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1.  Diagnostic and prognostic utilities of multimarkers approach using procalcitonin, B-type natriuretic peptide, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients with suspected sepsis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:224.
Background
We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utilities of procalcitonin (PCT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in critically ill patients with suspected sepsis, for whom sepsis was diagnosed clinically or based on PCT concentrations.
Methods
PCT, BNP, and NGAL concentrations were measured in 340 patients and were followed up in 109 patients. All studied biomarkers were analyzed according to the diagnosis, severity, and clinical outcomes of sepsis.
Results
Clinical sepsis and PCT-based sepsis showed poor agreement (kappa = 0.2475). BNP and NGAL showed significant differences between the two groups of PCT-based sepsis (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001), although there was no difference between the two groups of clinical sepsis. BNP and NGAL were significantly different according to the PCT staging and sepsis-related organ failure assessment subscores (P < 0.0001, all). BNP and PCT concentrations were significantly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (P = 0.0002) and showed an equal ability to predict in-hospital mortality (P = 0.0001). In the survivors, the follow-up NGAL and PCT concentrations were significantly lower than the initial values (148.7 ng/mL vs. 214.5 ng/mL, P < 0.0001; 0.61 ng/mL vs. 5.56 ng/mL, P = 0.0012).
Conclusions
PCT-based sepsis diagnosis seems to be more reliable and discriminating than clinical sepsis diagnosis. Multimarker approach using PCT, BNP, and NGAL would be useful for the diagnosis, staging, and prognosis prediction in the critically ill patients with suspected sepsis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-224
PMCID: PMC4006080  PMID: 24761764
B-type natriuretic peptide; Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; Procalcitonin; Sepsis; Diagnosis; Prognosis
2.  The Use of Procalcitonin as a Marker of Sepsis in Children 
Objective: Sepsis is a life-threatening disease which is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The critically ill patients often manifest a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) which is independent of an infection. The early diagnosis of different severities of sepsis is important for an early implementation of the specific therapies. Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic and the prognostic values of blood Procalcitonin (PCT) in cases of bacterial septicaemia in children.
Methods: The total sample comprised of 150 subjects who were admitted to the ICU with septicaemia and 50 normal, healthy, age and sex matched children. The first sample was collected at the time of admission, before the start of the antibiotic therapy (T0). A second sample was collected at 24 hours (T24) and a final sample was collected at 96 hours (T96). A PCT value of > 0.5ng/ml was accepted as positive.
Results: 63% of the children who were diagnosed with a bacterial aetiology showed detectable blood PCT levels with higher concentrations, while in the children who were diagnosed with a viral aetiology, only 22.2 % had detectable PCT levels, but in lower concentrations. The mean percentage reduction in the PCT value among the bacterial infection subjects was 44.39 ± 41.82 as compared to that in the viral infection subjects (5.71 ± 26.68) and in the subjects where the aetiology was not established (5.71 ± 26.68).
Conclusion: The results which were obtained in our study con- firmed that the PCT levels were a better marker for the bacterial infections. The PCT measurements may be used as a guide to the antibiotic therapy in critically ill children with suspected sepsis.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/4739.2753
PMCID: PMC3592298  PMID: 23543035
Procalcitonin; Sepsis; SIRS; Bacterial infection
3.  Procalcitonin as a marker of sepsis and outcome in patients with neurotrauma: an observation study 
BMC Anesthesiology  2013;13:48.
Background
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a reliable biomarker of sepsis and infection. The level of PCT associated with sepsis and infection in patients with traumatic brain injury is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) as diagnostic markers of sepsis and to evaluate the prognostic value of these markers related to the severity of injury, sepsis and mortality.
Methods
105 adult patients with neurotrauma were enrolled in this study from June 2011 to February 2013. PCT and CRP were measured at admission and 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after admission. The sepsis criteria established by American College of Chest Physicians /Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference were used to identify patients. Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were used to assess the severity of the injury. All these patients were monitored for 28 days.
Results
At admission, the median level of PCT was consistent with the severity of brain injury as follows: mild 0.08 ng/ml (0.05 - 0.13), moderate 0.25 ng/ml (0.11 - 0.55) and severe 0.31 ng/ml (0.17 - 0.79), but the range of CRP levels varied greatly within the given severity of brain injury. Seventy-one (67.6%) patients developed sepsis. The initial levels of PCT at admission were statistically higher in patients with sepsis, compared with patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but there were no differences in the initial concentration of CRP between sepsis and SIRS. After adjusting for these parameters, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that PCT was an independent risk factor for septic complications (p < 0.05). The areas under the ROCs at admission for the prediction of mortality were 0.76 (p < 0.05) and 0.733 for PCT and CRP, respectively.
Conclusions
Increased levels of PCT during the course of the ICU stay could be an important indicator for the early diagnosis of sepsis after neurotrauma. In addition, high serum levels of PCT in patients with neurotrauma at admission indicate an increased risk of septic complications, and the daily measurement of PCT assists in guiding antibiotic therapy in neurotrauma patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-13-48
PMCID: PMC3932500  PMID: 24330775
Procalcitonin; Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); Sepsis; Mortality; Traumatic brain injury
4.  Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Evaluating the Prognosis of Sepsis in Elderly Patients with Colorectal Cancer Undergoing Emergency Colorectal Surgery 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2012;75(2):86-93.
Serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels may have predictive value in the prognosis of postoperative sepsis in elderly patients who have undergone colorectal surgery for colorectal cancer in intensive care units (ICUs). A prospective study involving 90 critically ill patients who underwent colorectal surgery for colorectal cancer in ICUs was performed. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with sepsis, in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine consensus criteria, and these patients were included in the sepsis group. Sixty-two patients, who were without evidence of sepsis, were enrolled in the control group. We measured the serum PCT concentrations preoperatively (immediately before induction of anesthesia), upon arrival in the ICU (ICU day 0), on the morning of the first postoperative day (postoperative day 1), and on the morning of the third postoperative day (postoperative day 3). The C-reactive protein (CRP) index, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, mechanical duration of ventilation, mortality rate, incidence of multiple organ failure, and usage of continuous renal replacement therapy were evaluated. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROCC) was measured to explore the association between the serum PCT and the prognosis. In the sepsis group, 12/28 patients died (mortality rate 43 %). In the control group, 6/62 patients died (mortality rate 9.7 %). On the first postoperative day, the serum PCT level was dramatically higher in the sepsis group than in the control group (2.71 ± 1.13 vs. 1.37 ± 0.57, P ≤ 0.05). The PCT level on the first postoperative day was distinctly higher than that measured upon arrival in the ICU (2.71 ± 1.13 vs. 1.31 ± 0.58, P ≤ 0.05). In the two groups, the CRP concentrations were both markedly higher on the first postoperative day than upon arrival in the ICU (138.89 ± 45.12 vs. 70.43 ± 23.54 in the sepsis group, and 133.13 ± 44.91 vs. 69.65 ± 24.98 in the control group, P ≤ 0.05). Linear regression analysis was performed. The results suggest that the PCT and APACHE-II scores were not significantly associated. On the first and third postoperative days, the PCT levels were associated with increased odds of sepsis (AUC-ROCC, 95 % confidence interval 0.817–0.973, P = 0.000, and 0.755–0.944, P = 0.000, respectively). The outcomes of patients in the sepsis group were worse than those in the control group. PCT levels appear to be early markers of postoperative sepsis in elderly patients undergoing colorectal surgery for colorectal cancer during the ICU course. These findings could allow for early identification of postoperative septic complications and be used for prognostic evaluation of these patients.
doi:10.1007/s12262-012-0631-4
PMCID: PMC3644167  PMID: 24426400
Elderly patients; Sepsis; Emergency colorectal surgery; Procalcitonin; Prognosis
5.  The potential role of procalcitonin and interleukin 8 in the prediction of infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis 
Gut  1997;41(6):832-840.
Background—Infection of pancreatic necrosis has a major impact on clinical course, management, and outcome in acute pancreatitis. Currently, guided fine needle aspiration is the only means for an early and accurate diagnosis of infected necrosis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a 116 amino acid propeptide of calcitonin, and interleukin 8 (IL-8), a strong neutrophil activating cytokine, are markers of severe inflammation and sepsis. 
Aims—To analyse the clinical value of PCT and IL-8 as biochemical parameters for predicting infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis.
Patients and methods—Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis entered this prospective study and were stratified into three groups according to morphological and bacteriological findings: 18 patients with oedematous pancreatitis (group I), 14 patients with sterile necrosis (group II), and 18 patients who developed infected necrosis a median of 13.5 days after the onset of symptoms (group III). After admission serum samples were drawn daily for two weeks. Concentrations of PCT and IL-8 were measured by chemoluminescent immunoassays (upper reference range 0.5 ng/ml for PCT and 70 pg/ml for IL-8). The routine parameter C-reactive protein was determined by laser nephelometry (upper reference range 10 mg/l).
Results—Median concentrations of PCT and IL-8 were significantly higher in patients with infected necrosis than in those with sterile necrosis during the observation period, whereas there was no difference in C-reactive protein. In oedematous pancreatitis overall median concentrations of all three parameters were low. By receiver operating characteristics best cut off levels for predicting infected necrosis or persisting pancreatic sepsis were 1.8 ng/ml for PCT and 112 pg/ml for IL-8. If these cut off levels were reached on at least two days, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the prediction of infected necrosis were 94%, 91%, and 92% for PCT and 72%, 75%, and 74% for IL-8, respectively. After surgical treatment of infected necrosis median PCT and IL-8 values continued to be significantly higher in patients with persisting pancreatic sepsis (n=11) compared with those having an uneventful postoperative course (n=7). For the preoperative differentiation between infected necrosis and sterile necrosis guided fine needle aspiration was performed in 24 patients with necrotising pancreatitis and reached a diagnostic accuracy of 84% compared with 87% for PCT, and 68% for IL-8. There was no correlation between the aetiology of acute pancreatitis or the extent of necrosis and PCT or IL-8.
Conclusion—PCT and IL-8 are found in high concentrations in infected necrosis and associated systemic complications in patients with acute pancreatitis. The course of PCT shows the closest correlation with the presence of infected necrosis. Monitoring of serum PCT is a potential new marker for the non-invasive and accurate prediction of infected necrosis as well as for the selection of patients with persisting septic complications after surgical debridement. 


Keywords: procalcitonin; interleukin 8; infected necrosis; acute pancreatitis
PMCID: PMC1891610  PMID: 9462219
6.  Procalcitonin and procalcitonin kinetics for diagnosis and prognosis of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections in selected critically ill patients: a prospective observational study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:247.
Background
Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a valuable marker of sepsis. The potential role of PCT in diagnosis and therapy monitoring of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in intensive care unit (ICU) is still unclear and was evaluated.
Methods
Forty-six patients were included in the study, provided they were free of infection upon admission and presented the first episode of suspected CRBSI during their ICU stay. Patients who had developed any other infection were excluded. PCT was measured daily during the ICU hospitalization. Primary endpoint was proven CRBSI. Therapy monitoring as according to infection control was also evaluated.
