In response to pathogen attack, grapevine synthesizes phytoalexins belonging to the family of stilbenes. Grapevine cell cultures represent a good model system for studying the basic mechanisms of plant response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Among these, modified β-cyclodextrins seem to act as true elicitors inducing strong production of the stilbene resveratrol.
The transcriptome changes of Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri grapevine cells in response to the modified β-cyclodextrin, DIMEB, were analyzed 2 and 6 h after treatment using a suppression subtractive hybridization experiment and a microarray analysis respectively. At both time points, we identified a specific set of induced genes belonging to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, including stilbenes and hydroxycinnamates, and to defence proteins such as PR proteins and chitinases. At 6 h we also observed a down-regulation of the genes involved in cell division and cell-wall loosening.
We report the first large-scale study of the molecular effects of DIMEB, a resveratrol inducer, on grapevine cell cultures. This molecule seems to mimic a defence elicitor which enhances the physical barriers of the cell, stops cell division and induces phytoalexin synthesis.
Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR), while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy) transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5) transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.
Salt stress is a major constraint for many crop plants, such as the moderately salt-sensitive economically important fruit crop grapevine. Plants have evolved different strategies for protection against salinity and drought. Jasmonate signalling is a central element of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. To discriminate stress quality, there must be cross-talk with parallel signal chains. Using two grapevine cell lines differing in salt tolerance, the response of jasmonate ZIM/tify-domain (JAZ/TIFY) proteins (negative regulators of jasmonate signalling), a marker for salt adaptation Na+/H+ EXCHANGER (NHX1), and markers for biotic defence STILBENE SYNTHASE (StSy) and RESVERATROL SYNTHASE (RS) were analysed. It is shown that salt stress signalling shares several events with biotic defence including activity of a gadolinium-sensitive calcium influx channel (monitored by apoplastic alkalinization) and transient induction of JAZ/TIFY transcripts. Exogenous jasmonate can rescue growth in the salt-sensitive cell line. Suppression of jasmonate signalling by phenidone or aspirin blocks the induction of JAZ/TIFY transcripts. The rapid induction of RS and StSy characteristic for biotic defence in grapevine is strongly delayed in response to salt stress. In the salt-tolerant line, NHX1 is induced and the formation of reactive oxygen species, monitored as stress markers in the sensitive cell line, is suppressed. The data are discussed in terms of a model where salt stress signalling acts as a default pathway whose readout is modulated by a parallel signal chain triggered by biotic factors downstream of jasmonate signalling.
Grapevine (V. rupestris, V. riparia); Harpin; jasmonic acid; JAZ/TIFY; salt stress
Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants that represent a huge portion of the soluble phenolics present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). These compounds play different physiological roles and are often involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stress. Even if the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways have been largely characterized, the mechanisms of their transport and accumulation in cell wall and vacuole are still not completely understood. This review analyses the known mechanisms of flavonoid uptake and accumulation in grapevine, with reference to the transport models and membrane carrier proteins described in other plant species. The effect of different environmental factors on flavonoid biosynthesis and transporters is also discussed.
ABC proteins; active transport; bilitranslocase; biotic and abiotic stress; flavonoid; secondary metabolites
The flavonolignan silymarin is released to the extracellular medium of Silybum marianum cultures and its production can be stimulated by the elicitor methyljasmonate (MeJA). The sequence of the signalling processes leading to this response is unknown at present. It is reported in this work that MeJA increased the activity of the enzyme phospholipase D (PLD). Treatment with mastoparan (Mst), a PLD activity stimulator, also enhanced PLD and caused a substantial increase in silymarin production. The application of the product of PLD activity, phosphatidic acid (PA) promoted silymarin accumulation. Altering PLD activity by introducing in cultures n-butanol (nBuOH), which inhibits PA production by PLD, prevented silymarin elicitation by MeJA or Mst and also impeded its release in non-elicited cultures. Treatment with iso-, sec- or tert- butanol had no effect on silymarin production. The exogenous addition of PA reversed the inhibitory action of nBuOH, both in control and MeJA-treated cultures. These results suggest that the enzyme PLD and its product PA mediate silymarin secretion to the medium of S. marianum cultures.
