Antibiotic therapy is often used with mechanical therapy to treat periodontal disease. However, complications associated with antibiotic use can occur. A ‘bacteria-specific’ targeted approach would eliminate some of these complications and kill specific periodontopathogens without harming the commensal bacteria. One such approach is to couple antimicrobial peptides to a ligand, pheromone, or antibody specific for the periodontopathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we attached PQGPPQ, a peptide from proline-rich protein 1 to either the N-terminus of SMAP28 (peptide ZS37-37) or the C-terminus of SMAP28 (peptide ZS37-38) to see whether it has potential as a carrier ligand to deliver SMAP28 to the surface of P. gingivalis. For Escherichia coli and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, the median minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZS37-37 was higher than the median of SMAP28 alone, although the median MIC of ZS37-38 was lower than that of SMAP28 alone. For P. gingivalis, there was no difference in the median MIC values. For S. aureus, the median MIC was higher for ZS37-37 and ZS37-38 compared to SMAP28 alone, particularly for ZS37-38. For Fusobacterium nucleatum, the median MIC values were equal for ZS37-37 and ZS37-38 and higher than the median MIC for SMAP28 alone. Attaching PQGPPQ to SMAP28 did not greatly increase the antimicrobial activity of ZS37-37 or ZS37-38 for P. gingivalis nor substantially decrease the antimicrobial activity of ZS37-37 or ZS37-38 for the four other microorganisms tested. This is an initial step to develop a selective antimicrobial agent that has ‘targeted’ antimicrobial activity without adverse reactions often associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Porphyromonas gingivalis; SMAP28; Periodontal disease; Targeted antimicrobial activity
The effects of cathelicidins against oral bacteria and clinically important oral yeasts are not known. We tested the susceptibilities of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans to the following cathelicidins: FALL39, SMAP29, and CAP18. SMAP29 and CAP18 were antimicrobial, whereas FALL39 did not exhibit antimicrobial activity. Future studies are needed to determine the potential use of these antimicrobial peptides in prevention and treatment of oral infections.
Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides from sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34), rabbits (CAP11 and CAP18), rodents (CRAMP), and humans (FALL39, LL37, and h/CAP18). In a broth microdilution assay against nine ovine pathogens, SMAP29, SMAP34, mouse CRAMP, CAP18, CAP1831, CAP1828, CAP1822, and CAP1821a were the most active, with MICs as low as 0.6 μg/ml. Other cathelicidins were less active. In lambs with pneumonia, 0.5 mg of SMAP29 reduced the concentration of bacteria in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and consolidated pulmonary tissues. Hence, the antimicrobial activity of SMAP29 suggests that it has applications in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.
SMAP29, an ovine cathelicidin, was systematically altered to create a family of 23 related peptides for MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration determinations. SMAP28, SMAP29, and a derivative of SMAP29 called ovispirin were all antimicrobial. However, many congeners of SMAP29 and ovispirin were not as active as the parent molecules. With immunoelectron microscopy, SMAP29 was seen on membranes and within the cytoplasm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.
Antimicrobial peptides are short, positively charged, amphipathic peptides that possess a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity and have an important role in the host's innate immunity. Lack of, or dysfunctions in, antimicrobial peptides have been correlated with infectious diseases, including periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobe and a major pathogen associated with periodontal diseases, is resistant to antimicrobial peptides of human and nonhuman origin, a feature that likely contributes to its virulence. Expressing a robust proteolytic activity, P. gingivalis hydrolyzes antimicrobial peptides. In this study, P. gingivalis inactivated three antimicrobial peptides, while a d-enantiomer was resistant to degradation. P. gingivalis was resistant to the protease-resistant d-enantiomer peptide, and importantly, a protease-deficient P. gingivalis mutant was also resistant to the antimicrobial peptide. Finally, the binding of a fluorescently labeled antimicrobial peptide to protease-deficient P. gingivalis was much weaker than the binding of susceptible Escherichia coli. Our results suggest that the resistance of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 to direct killing by antimicrobial peptides is protease independent and results (at least partially) from the low affinity of antimicrobial peptides to P. gingivalis.
Endogenous antimicrobial peptides of the cathelicidin family contribute to innate immunity. The emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance in many commonly encountered bacteria requires the search for new bactericidal agents with therapeutic potential. Solid-phase synthesis was employed to prepare linear antimicrobial peptides found in cathelicidins of five mammals: human (FALL39/LL37), rabbit (CAP18), mouse (mCRAMP), rat (rCRAMP), and sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34). These peptides were tested at ionic strengths of 25 and 175 mM against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Each peptide manifested activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of the NaCl concentration. CAP18 and SMAP29 were the most effective peptides of the group against all test organisms under both low- and high-salt conditions. Select peptides of 15 to 21 residues, modeled on CAP18 (37 residues), retained activity against the gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, although the bactericidal activity was reduced compared to that of the parent peptide. In accordance with the behavior of the parent molecule, the truncated peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipopolysaccharide. The relationship between the bactericidal activity and several physiochemical properties of the cathelicidins was examined. The activities of the full-length peptides correlated positively with a predicted gradient of hydrophobicity along the peptide backbone and with net positive charge; they correlated inversely with relative abundance of anionic residues. The salt-resistant, antimicrobial properties of CAP18 and SMAP29 suggest that these peptides or congeneric structures have potential for the treatment of bacterial infections in normal and immunocompromised persons and individuals with cystic fibrosis.