Results
Among the 46 patients, 26 were diagnosed with CRBSI. Median PCT on the day of infection suspicion (D0) was 7.70 and 0.10 ng/ml for patients with and without proven CRBSI, respectively (p < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for PCT was 0.990 (95% CI; 0.972 – 1.000), whereas a cut-off value of 0.70 ng/ml provided sensitivity and specificity of 92.3 and 100% respectively. In contrast, the AUC for white blood cells (WBC) was 0.539 (95% CI; 0.369 – 0.709), and for C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.603 (95% CI; 0.438 – 0.768). PCT was the best predictor of proven infection. Moreover, an increase >0.20 ng/ml of PCT between the D0 and any of the 4 preceding days was associated with a positive predictive value exceeding 96%. PCT concentrations from the D2 to D6 after suspected infection tended to decrease in controlled patients, whereas remained stable in non-controlled subjects. A PCT concentration exceeding 1.5 ng/ml during D3 was associated with lack of responsiveness to therapy (p = 0.028).
Conclusions
We suggest that PCT could be a helpful diagnostic and prognostic marker of CRBSI in critically ill patients. Both absolute values and variations should be considered.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-247
PMCID: PMC3502591  PMID: 23043618
7.  Prognostic and diagnostic value of eosinopenia, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and circulating cell-free DNA in critically ill patients admitted with suspicion of sepsis 
Critical Care  2014;18(3):R116.
Introduction
The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) concentrations, compared with C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and eosinophil count, in the diagnosis of infections in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and their prognostic values in a cohort of critically ill patients.
Methods
We conducted a prospective cohort study in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Eosinophil count and concentrations of cf-DNA, CRP, and PCT were measured in patients who fulfilled SIRS criteria at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and a second determination 24 hours later. DNA levels were determined by a PCR method using primers for the human beta-haemoglobin gene.
Results
One hundred and sixty consecutive patients were included: 43 SIRS without sepsis and 117 with sepsis. Levels of CRP and PCT, but not cf-DNA or eosinophil count, were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in SIRS-no sepsis group on days 1 and 2. PCT on day 1 achieves the best area under the curve (AUC) for sepsis diagnosis (0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.81-0.94). Levels of cf-DNA do not predict outcome and the accuracy of these biomarkers for mortality prediction was lower than that shown by APACHE II score. PCT decreases significantly from day 1 to day 2 in survivors in the entire cohort and in patients with sepsis without significant changes in the other biomarkers.
Conclusions
Our data do not support the clinical utility of cf-DNA measurement in critical care patients with SIRS. PCT is of value especially for infection identification in patients with SIRS at admission to the ICU.
doi:10.1186/cc13908
PMCID: PMC4229882  PMID: 24903083
8.  Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein during systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis and organ dysfunction 
Critical Care  2004;8(4):R234-R242.
Introduction
Both C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) are accepted sepsis markers. However, there is still some debate concerning the correlation between their serum concentrations and sepsis severity. We hypothesised that PCT and CRP concentrations are different in patients with infection or with no infection at a similar severity of organ dysfunction or of systemic inflammatory response.
Patients and methods
One hundred and fifty adult intensive care unit patients were observed consecutively over a period of 10 days. PCT, CRP and infection parameters were compared among the following groups: no systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (n = 15), SIRS (n = 15), sepsis/SS (n = 71) (including sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock [n = 34, n = 22 and n = 15]), and trauma patients (n = 49, no infection).
Results
PCT and CRP concentrations were higher in patients in whom infection was diagnosed at comparable levels of organ dysfunction (infected patients, regression of median [ng/ml] PCT = -0.848 + 1.526 sequential organ failure assessment [SOFA] score, median [mg/l] CRP = 105.58 + 0.72 SOFA score; non-infected patients, PCT = 0.27 + 0.02 SOFA score, P < 0.0001; CRP = 84.53 - 0.19 SOFA score, P < 0.005), although correlation with the SOFA score was weak (R = 0.254, P < 0.001 for PCT, and R = 0.292, P < 0.001 for CRP). CRP levels were near their maximum already during lower SOFA scores, whereas maximum PCT concentrations were found at higher score levels (SOFA score > 12).
PCT and CRP concentrations were 1.58 ng/ml and 150 mg/l in patients with sepsis, 0.38 ng/ml and 51 mg/l in the SIRS patients (P < 0.05, Mann–Whitney U-test), and 0.14 ng/ml and 72 mg/l in the patients with no SIRS (P < 0.05). The kinetics of both parameters were also different, and PCT concentrations reacted more quickly than CRP.
Conclusions
PCT and CRP levels are related to the severity of organ dysfunction, but concentrations are still higher during infection. Different sensitivities and kinetics indicate a different clinical use for both parameters.
doi:10.1186/cc2877
PMCID: PMC522844  PMID: 15312223
calcitonin; C-reactive protein; infection; procalcitonin; sepsis; sequential organ failure assessment score; systemic inflammatory response syndrome
9.  A comparison of high-mobility group-box 1 protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and procalcitonin in severe community-acquired infections and bacteraemia: a prospective study 
Critical Care  2007;11(4):R76.
Introduction
High-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) has been known as a chromosomal protein for many years. HMGB1 has recently been shown to be a proinflammatory cytokine with a role in the immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has a central role in the innate immune response when the host is challenged by bacterial pathogens. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been suggested as a marker of severe bacterial infections and sepsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate levels of HMGB1, LBP and PCT in a well-characterised sepsis cohort. The study plan included analysis of the levels of the inflammatory markers in relation to the severity of infection, to the prognosis and to the ability to identify patients with bacteraemia.
Methods
Patients suspected of having severe infections and admitted to a department of internal medicine were included in a prospective manner. Demographic data, comorbidity, routine biochemistry, microbiological data, infection focus, severity score and mortality on day 28 were recorded. Plasma and serum were sampled within 24 hours after admission. Levels of all studied markers (HMGB1, LBP, PCT, IL-6, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and neutrophils) were measured with commercially available laboratory techniques.