Cell cultures; elicitation; phospholipase D; phosphatidic acid; signalling; silymarin
The gene encoding stilbene synthase is frequently used to modify plant secondary metabolism with the aim of producing the self-defence phytoalexin resveratrol. In this study, strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) was transformed with the NS-Vitis3 gene encoding stilbene synthase from frost grape (Vitis riparia) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and the floral filament-specific fil1 promoters. Changes in leaf metabolites were investigated with UPLC-qTOF-MS (ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry) profiling, and increased accumulation of cinnamate, coumarate, and ferulate derivatives concomitantly with a decrease in the levels of flavonols was observed, while the anticipated resveratrol or its derivatives were not detected. The changed metabolite profile suggested that chalcone synthase was down-regulated by the genetic modification; this was verified by decreased chalcone synthase transcript levels. Changes in the levels of phenolic compounds led to increased susceptibility of the transgenic strawberry to grey mould fungus.
Genetic engineering; LC-MS; metabolite profiling; metabolomics; phenolic compounds; strawberry; stilbene synthase
Resveratrol synthesis from p-coumarate was analyzed in different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing the 4-coumaroyl-coenzyme A ligase (4CL1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and the stilbene synthase (STS) from Vitis vinifera and compared between yeast cultures growing in rich or synthetic medium. The use of rich medium considerably improved resveratrol production, and resveratrol yields of up to 391 mg/liter could be achieved with an industrial Brazilian sugar cane-fermenting yeast.
Resveratrol is a non flavonoid polyphenol compound present in many plants and fruits and, at especially high concentrations, in the grape berries of Vitis vinifera. This compound has a strong bioactivity and its cytoprotective action has been demonstrated, however at high concentrations the drug exhibits also an effective anti-proliferative action. We recently showed its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells. In this work we assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. The results presented here show an evident toxic activity of the drug at high concentrations, on the other hand at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA.
The mouse fibroblast line 3T6 and the human tumor line HL60 were used throughout the work. Cell viability and vital cell count were assessed respectively, by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue staining. Cytotoxic properties and evaluation of viral DNA production by agarose gel electrophoresis were performed according to standard protocols.
Our results show a clear dose dependent both cytotoxic and antiviral effect of resveratrol respectively at high and low concentrations. The cytotoxic action is exerted towards a stabilized cell-line (3T6) as well as a tumor-line (HL60). Furthermore the antiviral action is evident after the phase of virion entry, therefore data suggest that the drug acts during the synthesis of the viral progeny DNA.
Resveratrol is cytotoxic and inhibits, in a dose dependent fashion, the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA in the infected cell. Furthermore, this inhibition is observed at non cytotoxic concentrations of the drug. Our data imply that cyto-toxicity may be attributed to the membrane damage caused by the drug and that the transfer of polyomavirus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm may be hindered. In conclusion, the cytotoxic and antiviral properties of resveratrol make it a potential candidate for the clinical control of proliferative as well as viral pathologies.
Plant stilbenes are a small group of phenylpropanoids, which have been detected in at least 72 unrelated plant species and accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stresses such as infection, wounding, UV-C exposure and treatment with chemicals. Stilbenes are formed via the phenylalanine/polymalonate-route, the last step of which is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS), a type III polyketide synthase (PKS). Stilbene synthases are closely related to chalcone synthases (CHS), the key enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To date, STSs have been cloned from peanut, pine, sorghum and grapevine, the only stilbene-producing fruiting-plant for which the entire genome has been sequenced. Apart from sorghum, STS genes appear to exist as a family of closely related genes in these other plant species.
