Reviewing the literature, no studies were cited to report the prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulceration in Jordan. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulceration in Jordanian subjects.
A total of 684 dental patients who attended Jordan University of Science and Technology interviewed and administered to fill questionnaires related to history, size, shape, and duration of recurrent aphthous ulceration. Other related questions were also asked.
About 78% of subjects experienced recurrent aphthous ulceration. Approximately 85% of ulcers were less than one cm in diameter, 66% were circular in shape, 92% were painful, 82% interfered with eating, and 55% located in lips and buccal mucosa. Only 50%of participants related ulcers to stress. Sixty eight percent reported no association with tiredness and 85% no association with types of food ingested. Of the 39% who had blood tests carried out, 7% had vitamin B12 and 4% hemoglobin deficiency.
Recurrent aphthous ulceration is a common problem in Jordanian adults.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic chronic inflammatory disease. It is characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and other manifestations, including neurologic, vascular, joint, and gastrointestinal ulcers of variable severity. Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) represents a very common, but poorly understood, mucosal disorder. If a patient of RAU without any other typical symptoms of BD has gastrointestinal symptoms, it is difficult to distinguish this RAU from true BD with gastrointestinal involvement. Because pathognomonic clinical features and tools are absent, the differential diagnosis of these two diseases relies on the characteristic clinical features and the judgement of an experienced physician. Sixty-five out of a total 960 RAU patients and forty-four of 556 BD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms between January 1996 and December 2003 participated in this study. All were evaluated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. Clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic findings were analyzed and ELISA tests were conducted to detect serum levels of ASCA and pANCA. No significant difference was found between the two groups. Differential diagnosis between RAU with gastrointestinal symptoms and BD with gastrointestinal involvement requires further prospective, large-scale study.
Behçet's Syndrome; Stomatitis, Aphthous; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic; Gastrointestinal Tract
Amlexanox has been developed as a 5 percent topical oral paste for the treatment of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) in most European countries. However, it is not yet available in China and has not been generally accepted in clinical treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous ulcers, and compare the results with those of amlexanox oral adhesive tablets in order to analyse the difference between the two dosage forms of amlexanox.
We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel, multicenter clinical study. A total of 216 patients with minor recurrent aphthous ulcers (MiRAU) were recruited and randomized to amlexanox pellicles or placebo pellicles. Pellicles were consecutively applied four times per day, for five days. The size and pain level of ulcers were measured and recorded on treatment days 0, 4 and 6. Finally, the results were compared with those of our previous 104 cases treated with amlexanox tablets.
Amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles significantly reduced ulcer size (P= 0.017 for day 4, P=0.038 for day 6) and alleviated ulcer pain (P=0.021 for day 4, P=0.036 for day 6). No significant difference was observed in the treatment effectiveness between the pellicle and tablet form of amlexanox.
Amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles are as effective and safe as amlexanox oral adhesive tablets in the treatment of MiRAU for this Chinese cohort. However, pellicles seem to be more comfortable to use when compared with the dosage form of tablets. Therefore, in clinical practice, amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles may be a better choice for RAS patients.
Nederlands Trial Register NTR1727.
The recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a pathological change found in the oral mucosa, characterized by painful single or multiple ulcers. The etiologic aspect of RAU is not well understood; however it is known that due to lower CD4 cell counts patients had higher prevalence of these oral lesions, and immunosuppressed patients with HIV are predisposed. Patient FC is African descent, 26 years old, male, HIV + CD4 67 cells/mm3, with minor RAU in the upper and lower right side lip, measuring about 4 mm, and major RAU in tongue and the tonsillar pillar measuring 2 cm. The patient was treated with laser therapy with the objective to help reverse the damage and decrease the symptoms. After one week there was remission of the lesions. The laser showed to be an important alternative therapy that promoted analgesic, healing effects and improving the quality of life of patients.