Results
A total of 185 adult patients were included in the study; 154 patients fulfilled our definition of infection. Levels of HMGB1, LBP and PCT were higher in infected patients compared with a healthy control group (P < 0.0001). Levels of HMGB1, LBP and PCT were higher in the severe sepsis group compared with the sepsis group (P < 0.01). No differences were observed in levels of the inflammatory markers in fatal cases compared with survivors. Levels of all studied markers were higher in bacteraemic patients compared with nonbacteraemic patients (P < 0.05). PCT performed best in a receiver–operator curve analysis discriminating between bacteraemic and nonbacteraemic patients (P < 0.05). HMGB1 correlated to LBP, IL-6, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and neutrophils (P < 0.001). LBP correlated to PCT, IL-6 and C-reactive protein (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Levels of HMGB1, PCT and LBP were higher in infected patients compared with those in healthy controls, and levels were higher in severe sepsis patients compared with those in sepsis patients. Levels of all studied inflammatory markers (HMGB1, LBP, PCT, IL-6) and infection markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils) were elevated among bacteraemic patients. PCT performed best as a diagnostic test marker for bacteraemia.
doi:10.1186/cc5967
PMCID: PMC2206511  PMID: 17625012
10.  In Critically Ill Patients, Serum Procalcitonin Is More Useful in Differentiating between Sepsis and SIRS than CRP, Il-6, or LBP 
We studied the usefulness of serum procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, in differentiating between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in critically ill patients. Methods. In this single centre prospective observational study we included all consecutive patients admitted with SIRS or sepsis to the ICU. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6 and LBP were taken every day until ICU discharge. Results. A total of 76 patients were included, 32 with sepsis and 44 with SIRS. Patients with sepsis were sicker on admission and had a higher mortality. CRP, PCT, IL-6 and LBP levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis as compared to SIRS. With PCT levels in the first 24 hours after ICU admission <2 ng/mL, sepsis was virtually excluded (negative predictive value 97%). With PCT >10 ng/mL, sepsis with bacterial infection was very likely (positive predictive value 88%). PCT was best at discriminating between SIRS and sepsis with the highest area under the ROC curve (0.95, 95% CI 0.90–0.99). Discussion. This study showed that PCT is more useful than LBP, CRP and IL-6 in differentiating sepsis from SIRS.
doi:10.1155/2011/594645
PMCID: PMC3113363  PMID: 21687569
11.  Diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin in the management of sepsis in the emergency department: a multicenter prospective study 
Critical Care  2013;17(4):R168.
Introduction
Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock are common conditions with high mortality. Their early diagnosis in the Emergency Department (ED) is one of the keys to improving survival. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been used as a biomarker in septic patients but has limited specificity and can be elevated in other scenarios of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Soluble CD14 (sCD14) or presepsin is the free fragment of a glycoprotein expressed on monocytes and macrophages. Preliminary reports suggest that levels of presepsin are significantly higher in septic patients than in healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin compared to PCT in people presenting at the ED with SIRS and suspected sepsis or septic shock.
Methods
This study was conducted in two major hospitals in Turin, Italy. One hundred six patients presenting to the EDs with suspected sepsis or septic shock were included, and another eighty-three patients affected by SIRS, but with no clinical evidence of infection, were recruited as controls. Blood samples were collected at first medical evaluation and for some patients after 24 and 72 h. The samples were analyzed using the PATHFAST Presepsin assay for sCD14, and commercial kits were used for other determinations (for example, PCT). Definitive diagnosis and survival rates were obtained afterward by analysis of digital medical records.
Results
Elevated concentrations of presepsin at presentation were observed in septic patients compared to control patients. The same trend was observed for mean values of PCT. Higher values of presepsin were observed in septic patients at presentation (time 0). The diagnostic accuracy of PCT was generally higher, and areas under the curve (AUCs) were 0.875 for PCT and 0.701 for presepsin. Mean presepsin values were significantly higher in nonsurvivor septic patients (60-day mortality) than in survivors. No significant correlation was noted between PCT and survival.
Conclusions
In our experience, presepsin was useful in the early diagnosis of infection in a complex population of patients with SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock who presented to the ED. Presepsin showed a significant prognostic value, and initial values were significantly correlated with in-hospital mortality of patients affected by sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock.
doi:10.1186/cc12847
PMCID: PMC4056762  PMID: 23899120
12.  Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin among febrile critically ill patients with prolonged ICU stay 
Background
Procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a diagnostic and prognostic sepsis marker, but has never been validated in febrile patients with prolonged ICU stay.
Methods
Patients were included in the study provided they were hospitalised in the ICU for > 10 days, were free of infection and presented a new episode of SIRS, with fever >38°C being obligatory. Fifty patients fulfilled the above criteria. PCT was measured daily during the ICU stay. The primary outcome was proven infection.
Results
Twenty-seven out of 50 patients were diagnosed with infection. Median PCT on the day of fever was 1.18 and 0.17 ng/ml for patients with and without proven infections (p < 0.001). The area under the curve for PCT was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.71-0.93), for CRP 0.65 (0.46-0.78) and for WBC 0.68 (0.49-0.81). A PCT level of 1 ng/mL yielded a negative predictive value of 72% for the presence of infection, while a PCT of 1.16 had a specificity of 100%. A two-fold increase of PCT between fever onset and the previous day was associated with proven infection (p 0.001) (OR = 8.55; 2.4-31.1), whereas a four-fold increase of PCT of any of the 6 preceding days was associated with a positive predictive value exceeding 69.65%. A PCT value less than 0.5 ng/ml on the third day after the advent of fever was associated with favorable survival (p 0.01).