In this study a complete characterization of the STS multigenic family in grapevine has been performed, commencing with the identification, annotation and phylogenetic analysis of all members and integration of this information with a comprehensive set of gene expression analyses including healthy tissues at differential developmental stages and in leaves exposed to both biotic (downy mildew infection) and abiotic (wounding and UV-C exposure) stresses. At least thirty-three full length sequences encoding VvSTS genes were identified, which, based on predicted amino acid sequences, cluster in 3 principal groups designated A, B and C. The majority of VvSTS genes cluster in groups B and C and are located on chr16 whereas the few gene family members in group A are found on chr10. Microarray and mRNA-seq expression analyses revealed different patterns of transcript accumulation between the different groups of VvSTS family members and between VvSTSs and VvCHSs. Indeed, under certain conditions the transcriptional response of VvSTS and VvCHS genes appears to be diametrically opposed suggesting that flow of carbon between these two competing metabolic pathways is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level.
This study represents an overview of the expression pattern of each member of the STS gene family in grapevine under both constitutive and stress-induced conditions. The results strongly indicate the existence of a transcriptional subfunctionalization amongst VvSTSs and provide the foundation for further functional investigations about the role and evolution of this large gene family. Moreover, it represents the first study to clearly show the differential regulation of VvCHS and VvSTS genes, suggesting the involvement of transcription factors (TFs) in both the activation and repression of these genes.
Stilbene synthase; Chalcone synthase; Abiotic stress; Downy mildew; Grapevine
Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethanol extracts on cell proliferation was detected by the MTS assay. The morphological changes and degree of adipogenesis of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were measured by Oil Red-O staining assay. Treatment with extracts of resveratrol-amplified grape skin decreased lipid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity without affecting 3T3-L1 cell viability. Grape skin extract treatment resulted in significantly attenuated expression of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and their target genes (FAS, aP2, SCD-1, and LPL). These results indicate that resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts may be useful for preventing obesity by regulating lipid metabolism.
Grape skin extracts; resveratrol; 3T3-L1; adipocyte differentiation
Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been successfully used as an effective elicitor to enhance production of taxol and other taxanes in cultured Taxus cells. However the mechanism of MeJA-mediated taxane biosynthesis remains unclear. Genomic information for species in the genus Taxus is currently unavailable. Therefore, information about the transcriptome of Taxus cells and specifically, description of changes in gene expression in response to MeJA, is needed for the better exploration of the biological mechanisms of MeJA-mediated taxane biosynthesis.
In this research, the transcriptome profiles of T. chinensis cells at 16 hours (T16) after MeJA treatment and of mock-treated cells (T0) were analyzed by “RNA-seq” to investigate the transcriptional alterations of Taxus cell in response to MeJA elicitation. More than 58 million reads (200 bp in length) of cDNA from both samples were generated, and 46,581 unigenes were found. There were 13,469 genes found to be expressed differentially between the two timepoints, including all of the known jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis/JA signaling pathway genes and taxol-related genes. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression profiles of 12 randomly selected DEGs and 10 taxol biosynthesis genes were found to be consistent with the RNA-Seq data. MeJA appeared to stimulate a large number of genes involved in several relevant functional categories, such as plant hormone biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Additionally, many genes encoding transcription factors were shown to respond to MeJA elicitation.
The results of a transcriptome analysis suggest that exogenous application of MeJA could induce JA biosynthesis/JA signaling pathway/defence responses, activate a series of transcription factors, as well as increase expression of genes in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway responsible for taxol synthesis. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MeJA-mediated taxane biosynthesis in Taxus cells.
Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy towards improved in vitro production of secondary metabolites. In cell cultures, biotic and abiotic elicitors have effectively stimulated the production of plant secondary metabolites. However, molecular basis of elicitor-signaling cascades leading to increased production of secondary metabolites of plant cell is largely unknown. Exposure of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture to low dose of UV-B irradiation was found to increase the amount of catharanthine and transcription of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) and strictosidine synthase (Str). In the present study, the signaling pathway mediating UV-B-induced catharanthine accumulation in C. roseus suspension cultures were investigated.