Background and aims
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a condition comprised of oral painful ulcers appearing at inter-vals in different intraoral sites, triggered by a variety of causative agents in certain subgroups of patients. Since there are no studies on the subject in Northwest Iran, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of aphthous ulcer and to assess the association of some influencing factors on minor aphtha.
Materials and methods
Of all patients examined during a two-year period, 33 patients were diagnosed with aphthous lesions. A questionnaire was used to collect the data including age, gender, familial history, smoking habit, and food allergy of the patients. Chi-square test was used to assess the association of variables.
The prevalence of aphthous lesions was found to be 0.3%, and was significantly higher in females compared with males (23 females and 10 males, respectively; P = 0.024). Familial involvement of aphthous ulcer was reported in 42.4% of the patients (P = 0.411). The aphthous ulcer was seen less frequently in smokers compared with non-smokers (P = 0.024).
A relatively low prevalence of minor aphtha was found in the studied population. Higher prevalence in females and non-smokers were observed.
Age; minor aphtha; sex; smoking
The prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU) in young adults - - 635 armed-forces recruits and 9897 health-profession students - - in 48 institutions in 21 countries was determined by a questionnaire survey. Two or more occurrences (lifetime prevalence) of RHL were reported by 33.2% of men and 28.0% of women; the corresponding figures for RAU were 38.7% and 49.7%. North American respondents, mainly from Canada, had a significantly higher prevalence of both lesions. There were some differences in relation to profession. Approximately 15% of all the people surveyed had had herpes labialis and 25% had had aphthous ulcers at least once during the previous year. Persons with a history of recurrence of one lesion were more likely to have a history of recurrence of the other.
Accurate evaluation of glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) is of critical importance in clinical practice. A previous study showed that models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) could achieve a better performance than traditional equations. However, large-sample cross-sectional surveys have not resolved questions about ANN performance.
A total of 1,180 patients that had chronic kidney disease (CKD) were enrolled in the development data set, the internal validation data set and the external validation data set. Additional 222 patients that were admitted to two independent institutions were externally validated. Several ANNs were constructed and finally a Back Propagation network optimized by a genetic algorithm (GABP network) was chosen as a superior model, which included six input variables; i.e., serum creatinine, serum urea nitrogen, age, height, weight and gender, and estimated GFR as the one output variable. Performance was then compared with the Cockcroft-Gault equation, the MDRD equations and the CKD-EPI equation.
In the external validation data set, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the precision of the six-variable GABP network was the highest among all of the estimation models; i.e., 46.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. a range from 71.3 to 101.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, allowing improvement in accuracy (15% accuracy, 49.0%; 30% accuracy, 75.1%; 50% accuracy, 90.5% [P<0.001 for all]) and CKD stage classification (misclassification rate of CKD stage, 32.4% vs. a range from 47.3% to 53.3% [P<0.001 for all]). Furthermore, in the additional external validation data set, precision and accuracy were improved by the six-variable GABP network.
A new ANN model (the six-variable GABP network) for CKD patients was developed that could provide a simple, more accurate and reliable means for the estimation of GFR and stage of CKD than traditional equations. Further validations are needed to assess the ability of the ANN model in diverse populations.
of neural network architecture prior to data analysis is crucial
for successful data mining. This can be challenging when the underlying
model of the data is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine
whether optimizing neural network architecture using genetic programming
as a machine learning strategy would improve the ability of neural networks
to model and detect nonlinear interactions among genes in studies
of common human diseases.
data, we show that a genetic programming optimized neural network approach
is able to model gene-gene interactions as well as a traditional
back propagation neural network. Furthermore, the genetic programming
optimized neural network is better than the traditional back propagation
neural network approach in terms of predictive ability and power
to detect gene-gene interactions when non-functional polymorphisms
This study suggests
that a machine learning strategy for optimizing neural network architecture
may be preferable to traditional trial-and-error approaches for
the identification and characterization of gene-gene interactions
in common, complex human diseases.