Conclusion
The reported data support that serial serum PCT may be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker in febrile chronic critically ill patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-213
PMCID: PMC2803794  PMID: 20028533
13.  The use of a standardized PCT-algorithm reduces costs in intensive care in septic patients - a DRG-based simulation model 
Introduction
The management of bloodstream infections especially sepsis is a difficult task. An optimal antibiotic therapy (ABX) is paramount for success. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a well investigated biomarker that allows close monitoring of the infection and management of ABX. It has proven to be a cost-efficient diagnostic tool. In Diagnoses Related Groups (DRG) based reimbursement systems, hospitals get only a fixed amount of money for certain treatments. Thus it's very important to obtain an optimal balance of clinical treatment and resource consumption namely the length of stay in hospital and especially in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We investigated which economic effects an optimized PCT-based algorithm for antibiotic management could have.
Materials and methods
We collected inpatient episode data from 16 hospitals. These data contain administrative and clinical information such as length of stay, days in the ICU or diagnoses and procedures. From various RCTs and reviews there are different algorithms for the use of PCT to manage ABX published. Moreover RCTs and meta-analyses have proven possible savings in days of ABX (ABD) and length of stay in ICU (ICUD). As the meta-analyses use studies on different patient populations (pneumonia, sepsis, other bacterial infections), we undertook a short meta-analyses of 6 relevant studies investigating in sepsis or ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). From this analyses we obtained savings in ABD and ICUD by calculating the weighted mean differences. Then we designed a new PCT-based algorithm using results from two very recent reviews. The algorithm contains evidence from several studies. From the patient data we calculated cost estimates using German National standard costing information for the German G-DRG system.
We developed a simulation model where the possible savings and the extra costs for (in average) 8 PCT tests due to our algorithm were brought into equation.
Results
We calculated ABD savings of -4 days and ICUD reductions of -1.8 days. our algorithm contains recommendations for ABX onset (PCT ≥ 0.5 ng/ml), validation whether ABX is appropriate or not (Delta from day 2 to day 3 ≥ 30% indicates inappropriate ABX) and recommendations for discontinuing ABX (PCT ≤ 0.25 ng/ml).
We received 278, 264 episode datasets where we identified by computer-based selection 3, 263 cases with sepsis. After excluding cases with length of stay (LOS) too short to achieve the intended savings, we ended with 1, 312 cases with ICUD and 268 cases without ICUD. Average length of stay of ICU-patients was 27.7 ± 25.7 days and for Non-ICU patients 17.5 ± 14.6 days respectively. ICU patients had an average of 8.8 ± 8.7 ICUD.
After applying the simulation model on this population we calculated possible savings of € -1, 163, 000 for ICU-patients and € -36, 512 for Non-ICU patients.
Discussion
Our findings concerning the savings from the reduction of ABD are consistent with other publications. Savings ICUD had never been economically evaluated so far. our algorithm is able to possibly set a new standard in PCT-based ABX. However the findings are based on data modelling. The algorithm will be implemented in 5-10 hospitals in 2012 and effects in clinical reality measured 6 months after implementation.
Conclusion
Managing sepsis with daily monitoring of PCT using our refined algorithm is suitable to save substantial costs in hospitals. Implementation in clinical routine settings will show how much of the calculated effect will be achieved in reality.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-16-12-543
PMCID: PMC3351898  PMID: 22112361
14.  Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) and procalcitonin levels for mortality prediction in sepsis: data from the Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis trial 
Critical Care  2014;18(1):R6.
Introduction
Sepsis, a leading cause of death in critically ill patients, is the result of complex interactions between the infecting microorganisms and the host responses that influence clinical outcomes. We evaluated the prognostic value of presepsin (sCD14-ST), a novel biomarker of bacterial infection, and compared it with procalcitonin (PCT).
Methods
This is a retrospective, case–control study of a multicenter, randomized clinical trial enrolling patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in ICUs in Italy. We selected 50 survivors and 50 non-survivors at ICU discharge, matched for age, sex and time from sepsis diagnosis to enrollment. Plasma samples were collected 1, 2 and 7 days after enrollment to assay presepsin and PCT. Outcome was assessed 28 and 90 days after enrollment.
Results
Early presepsin (day 1) was higher in decedents (2,269 pg/ml, median (Q1 to Q3), 1,171 to 4,300 pg/ml) than in survivors (1,184 pg/ml (median, 875 to 2,113); P = 0.002), whereas PCT was not different (18.5 μg/L (median 3.4 to 45.2) and 10.8 μg/L (2.7 to 41.9); P = 0.31). The evolution of presepsin levels over time was significantly different in survivors compared to decedents (P for time-survival interaction = 0.03), whereas PCT decreased similarly in the two groups (P = 0.13). Presepsin was the only variable independently associated with ICU and 28-day mortality in Cox models adjusted for clinical characteristics. It showed better prognostic accuracy than PCT in the range of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (area under the curve (AUC) from 0.64 to 0.75 vs. AUC 0.53 to 0.65).
Conclusions
In this multicenter clinical trial, we provide the first evidence that presepsin measurements may have useful prognostic information for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. These preliminary findings suggest that presepsin may be of clinical importance for early risk stratification.
doi:10.1186/cc13183
PMCID: PMC4056046  PMID: 24393424
15.  Procalcitonin Clearance for Early Prediction of Survival in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Sepsis 
Introduction. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) diagnosed sepsis in critically ill patients; however, its prediction for survival is not well established. We evaluated the prognostic value of dynamic changes of PCT in sepsis patients. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in adult ICU. Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were recruited. Daily PCT were measured for 3 days. 48 h PCT clearance (PCTc-48) was defined as percentage of baseline PCT minus 48 h PCT over baseline PCT. Results. 95 SIRS patients were enrolled (67 sepsis and 28 noninfectious SIRS). 40% patients in the sepsis group died in hospital. Day 1-PCT was associated with diagnosis of sepsis (AUC 0.65 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.76)) but was not predictive of mortality. In sepsis patients, PCTc-48 was associated with prediction of survival (AUC 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.84)). Patients with PCTc-48 > 30% were independently associated with survival (HR 2.90 (95% CI 1.22 to 6.90)). Conclusions. PCTc-48 is associated with prediction of survival in critically ill patients with sepsis. This could assist clinicians in risk stratification; however, the small sample size, and a single-centre study, may limit the generalisability of the finding. This would benefit from replication in future multicentre study.
doi:10.1155/2014/819034
PMCID: PMC3955692  PMID: 24719759
16.  Usefulness of procalcitonin for diagnosis of sepsis in the intensive care unit 
Critical Care  2002;7(1):85-90.