Human β-defensins 2 and 3 (HBD-2 and HBD-3) are inducible peptides present at sites of infection in the oral cavity. A few studies have reported broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity for both peptides. However, no comprehensive study has thoroughly investigated their potential against oral pathogens. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of HBD-2 and HBD-3 against a collection of oral organisms (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans). Radial diffusion assays were used to test HBD-2 and HBD-3 activities against at least three strains of each species. There was significant variability in MICs, which was strain specific rather than species specific. MICs ranged from 3.9 to >250 μg/ml for HBD-2 and from 1.4 to >250 μg/ml for HBD-3. HBD-3 demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity and was effective against a broader array of organisms. Overall, aerobes were 100% susceptible to HBD-2 and HBD-3, whereas only 21.4 and 50% of the anaerobes were susceptible to HBD-2 and HBD-3, respectively. HBD-2 and HBD-3 also demonstrated strain-specific activity against the Candida species evaluated. Interestingly, an association between HBD-2 and HBD-3 activities was noted. This suggests that the two peptides may have similar mechanisms yet utilize distinct pathways. The lack of activity against specific anaerobic strains and Candida warrants further investigation of the potential resistance mechanisms of these organisms. Finally, the significant variability between strains underlies the importance of testing multiple strains when evaluating activities of antimicrobial peptides.
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated an association between periodontal infectious agents, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and vascular disease. Tissue factor (TF) and its specific tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) are produced by vascular smooth cells and are important regulators of the coagulation cascade.
Materials and Methods
To assess the role of P. gingivalis in atherothrombosis, we infected primary human aortic smooth cells (HASMC) with either P. gingivalis 381, its non-invasive mutant DPG3, or heat-killed P. gingivalis 381. Levels and activity of TF and TFPI were measured 8 and 24 hours after infection in cell extracts and cell culture supernatants.
P. gingivalis 381 did not affect total TF antigen or TF activity in HASMC, but it significantly suppressed TFPI levels and activity compared to uninfected control cells, and those infected with the non-invasive mutant strain or the heat-killed bacteria. Further, P. gingivalis' LPS (up to a concentration of 5 μg/ml) failed to induce prothrombotic effects in HASMC, suggesting a significant role for the ability of whole viable bacteria to invade this cell type.
These data demonstrate for the first time that infection with a periodontal pathogen induces a prothrombotic response in HASMC.
infection; periodontitis; P. gingivalis; thrombosis; atherosclerosis; smooth muscle cell
The formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is essential for intracellular membrane trafficking between subcellular compartments and is triggered by the ARF family of small GTPases. We previously identified SMAP1 as an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein that functions in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Because abnormalities in clathrin-dependent trafficking are often associated with oncogenesis, we targeted Smap1 in mice to examine its physiological and pathological significance. Smap1-deficent mice exhibited healthy growth, but their erythroblasts showed enhanced transferrin endocytosis. In mast cells cultured in SCF, Smap1 deficiency did not affect the internalization of c-KIT but impaired the sorting of internalized c-KIT from multivesicular bodies to lysosomes, resulting in intracellular accumulation of undegraded c-KIT that was accompanied by enhanced activation of ERK and increased cell growth. Interestingly, approximately 50% of aged Smap1-deficient mice developed anemia associated with morphologically dysplastic cells of erythroid-myeloid lineage, which are hematological abnormalities similar to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in humans. Furthermore, some Smap1-deficient mice developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of various subtypes. Collectively, to our knowledge these results provide the first evidence in a mouse model that the deregulation of clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking may be involved in the development of MDS and subsequent AML.
Plasma antibody measurements of antibody levels to periodontal pathogens may be used to support diagnosis, disease activity, classification, and prognosis of periodontitis.
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of plasma antibody levels against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis.
Plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels against the pathogens were analyzed annually during 15 years from 21 voluntary subjects, whose periodontal status was not known at the point of selection. The total number of plasma samples was 315. In connection of the last sampling, the clinical and radiographic periodontal status was examined. Pooled bacterial samples from periodontal pockets, as well as salivary samples were collected for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis detection, and antibody determinations, respectively. According to the clinical status, six subjects had periodontitis, whereas 15 did not.