This study was designed to identify the cells responsible for the spontaneous cell mediated cytotoxic effect (SCMC) exerted by peripheral blood leucocytes from patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration, towards cultured oral epithelial cells. Peripheral blood leucocytes from recurrent aphthous ulceration patients exerted a significantly greater (p less than 0.01) degree of cytotoxicity towards the oral epithelial target cells than did peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy control subjects, or from patients with non-specific ulceration. Depletion of CD-5 positive cells (T-lymphocytes) resulted in a significant decrease in the SCMC in aphthous patients. Depletion of CD-16 positive cells (NK-cells) produced no significant change in cytotoxicity. T-lymphocytes, therefore, appear to be intimately involved in the in vitro SCMC effect in recurrent aphthous ulceration.
Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer (RAU) is an inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent, painful oral ulcers. It is of multifactorial etiology. Salivary immunoglobulins have important role in the protection of mucosal surfaces.
The aim of this study was to determine salivary immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and IgA2 in acute and remission phases of the disease.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty clinically confirmed cases of RAU and 30 age-and sex-matched controls were included in the study. After detailed case history and thorough clinical examination, 2 mL of saliva was collected in both acute and remission phases of the disease. The obtained saliva samples were subjected to quantification of IgA1 and IgA2 levels using RID kit.
The mean IgA2 level was significantly higher (P<.001) in both acute and remission phase of the study group. The mean IgA1 level also showed a significant increase in the acute phase compared to remission as well as controls (P<.05). Females exhibited a higher level in acute phase for IgA1 and in both phases for IgA2 (P<.05).
The results associated with clinical observations suggest that acute phase is characterized with increase in IgA2 that might reflect increased immune response as a possible result of the microbial stimulation seen in the acute phase in comparison to the remission period. IgA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RAU and it can be used as a parameter to assess the mucosal immune status
Radial immunodiffusion; recurrent aphthous stomatitis; recurrent aphthous ulcer; salivary IgA subclasses; secretory IgA
Cholesteryl esters have antimicrobial activity and likely contribute to the innate immunity system. Improved separation techniques are needed to characterize these compounds. In this study, optimization of the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation of six analyte standards (four cholesteryl esters plus cholesterol and tri-palmitin) was accomplished by modeling with an artificial neural network–genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) approach. A fractional factorial design was employed to examine the significance of four experimental factors: organic component in the mobile phase (ethanol and methanol), column temperature, and flow rate. Three separation parameters were then merged into geometric means using Derringer’s desirability function and used as input sources for model training and testing. The use of genetic operators proved valuable for the determination of an effective neural network structure. Implementation of the optimized method resulted in complete separation of all six analytes, including the resolution of two previously co-eluting peaks. Model validation was performed with experimental responses in good agreement with model-predicted responses. Improved separation was also realized in a complex biological fluid, human milk. Thus, the first known use of ANN-GA modeling for improving the chromatographic separation of cholesteryl esters in biological fluids is presented and will likely prove valuable for future investigators involved in studying complex biological samples.
FigureANN-derived response surface plot for two interacting factors and overall response
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-010-3778-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lipids; Cholesteryl linoleate; Innate immunity; Biological fluids; Artificial neural networks; Genetic algorithms
Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most commonly investigated microorganism is Streptococcus sanguinis. The relationship between streptococcal infections and Behçet's disease is suggested by clinical observations that an unhygienic oral condition is frequently noted in the oral cavity of Behçet's disease patients. Several viral agents, including herpes simplex virus-1, hepatitis C virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus, may also have some role.
Jejunal biopsies in 33 patients with troublesome recurrent aphthous ulceration seen over one year showed eight with flat mucosa compatible with coeliac disease. All remitted completely on a gluten-free diet, both clinically and haematologically, and the aphthous ulceration did not recur. Gluten sensitivity is aetiologically important in patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration and flat mucosa, and patients with recurrent ulceration should undergo jejunal biopsy.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of smoking on the salivary immunoglobulin response in smokers and to evaluate the salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers.