Introduction
The diagnosis of sepsis in critically ill patients is challenging because traditional markers of infection are often misleading. The present study was conducted to determine the procalcitonin level at early diagnosis (and differentiation) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, in comparison with C-reactive protein, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-α.
Method
Thirty-three intensive care unit patients were diagnosed with SIRS, sepsis or septic shock, in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine consensus criteria. Blood samples were taken at the first and second day of hospitalization, and on the day of discharge or on the day of death. For multiple group comparisons one-way analysis of variance was applied, with post hoc comparison. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PCT and each cytokine studied were calculated.
Results
PCT, IL-2 and IL-8 levels increased in parallel with the severity of the clinical condition of the patient. PCT exhibited a greatest sensitivity (85%) and specificity (91%) in differentiating patients with SIRS from those with sepsis. With respect to positive and negative predictive values, PCT markedly exceeded other variables.
Discussion
In the present study PCT was found to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating SIRS and sepsis, and therefore daily determinations of PCT may be helpful in the follow up of critically ill patients.
doi:10.1186/cc1843
PMCID: PMC154110  PMID: 12617745
C-reactive protein; cytokine; diagnosis; procalcitonin; sepsis
17.  Interleukin-27 is a novel candidate diagnostic biomarker for bacterial infection in critically ill children 
Critical Care  2012;16(5):R213.
Introduction
Differentiating between sterile inflammation and bacterial infection in critically ill patients with fever and other signs of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) remains a clinical challenge. The objective of our study was to mine an existing genome-wide expression database for the discovery of candidate diagnostic biomarkers to predict the presence of bacterial infection in critically ill children.
Methods
Genome-wide expression data were compared between patients with SIRS having negative bacterial cultures (n = 21) and patients with sepsis having positive bacterial cultures (n = 60). Differentially expressed genes were subjected to a leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) procedure to predict SIRS or sepsis classes. Serum concentrations of interleukin-27 (IL-27) and procalcitonin (PCT) were compared between 101 patients with SIRS and 130 patients with sepsis. All data represent the first 24 hours of meeting criteria for either SIRS or sepsis.
Results
Two hundred twenty one gene probes were differentially regulated between patients with SIRS and patients with sepsis. The LOOCV procedure correctly predicted 86% of the SIRS and sepsis classes, and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) had the highest predictive strength. Computer-assisted image analyses of gene-expression mosaics were able to predict infection with a specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 94%. Because EBI3 is a subunit of the heterodimeric cytokine, IL-27, we tested the ability of serum IL-27 protein concentrations to predict infection. At a cut-point value of ≥5 ng/ml, serum IL-27 protein concentrations predicted infection with a specificity and a positive predictive value of >90%, and the overall performance of IL-27 was generally better than that of PCT. A decision tree combining IL-27 and PCT improved overall predictive capacity compared with that of either biomarker alone.
Conclusions
Genome-wide expression analysis has provided the foundation for the identification of IL-27 as a novel candidate diagnostic biomarker for predicting bacterial infection in critically ill children. Additional studies will be required to test further the diagnostic performance of IL-27.
The microarray data reported in this article have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE4607.
doi:10.1186/cc11847
PMCID: PMC3682317  PMID: 23107287
18.  Impact of previous sepsis on the accuracy of procalcitonin for the early diagnosis of blood stream infection in critically ill patients 
Background
Blood stream infections (BSI) are life-threatening infections in intensive care units (ICU), and prognosis is highly dependent on early detection. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to accurately and quickly distinguish between BSI and noninfectious inflammatory states in critically ill patients. It is, however, unknown to what extent a recent history of sepsis (namely, secondary sepsis) can affect diagnosis of BSI using PCT.
Methods
review of the medical records of every patient with BSI in whom PCT dosage at the onset of sepsis was available between 1st September, 2006 and 31st July, 2007.
Results
179 episodes of either primary (n = 117) or secondary (n = 62) sepsis were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly lower in patients with secondary sepsis than in those without (6.4 [9.5] vs. 55.6 [99.0] ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001), whereas the SOFA score was similar in the two groups. Although patients in the former group were more likely to have received steroids and effective antibiotic therapy prior to the BSI episode, and despite a higher proportion of candidemia in this group, a low PCT value was found to be independently associated with secondary sepsis (Odd Ratio = 0.33, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.16–0.70; p = 0.004). Additional patients with suspected but unconfirmed sepsis were used as controls (n = 23). Thus, diagnostic accuracy of PCT as assessed by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCC) measurement was decreased in the patients with secondary sepsis compared to those without (AUROCC = 0.805, 95% CI: 0.699–0.879, vs. 0.934, 95% CI: 0.881–0.970, respectively; p < 0.050).
Conclusion
In a critically ill patient with BSI, PCT elevation and diagnosis accuracy could be lower if sepsis is secondary than in those with a first episode of infection.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-163
PMCID: PMC2614426  PMID: 19055740
19.  Diagnostic value and prognostic implications of serum procalcitonin after cardiac surgery: a systematic review of the literature 
Critical Care  2006;10(5):R145.
