events. A Cox model with the Fine–Gray method was used to account for competing risks in assessing relative hazards. Age and race were similarly distributed; patients who underwent CABG were more likely to have acute arrhythmia and congestive heart failure but less likely to have acute myocardial infarction on index admission. In‐hospital death was more frequent after CABG (5.6% versus 3.0%, P<0.001). Cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, and the combined outcome at 3 years were 23.1%, 15.4%, and 38.5% after CABG and 22.9%, 13.3%, and 36.1% after PCI, respectively. In adjusted analyses, CABG was not associated with increased risk of graft failure versus PCI during the first 6 months (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43) or from 6 to 36 months (0.98, 0.78 to 1.22). Risk of death increased after CABG during the first 3 months (1.37, 1.08 to 1.73), but decreased from 6 months on (0.76, 0.63 to 0.93).
Conclusions
CABG does not appear to be associated with a difference in risk of graft failure compared with PCI in renal transplant patients. Compared with PCI, adjusted risk of early death is higher after CABG; however, mortality from 6 months on is lower.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.112.003558
PMCID: PMC3603229  PMID: 23525428
coronary disease; kidney; revascularization; surgery; transplantation

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