Here, we investigate whether cell surface receptors, medium alkalinization, Ca2+ influx, H2O2, CDPK and MAPK play required roles in UV-B signaling leading to enhanced production of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. C. roseus cells were pretreated with various agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components and their effects on the accumulation of Tdc and Str transcripts as well as amount of catharanthine production were investigated by various molecular biology techniques. It has been found that the catharanthine accumulation and transcription of Tdc and Str were inhibited by 3–4 fold upon pretreatment of various inhibitors like suramin, N-acetyl cysteine, inhibitors of calcium fluxes, staurosporine etc.
Our results demonstrate that cell surface receptor(s), Ca2+ influx, medium alkalinization, CDPK, H2O2 and MAPK play significant roles in UV-B signaling leading to stimulation of Tdc and Str genes and the accumulation of catharanthine in C. roseus cell suspension cultures. Based on these findings, a model for signal transduction cascade has been proposed.
The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine.
An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages.
One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons.
The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process.
The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.
Grape berry; stilbene synthase; stilbenes; Vitis vinifera; water deficit
Resveratrol, a stilbenic compound deriving from the phenyalanine/polymalonate route, being stilbene synthase the last and key enzyme of this pathway, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology. Increased demand for this molecule for nutraceutical, cosmetic and possibly pharmaceutic uses, makes its production a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plants is particularly promising. Interesting results can indeed arise from the potential of genetically modified microorganisms as an alternative mechanism for producing resveratrol. Strategies used to tailoring yeast as they do not possess the genes that encode for the resveratrol pathway, will be described. On the other hand, most interest has centered in recent years, on STS gene transfer experiments from various origins to the genome of numerous plants. This work also presents a comprehensive review on plant molecular engineering with the STS gene, resulting in disease resistance against microorganisms and the enhancement of the antioxidant activities of several fruits in transgenic lines.
In this study, the potential influence of resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling of medulloblastoma cells was evaluated by checking the status of STAT3 signaling and its downstream gene expression in two medulloblastoma cell lines (UW228-2 and UW228-3) with and without resveratrol treatment. The results revealed that resveratrol induced neuronal differentiation of medulloblastoma cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression and phosphorylation were detected in normally cultured UW228-2 and UW228-3 cells that were apparently attenuated after resveratrol treatment. The expression of STAT3 downstream genes, survivin, cyclin D1, Cox-2, and c-Myc, was suppressed but Bcl-2 was enhanced by resveratrol. Meanwhile, the production and secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor, a STAT3 activator, became active in resveratrol-treated cells. To further ascertain the significance of STAT3 signaling for medulloblastoma cells, AG490, a selective inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, was used to treat UW228-3 cells. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was inhibited by AG490 accompanied with growth suppression, differentiation-like changes, and down-regulation of survivin, cyclin D1, Cox-2, and c-Myc. Our data thus suggest the importance of STAT3 signaling in maintenance and survival of medulloblastoma cells. This signaling may be the major target of resveratrol. Enhanced leukemia inhibitory factor and Bcl-2 expressions in resveratrol-treated cells might reflect a compensatory response to the loss of STAT3 function.
Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year−1); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year−1); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year−1). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling.
ABA signalling; deficit irrigation; leaf water relations; partial root zone drying; root water uptake; soil water content
The plant phytoalexin resveratrol was previously demonstrated to inhibit the differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts, to promote the formation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal precursors in cultures, and inhibit myeloma cell proliferation, when used at high concentrations. In the current study, we screened five structurally modified resveratrol analogues for their ability to modify the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and proliferation of myeloma cells. Compared to resveratrol, analogues showed an up to 5,000-fold increased potency to inhibit osteoclast differentiation. To a lesser extent, resveratrol analogues also promoted osteoblast maturation. However, they did not antagonize the proliferation of myeloma cells. The potency of the best-performing candidate in vitro was tested in vivo in an ovariectomy-induced model of osteoporosis, but an effect on bone loss could not be detected. Based on their powerful antiresorptive activity in vitro, resveratrol analogues might be attractive modulators of bone remodeling. However, further studies are required to establish their efficacy in vivo.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00223-010-9399-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Resveratrol; Resveratrol analogue; Osteoclast; Osteoblast; Multiple myeloma
The numerous uses of the grapevine fruit, especially for wine and beverages, have made it one of the most important plants worldwide. The phytochemistry of grapevine is rich in a wide range of compounds. Many of them are renowned for their numerous medicinal uses. The production of grapevine metabolites is highly conditioned by many factors like environment or pathogen attack. Some grapevine phytoalexins have gained a great deal of attention due to their antimicrobial activities, being also involved in the induction of resistance in grapevine against those pathogens. Meanwhile grapevine biotechnology is still evolving, thanks to the technological advance of modern science, and biotechnologists are making huge efforts to produce grapevine cultivars of desired characteristics. In this paper, important metabolites from grapevine and grape derived products like wine will be reviewed with their health promoting effects and their role against certain stress factors in grapevine physiology.