Introduction
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is common after surgery, and it can be difficult to discriminate between infection and inflammation. We performed a review of the literature with the aims of describing the evolution of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels after uncomplicated cardiac surgery, characterising the role of PCT as a tool in discriminating infection, identifying the relation between PCT, organ failure, and severity of sepsis syndromes, and assessing the possible role of PCT in detection of postoperative complications and mortality.
Methods
We performed a search on MEDLINE using the keyword 'procalcitonin' crossed with 'cardiac surgery,' 'heart,' 'postoperative,' and 'transplantation.' Our search was limited to human studies published between January 1990 and June 2006.
Results
Uncomplicated cardiac surgery induces a postoperative increase in serum PCT levels. Peak PCT levels are reached within 24 hours postoperatively and return to normal levels within the first week. This increase seems to be dependent on the surgical procedure and on intraoperative events. Although PCT values reported in infected patients are generally higher than in non-infected patients after cardiac surgery, the cutoff point for discriminating infection ranges from 1 to 5 ng/ml, and the dynamics of PCT levels over time may be more important than absolute values. PCT is superior to C-reactive protein in discriminating infections in this setting. PCT levels are higher with increased severity of sepsis and the presence of organ dysfunction/failure and in patients with a poor outcome or in those who develop postoperative complications. PCT levels typically remain unchanged after acute rejection but increase markedly after bacterial and fungal infections. Systemic infections are associated with greater PCT elevation than is local infection. Viral infections are difficult to identify based on PCT measurements.
Conclusion
The dynamics of PCT levels, rather than absolute values, could be important in identifying patients with infectious complications after cardiac surgery. PCT is useful in differentiating acute graft rejection after heart and/or lung transplantation from bacterial and fungal infections. Further studies are needed to define cutoff points and to incorporate PCT levels in useful prediction models.
doi:10.1186/cc5067
PMCID: PMC1751067  PMID: 17038199
20.  Significance of serum procalcitonin in sepsis 
Context:
Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for early diagnosis of sepsis. One such measurement, Procalcitonin (PCT), has recently become of interest as a possible marker of the systemic inflammatory response to infection.
Aims:
This study was done to find out the common sources of sepsis and to evaluate the diagnostic value of PCT, its predictive value and its relation with Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores and mortality in various stages of sepsis.
Settings and Design:
The prospective study was conducted at our tertiary care center from October 2006 to December 2008. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. The study sample included all patients aged above 18 years presenting consecutively to our center during the study period with acute sepsis. They were divided into three groups: sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shockbased on standardized criteria.
Materials and Methods:
PCT and various other relevant factors were measured in all study subjects. These parameters were compared among the three study groups. The statistical analyses were done using Student “t” test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results:
Respiratory tract infection was the most common source of sepsis. PCT proved to be an excellent indicator of sepsis with sensitivity of 94%. There was a significant association between serum PCT and SOFA scores (P < 0.05). Serum PCT levels did not predict mortality in the present study.
Conclusions:
PCT is among the most promising sepsis markers, capable of complementing clinical signs and routine lab parameters suggestive of severe infection.
doi:10.4103/0972-5229.78214
PMCID: PMC3097536  PMID: 21633539
Procalcitonin; sepsis; septic shock; severe sepsis; sepsis-related organ failure assessment score
21.  Serum Procalcitonine Levels as an Early Diagnostic Indicator of Sepsis 
Materia Socio-Medica  2013;25(1):23-25.
Introduction:
Prompt and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is of high importance for clinicians. Procalcitonine (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been proposed as markers for this purpose. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of PCT and CRP in early sepsis and its correlation with severity of sepsis.
Methods:
Levels of PCT and CRP were taken from 60 patients with sepsis criteria and 39 patients with SIRS symptoms from the University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa” in Tirana, Albania during 2010-2012. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for PCT and CRP were calculated.
Results:
PCT and CRP levels increased in parallel with the severity of the clinical conditions of the patients. The mean PCT level in patients with sepsis was 11.28 ng/ml versus 0.272 ng/ml in patients with SIRS symptoms, with a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 96.6% for PCT >0.5ng/ml. The mean CRP level in septic patients was 146.58 mg/l vs. 34.4 mg/l in patients with SIRS, with a sensitivity of 98.6% for sepsis and a specificity of 75 % for CRP >11mg/l.
Conclusion:
PCT and CRP values are useful markers to determine early diagnosis and severity of an infection. In the present study, PCT was found to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating SIRS from sepsis and may be helpful in the follow-up of critically ill patients.
doi:10.5455/msm.2013.25.23-25
PMCID: PMC3655734  PMID: 23687457
Albania; C-reactive protein; procalcitonine; sepsis.
22.  Procalcitonin does discriminate between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2005;91(2):117-120.
Aims
To evaluate whether procalcitonin (PCT) and C reactive protein (CRP) are able to discriminate between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in critically ill children.
Methods
Prospective, observational study in a paediatric intensive care unit. Kinetics of PCT and CRP were studied in patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (SIRS model; group I1) and patients with confirmed bacterial sepsis (group II).
Results
In group I, PCT median concentration was 0.24 ng/ml (reference value <2.0 ng/ml). There was an increment of PCT concentrations which peaked immediately after CPB (median 0.58 ng/ml), then decreased to 0.47 ng/ml at 24 h; 0.33 ng/ml at 48 h, and 0.22 ng/ml at 72 h. CRP median concentrations remained high on POD1 (36.6 mg/l) and POD2 (13.0 mg/l). In group II, PCT concentrations were high at admission (median 9.15 ng/ml) and subsequently decreased in 11/14 patients who progressed favourably (median 0.31 ng/ml). CRP levels were high in only 11/14 patients at admission. CRP remained high in 13/14 patients at 24 h; in 12/14 at 48 h; and in 10/14 patients at 72 h. Median values were 95.0, 50.9, 86.0, and 20.3 mg/l, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.99 for PCT and 0.54 for CRP. Cut off concentrations to differentiate SIRS from sepsis were >2 ng/ml for PCT and >79 mg/l for CRP.