Materials and Methods:
The study included total of 80 subjects, of whom 40 were having history of chronic smoking habit, 20 were clinically diagnosed cases of recurrent aphthous ulcer and 20 were in the control group. Sample of unstimulated saliva was collected, centrifuged and analyzed for the level of salivary immunoglobulin A with turbidimetric immunoassay. For all the tests, a P- value of < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance.
The mean salivary immunoglobulin A level in control group was 0.20 Grams/litre and in smokers the mean salivary immunoglobulin A level was 0.13 Grams / Litre. In patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers mean salivary immunoglobulin A level was 0.31 Grams / Litre. The mean salivary immunoglobulin A levels showed a decreasing trend from controls to smokers. These results were highly significant for values between control groups to smokers.
The mean salivary immunoglobulin A levels demonstrated a progressive decrease from controls to smokers. This investigative procedure although non-specific, can be used as a diagnostic marker in smokers and patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers.
Controls; recurrent aphthous ulcers; salivary immunoglobulin A; smokers
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) appears to be the most common type of oral ulcers. The lesion is usually self limited but its painful presentation results in some difficulties. Therefore, an efficient therapeutic strategy is required and currently existing therapies seem to be inadequate because of its unclear etiology. Here the therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide ointment as a relatively expensive medication has been compared with phenytoin syrup on aphthous ulcers in patients with Behcet’s syndrome.
Thirty out of 60 our patients with Behcet’s syndrome were randomly treated by phenytoin syrup and the remaining were advised to use 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide ointment. After a week, they were visited again to determine the status of aphthous ulcers.
Positive response in the triamcinolone acetonide group and phenytoin group was 86.7% and 53.3%, respectively.
The effectiveness of triamcinolone acetonide ointment was more than phenytoin on aphthous ulcers in patients with Behcet’s syndrome.
Phenytoin; Triamcinolone Acetonide; Aphthous ulcer; Behcet’s syndrome
Target threat assessment is a key issue in the collaborative attack. To improve the accuracy and usefulness of target threat assessment in the aerial combat, we propose a variant of wavelet neural networks, MWFWNN network, to solve threat assessment. How to select the appropriate wavelet function is difficult when constructing wavelet neural network. This paper proposes a wavelet mother function selection algorithm with minimum mean squared error and then constructs MWFWNN network using the above algorithm. Firstly, it needs to establish wavelet function library; secondly, wavelet neural network is constructed with each wavelet mother function in the library and wavelet function parameters and the network weights are updated according to the relevant modifying formula. The constructed wavelet neural network is detected with training set, and then optimal wavelet function with minimum mean squared error is chosen to build MWFWNN network. Experimental results show that the mean squared error is 1.23 × 10−3, which is better than WNN, BP, and PSO_SVM. Target threat assessment model based on the MWFWNN has a good predictive ability, so it can quickly and accurately complete target threat assessment.
The treatment of a 12-year-old girl with a lifelone history of recurrent infections and aphthous stomatitis is reported. A profound neutropenis, first noted at the age of 2 years, occurring at least every month was observed together with multiple mouth ulcers a sore throat and swelling of the jugular glands. Levamisole, originally described as an anthelmintic, has a beneficial effect on the symptoms of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. After levamisole treatment aphthous stomatitis was milder and in the 1-year follow-up period the patient was asymptomatic several times during a phase of obvious neutrophil depression. The child no longer complained of a sore throat with swelling of the jugular glands and the recurrent staphylococcal infections of the skin disappeared. After therapy a marked increase in monocytes at the moment of neutropenia was observed.
Echo-state networks (ESN) are part of a group of reservoir computing methods and are basically a form of recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN). These methods can perform classification tasks on time series data. The recurrent ANN of an echo-state network has an 'echo-state' characteristic. This 'echo-state' functions as a fading memory: samples that have been introduced into the network in a further past, are faded away. The echo-state approach for the training of recurrent neural networks was first described by Jaeger H. et al. In clinical medicine, until this moment, no original research articles have been published to examine the use of echo-state networks.