Grapevine; Medicinal importance; Phytochemistry; Resistance
Polyphenols represent a large class of plant-derived molecules with a general chemical structure that act as potent free radical scavengers. They have long been recognized to possess several therapeutic activities ranging from anti-thrombotic to antioxidant. Moreover, the capability of polyphenols to act as reducing or oxidizing molecules depends on the presence of environmental metals and on the concentrations used. In this work we demonstrated that the stilbene trans-resveratrol was able to commit human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to apoptosis. Mainly, we evidenced a pivotal role of the mitochondria in this phenomenon as cytochrome c release into the cytosol was found after the treatment. We further showed that trans-resveratrol was able to affect cellular redox state. In particular, it induced an early production of ROS and lipid oxidation, and only later compromised the GSH/GSSG ratio. This mode of action was mirrored by a temporally different activation of JNK and p38MAPK, with the former rapidly induced and the latter weakly activated at long intervals. The results obtained demonstrate a pro-apoptotic activity for trans-resveratrol, and suggest a preferential activation of different classes of MAP kinases in response to different oxidative stimuli (ROS versus GSH/GSSG alteration).
Resveratrol; Apoptosis; Glutathione; ROS; MAP kinases; Oxidative stress
Aims. 3,5,4′-Trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, a natural polyphenolic compound present in wine and grapes and better known as resveratrol, has free radical scavenging properties and is a potent protector against oxidative stress induced by alcohol metabolism. Today, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its toxicity is still not well understood, but it is generally considered that free radical generation plays an important role in the appearance of structural and functional alterations in cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of resveratrol against ethanol-induced brain cell injury. Methods. Primary cultures of rat astrocytes were exposed to ethanol, with or without a pretreatment with resveratrol. We examined the dose-dependent effects of this resveratrol pretreatment on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ethanol. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT reduction test. Genotoxicity was evidenced using single cell gel electrophoresis. In addition, DNA staining with fluorescent dyes allowed visualization of nuclear damage using confocal microscopy. Results. Cell pretreatment with low concentrations of trans-resveratrol (0.1–10 μM) slowed down cell death and DNA damage induced by ethanol exposure, while higher concentrations (50–100 μM) enhanced these same effects. No protection by cis-resveratrol was observed. Conclusion. Protection offered by trans-resveratrol against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity was only effective for low concentrations of this polyphenol.
Resveratrol is a phenolic compound found in grapes and other food products. In order to assess the availability of resveratrol as an angio-inhibiting drug, we examined whether resveratrol plays an important role in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) for cell apoptosis and cell migration.
Methods and Materials
Endothelial cell apoptosis was observed as detected by the Hoechst staining and the caspase-3 activity. Additionally, Western blotting was performed for monitoring the activities of various cell signaling molecules.
Resveratrol was shown to act as a pro-apoptotic agent. The pro-apoptotic effect of resveratrol was as great as that of etoposide, a well-known anti-cancer drug. In addition, resveratrol had an inhibitory effect on endothelial cell migration. The demonstrated efficacy of resveratrol suggests that resveratrol may be utilized as an anti-angiogenic drug. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we further investigated which signaling molecules are activated by resveratrol. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated by the treatment with resveratrol in BAECs, whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were inhibited. The pretreatment with PD compound, an ERK inhibitor, had no effect on the pro-apoptosis induced by resveratrol.