Conclusion
PCT is able to differentiate between SIRS and sepsis while CRP is not. Moreover, unlike CRP, PCT concentrations varied with the evolution of sepsis.
doi:10.1136/adc.2005.077446
PMCID: PMC2082702  PMID: 16326799
procalcitonin (PCT); C reactive protein (CRP); cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); sepsis
23.  Serum procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of neonatal sepsis 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(10):451-456.
Purpose
We evaluated serum procalcitonin (PCT) as a diagnostic marker of neonatal sepsis, and compared PCT levels with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 269 neonates with a suspected infection, admitted to Wonkwang University School of Medicine & Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012, for whom PCT and CRP values had been obtained. Neonates were categorized into 4 groups according to infection severity. CRP and PCT values were analyzed and compared, and their effectiveness as diagnostic markers was determined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We also calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive, and negative predictive values.
Results
The mean PCT and CRP concentrations were respectively 56.27±81.89 and 71.14±37.17 mg/L in the "confirmed sepsis" group; 15.64±32.64 and 39.23±41.41 mg/L in the "suspected sepsis" group; 9.49±4.30 and 0.97±1.16 mg/L in the "mild infection" group; and 0.21±0.12 and 0.72±0.7 mg/L in the control group. High concentrations indicated greater severity of infection (P<0.001). Five of 18 patients with confirmed sepsis had low PCT levels (<1.0 mg/L) despite high CRP levels. In the ROC analysis, the area under the curve was 0.951 for CRP and 0.803 for PCT. The cutoff concentrations of 0.5 mg/L for PCT and 1.0 mg/L for CRP were optimal for diagnosing neonatal sepsis (sensitivity, 88.29% vs. 100%; specificity, 58.17% vs. 85.66%; positive predictive value, 13.2% vs. 33.3%; negative predictive value, 98.6% vs. 100%, respectively).
Conclusion
PCT is a highly effective early diagnostic marker of neonatal infection. However, it may not be as reliable as CRP.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.10.451
PMCID: PMC4219948  PMID: 25379046
Sepsis; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein
24.  Procalcitonin testing for diagnosis and short-term prognosis in bacterial infection complicated by congestive heart failure: a multicenter analysis of 4,698 cases 
Critical Care  2014;18(1):R4.
Introduction
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker for the clinical diagnosis of bacterial infection that is more specific and earlier than fever, changes in white blood cell count, and blood cultures. Congestive heart failure is an important cause of endotoxin resorption from the intestine, which significantly increases PCT expression in noninfected patients with heart failure. The diagnostic performance and cut-off value of PCT in patients with bacterial infection complicated by congestive heart failure needs to be confirmed.
Methods
A total of 4,698 cases from different cities in China, including those with different classes of congestive heart failure, bacterial infection, bacterial infection complicated by heart failure and healthy individuals, were chosen for the diagnostic value analysis of PCT and screening candidate predictors of mortality in subjects with bacterial infection complicated by congestive heart failure.
Results
Patients with simple heart failure had significantly higher PCT levels than normal controls (P < 0.01), whereas patients with bacterial infection complicated by congestive heart failure had significantly higher PCT levels than those with simple infection (P < 0.01). Although it was useful for the diagnosis of infection (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >80%), the positive predictive value of PCT decreased significantly with increasing severity of heart failure (P < 0.05), and the cut-off value of PCT concentrations for infection complicated by classes II, III and IV heart failure were 0.086, 0.192 and 0.657 μg/L, respectively. Heart failure degree, PCT level, and age were the candidate predictors of mortality in patients with bacterial infection complicated by congestive heart failure.
Conclusions
These data suggest that complicated heart failure elevates the PCT level in patients with bacterial infection. Thus, the results of the PCT test must be analyzed correctly in consideration of the severity of heart failure. Close attention should be paid to cardiac function and PCT expression in aged patients with infection complicated by congestive heart failure.
doi:10.1186/cc13181
PMCID: PMC4056105  PMID: 24393388
25.  Interleukin-27 as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill adults 
Shock (Augusta, Ga.)  2013;40(5):382-386.
Purpose
We previously identified interleukin-27 (IL-27) as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill children. The current study tested the performance of IL-27 alone and in combination with PCT for diagnosing sepsis in critically ill adults.
Methods
Serum samples were made available from a prior prospective study of sepsis biomarkers in critically ill adults. The primary analysis used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate the performance of IL-27 and PCT. Secondary analysis explored IL-27 performance in subgroups of patients with sepsis secondary to lung and non-lung sources of infection. The net reclassification improvement (NRI) was used to estimate the incremental predictive ability of IL-27 compared to PCT alone. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to generate an IL-27- and PCT-based decision tree.
Results
There were 145 patients with sepsis and 125 without sepsis. The ROC curve for IL-27 was inferior (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62 – 0.75) to that of PCT (AUC: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79 – 0.89). Similar findings were observed when comparing patients with a lung source of infection and those without sepsis. For sepsis patients with a non-lung source of infection, adding IL-27 to PCT improved discrimination (NRI = 0.685; p < 0.001). The AUC for the CART-derived decision tree was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88 – 0.96) and was significantly greater than that of PCT alone.
Conclusions
When used in combination with PCT, IL-27 may improve classification of critically ill adults with sepsis secondary to a non-lung source of infection.
doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e3182a67632
PMCID: PMC3800476  PMID: 23903853
sepsis; diagnosis; biomarkers; decision tree; interleukin-27; procalcitonin

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