This study examines the possibility of using an echo-state network for prediction of dialysis in the ICU. Therefore, diuresis values and creatinine levels of the first three days after ICU admission were collected from 830 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 31th 2003 and November 17th 2007. The outcome parameter was the performance by the echo-state network in predicting the need for dialysis between day 5 and day 10 of ICU admission. Patients with an ICU length of stay <10 days or patients that received dialysis in the first five days of ICU admission were excluded. Performance by the echo-state network was then compared by means of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with results obtained by two other time series analysis methods by means of a support vector machine (SVM) and a naive Bayes algorithm (NB).
The AUC's in the three developed echo-state networks were 0.822, 0.818, and 0.817. These results were comparable to the results obtained by the SVM and the NB algorithm.
This proof of concept study is the first to evaluate the performance of echo-state networks in an ICU environment. This echo-state network predicted the need for dialysis in ICU patients. The AUC's of the echo-state networks were good and comparable to the performance of other classification algorithms. Moreover, the echo-state network was more easily configured than other time series modeling technologies.
Microbial factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Because of similarities in the characteristics of peptic ulcers and oral aphthous ulcers, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) could play a role in the development of RAS. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between H. pylori and RAS using the results obtained in other related studies. In the present systematic review, all of the relevant papers up to December 2011 were screened. The search was done using PubMed and the Cochrane library and out of 33, 9 articles were selected via the keywords of stomatitis, aphthous and H. pylori. Nine of the studies met the inclusion criteria. Among the selected articles, 6 were inconsistent with the association of H. pylori infection and RAS and 3 agreed to this assumption. The results of the literature indicate that there is no association between H. pylori infection and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Aphthous stomatitis; Helicobacter pylori; Oral cavity; Pathogenesis
Methods: Questionnaires about the occurrence and prevalence of aphthous ulcers were distributed randomly to the parents of children attending a paediatric centre in Taibe. The parents were asked whether they or any of their children aged between 10 and 20 years had recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Any who had had more than four aphthous episodes (each episode lasting more than seven days) during the previous year were invited for an extensive interview and examination by a rheumatologist or a paediatrician.
Results: A total of 4876 subjects were included in this survey, of whom six (one male, five female) were diagnosed as having BD. Of these six, two were siblings (a brother and a sister). Five had skin lesions, four had visual involvement, and all had genital ulcers and joint symptoms; one in two patients had a positive pathergy test. Five of the six carried HLA-B5 antigens. The results showed a prevalence of 12/10 000 in Taibe.
Conclusion: The prevalence of BD found in our survey is high and concurs with that found in other Mediterranean and Asian countries.
Microarray technology can acquire information about thousands of genes simultaneously. We analyzed published breast cancer microarray databases to predict five-year recurrence and compared the performance of three data mining algorithms of artificial neural networks (ANN), decision trees (DT) and logistic regression (LR) and two composite models of DT-ANN and DT-LR. The collection of microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus, four breast cancer datasets were pooled for predicting five-year breast cancer relapse. After data compilation, 757 subjects, 5 clinical variables and 13,452 genetic variables were aggregated. The bootstrap method, Mann–Whitney U test and 20-fold cross-validation were performed to investigate candidate genes with 100 most-significant p-values. The predictive powers of DT, LR and ANN models were assessed using accuracy and the area under ROC curve. The associated genes were evaluated using Cox regression.
The DT models exhibited the lowest predictive power and the poorest extrapolation when applied to the test samples. The ANN models displayed the best predictive power and showed the best extrapolation. The 21 most-associated genes, as determined by integration of each model, were analyzed using Cox regression with a 3.53-fold (95% CI: 2.24-5.58) increased risk of breast cancer five-year recurrence…
The 21 selected genes can predict breast cancer recurrence. Among these genes, CCNB1, PLK1 and TOP2A are in the cell cycle G2/M DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Oncologists can offer the genetic information for patients when understanding the gene expression profiles on breast cancer recurrence.
Breast cancer; Microarray; Artificial neural network; Logistic regression; Decision tree
AIM: To investigate the role of artificial neural networks in predicting the presence of thyroid disease in atrophic body gastritis patients.