Resveratrol plays an important role in endothelial cell apoptosis, indicating that resveratrol can be utilized as a potent anti-angiogenic drug.
Resveratrol; Endothelial cells; Apoptosis; Caspase-3; Cell signaling
Previously, we have reported the ability of thiamine (vitamin B1) to induce resistance against Plasmopara viticola in a susceptible grapevine cv. Chardonnay. However, mechanisms underlying vitamins, especially, thiamine-induced disease resistance in grapevine are still largely unknown. Here, we assessed whether thiamine could modulate phenylpropanoid pathway-derived phytoalexins in grapevine plants, as well as, the role of such secondary metabolites in thiamine-induced resistance process to P. viticola.
Our data show that thiamine treatment elicited the expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in grapevine plants. The expression of these genes correlated with an accumulation of stilbenes, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and lignin. Furthermore, the total anti-oxidant potential of thiamine-treaded plants was increased by 3.5-fold higher level as compared with untreated-control plants. Four phenolic compounds are responsible of 97% of the total anti-oxidant potential of thiamine-treated plants. Among these compounds, is the caftaric acid, belonging to the hydroxy-cinnamic acids family. This element contributed, by its own, by 20% of this total anti-oxidant potential. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis revealed a concomitant presence of unbranched-altered P. viticola mycelia and stilbenes production in the leaf mesophyll of thiamine-treated inoculated plants, suggesting that stilbenes are an important component of thiamine-induced resistance in grapevine.
This work is the first to show the role of thiamine, as a vitamin, in the modulation of grapevine plant secondary metabolism contributing to an enhanced resistance to P. viticola, the most destructive fungal disease in vineyards.
Thiamine; Plasmopara viticola; Stilbenes; Phenylpropanoid pathway genes; Lignin; Flavonoids; Grapevine; Induced resistance; Real-Time q-PCR; HPLC; UPLC-MS
Variability in product accumulation is one of the major obstacles limiting the widespread commercialization of plant cell culture technology to supply natural product pharmaceuticals. Despite extensive process engineering efforts, which have led to increased yields, plant cells exhibit variability in productivity that is poorly understood. Elicitation of Taxus cultures with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces paclitaxel accumulation, but to varying extents in different cultures. In this work, cultures with different aggregation profiles were established to create predictable differences in paclitaxel accumulation upon MeJA elicitation. Expression of known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in MeJA-elicited cultures exhibiting both substantial (15-fold) and moderate (2-fold) differences in paclitaxel accumulation was analyzed using qRT-PCR. Each population exhibited the characteristic large increase in paclitaxel pathway gene expression following MeJA elicitation; however, differences in expression between populations were minor, and only observed for the cultures with the 15-fold variation in paclitaxel content. These data suggest that although upregulation of biosynthetic pathway gene expression contributes to observed increases in paclitaxel synthesis upon elicitation with MeJA, there are additional factors that need to be uncovered before paclitaxel productivity can be fully optimized.
plant biotechnology; gene expression; paclitaxel; Taxus; production variability
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in the skin of grapes and red wine, has been demonstrated to possess a wide range of health promoting activities including anti-diabetic properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol in both type 2 diabetic mice and cell culture systems. In cultured L6 myotubes, we studied the effect of resveratrol on glucose uptake and translocation of glucose transporter 4 to plasma membrane from the aspects of insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether resveratrol would protect the pancreas-derived β-cells from oxidative stress. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and the serum triglyceride and lipid peroxide levels in db/db mice. Resveratrol stimulated glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 translocation by activating both insulin signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. Moreover, resveratrol could protect pancreatic β-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. From these results, resveratrol is suggested to show anti-diabetic effect by stimulating both insulin-dependent and -independent glucose uptake in muscles and by protecting pancreatic β-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.
AMPK signaling; myotube; pancreatic β-cell; resveratrol; type 2 diabetic db/db mouse