METHODS: A dataset of 29 input variables of 253 atrophic body gastritis patients was applied to artificial neural networks (ANNs) using a data optimisation procedure (standard ANNs, T&T-IS protocol, TWIST protocol). The target variable was the presence of thyroid disease.
RESULTS: Standard ANNs obtained a mean accuracy of 64.4% with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 59.8% in recognizing atrophic body gastritis patients with thyroid disease. The optimization procedures (T&T-IS and TWIST protocol) improved the performance of the recognition task yielding a mean accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 74.7% and 75.8%, 78.8% and 81.8%, and 70.5% and 69.9%, respectively. The increase of sensitivity of the TWIST protocol was statistically significant compared to T&T-IS.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that artificial neural networks may be taken into consideration as a potential clinical decision-support tool for identifying ABG patients at risk for harbouring an unknown thyroid disease and thus requiring diagnostic work-up of their thyroid status.
Atrophic body gastritis; Thyroid disease; Artificial neural networks
Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.
Artificial neural network (ANN); Principal component regression (PCR); Visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR); Spectroscopy; Apple; Soluble solids content (SSC)
Genome-wide identification of specific oligonucleotides (oligos) is a computationally-intensive task and is a requirement for designing microarray probes, primers, and siRNAs. An artificial neural network (ANN) is a machine learning technique that can effectively process complex and high noise data. Here, ANNs are applied to process the unique subsequence distribution for prediction of specific oligos.
We present a novel and efficient algorithm, named the integration of ANN and BLAST (IAB) algorithm, to identify specific oligos. We establish the unique marker database for human and rat gene index databases using the hash table algorithm. We then create the input vectors, via the unique marker database, to train and test the ANN. The trained ANN predicted the specific oligos with high efficiency, and these oligos were subsequently verified by BLAST. To improve the prediction performance, the ANN over-fitting issue was avoided by early stopping with the best observed error and a k-fold validation was also applied. The performance of the IAB algorithm was about 5.2, 7.1, and 6.7 times faster than the BLAST search without ANN for experimental results of 70-mer, 50-mer, and 25-mer specific oligos, respectively. In addition, the results of polymerase chain reactions showed that the primers predicted by the IAB algorithm could specifically amplify the corresponding genes. The IAB algorithm has been integrated into a previously published comprehensive web server to support microarray analysis and genome-wide iterative enrichment analysis, through which users can identify a group of desired genes and then discover the specific oligos of these genes.
The IAB algorithm has been developed to construct SpecificDB, a web server that provides a specific and valid oligo database of the probe, siRNA, and primer design for the human genome. We also demonstrate the ability of the IAB algorithm to predict specific oligos through polymerase chain reaction experiments. SpecificDB provides comprehensive information and a user-friendly interface.
An artificial neural network (ANN) can help in the prediction of advanced water treatment effluent and thus facilitate design practices. In this study, sets of 225 experimental data were obtained from a wastewater treatment process for the removal of phosphorus using oven-dried alum residuals in fixed-bed adsorbers. Five input variables (pH, initial phosphorus concentration, wastewater flow rate, porosity, and time) were used to test the efficiency of phosphorus removal at different times, and ANNs were then used to predict the effluent phosphorus concentration. Results of experiments that were conducted for different values of the input parameters made up the data used to train and test a multilayer perceptron using the back-propagation algorithm of the ANN. Values predicted by the ANN and the experimentally measured values were compared, and the accuracy of the ANN was evaluated. When ANN results were compared to the experimental results, it was concluded that the ANN results were accurate, especially during conditions of high phosphorus concentration. While the ANN model was able to predict the breakthrough point with good accuracy, the conventional advection–diffusion equation was not as accurate. A parametric study conducted to examine the effect of the initial pH and initial phosphorus concentration on the effluent phosphorus concentration at different times showed that lower influent pH values are the most suitable for this advanced treatment system.
advanced treatment; alum residual; artificial neural network; fixed-bed column test; phosphorus pollution; porosity