Plasma IgG-class antibody levels to periodontal pathogens remained extremely stable during the 15-year period and no significant (p>0.05) intra-individual variations were observed. Retrospectively, the average plasma IgG antibody levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were 1.6–2.3 (p<0.05) and 1.4–1.7 (p<0.05) fold higher in the subjects with periodontitis than those without, respectively, during the whole 15-year tracking. As expected, at the time of the periodontal examination the plasma and salivary IgG antibody levels were associated both with periodontitis and bacterium-positivity.
Plasma IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis are extremely stable during 15 years both in subjects with and without periodontitis.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; longitudinal studies; periodontitis; plasma; oral infections; Porphyromonas gingivalis; saliva
The effect of age on the humoral response to Porphyromonas gingivalis was assessed in groups of adults (25 to 54 years and 55 to 74 years) with periodontal disease and compared with that in age-matched healthy controls. To determine whether there was an antibody response against P. gingivalis, we measured serum antibodies against whole cells of P. gingivalis 381, A7A1-28, and W50. In addition, antibody levels against purified P. gingivalis outer membrane proteins (i.e., the 43-kDa fimbrial protein and a 75-kDa protein) were also evaluated. Elderly subjects showed the same response to P. gingivalis as younger subjects. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to both purified proteins were also elevated in both diseased groups as compared with the normal groups. Total serum IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were also determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for all four groups. Total serum IgG levels were elevated in older adults with periodontitis and total IgA levels were elevated in both groups of older adults compared with the younger groups of similar disease status. Total serum IgM levels were comparable for the four groups. Antinuclear antibody titers were assessed in the two groups of older adults and were also found to be higher for the group with periodontitis. These studies show that older adults as well as younger adults have markedly elevated specific antibodies of the IgG and IgA classes to antigens of P. gingivalis, a putative pathogen in both groups. Furthermore, older adults with periodontitis have significantly elevated levels of total serum IgG which may possibly be related to higher levels of autoantibodies.
The interaction of the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis with oral streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii precedes colonization of the subgingival pocket and represents a target for limiting P. gingivalis colonization of the oral cavity. Previous studies showed that a synthetic peptide (designated BAR) derived from the antigen I/II protein of S. gordonii was a potent competitive inhibitor of P. gingivalis adherence to S. gordonii and subsequent biofilm formation. Here we show that despite its inhibitory activity, BAR is rapidly degraded by intact P. gingivalis cells in vitro. However, in the presence of soluble Mfa protein, the P. gingivalis receptor for BAR, the peptide is protected from proteolytic degradation suggesting that the affinity of BAR for Mfa is higher than for P. gingivalis proteases. The rate of BAR degradation was reduced when the P. gingivalis lysine-specific gingipain was inhibited using the specific protease inhibitor, z-FKcK, or when the gene encoding the Lys-gingipain was inactivated. In addition, substituting D-Lys for L-Lys residues in BAR prevented degradation of the peptide when incubated with the Lys-gingipain and increased its specific adherence inhibitory activity in a S. gordonii-P. gingivalis dual species biofilm model. These results suggest that Lys-gingipain accounts in large part for P. gingivalis-mediated degradation of BAR and that more effective peptide inhibitors of P. gingivalis adherence to streptococci can be produced by introducing modifications that limit the susceptibility of BAR to the Lys–gingipain and other P. gingivalis associated proteases.
Porphyromonas gingivalis; Streptococcus gordonii; biofilm; gingipain
We have previously demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis is susceptible to killing by toluidine blue O (TBO) when irradiated with light from a helium-neon (HeNe) laser. The aim of this study was to determine whether a TBO-antibody conjugate (Ab-TBO) could be used to specifically target P. gingivalis to lethal photosensitization in the presence of Streptococcus sanguis or human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). When a mixture of P. gingivalis and S. sanguis was exposed to 4 μg of TBO/ml and irradiated with HeNe laser light, there were 1.5- and 4.0-log10-unit reductions in the viable counts, respectively. In contrast, when TBO was conjugated with a murine monoclonal antibody against P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide, the reductions in viable counts of P. gingivalis and S. sanguis amounted to 5.0 and 0.1 log10 units, respectively. Lethal photosensitization of P. gingivalis in the presence of HGFs using unconjugated TBO resulted in a 0.7-log10-unit reduction in P. gingivalis viable counts and a 99% reduction in the incorporation of tritiated thymidine ([3H]Tdr) by the HGFs. In contrast, when the Ab-TBO conjugate was used, there was a 100% reduction in P. gingivalis viable counts but no significant reduction in the incorporation of [3H]Tdr by HGFs. These results demonstrate that specific targeting of P. gingivalis can be achieved using TBO conjugated to a monoclonal antibody raised against a cell surface component of this organism.
Periodontitis appears to promote chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, but relevant mechanisms need clarification. Oral bacteria induce antibodies that bind not only bacteria, but also oxLDL. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induce remarkable IgG responses that are dominated by IgG2, and IgG2 is IFN-γ-dependent and is promoted by dendritic cells (DCs). LDL-reactive antibodies induced by P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans include anti-phosphorylcholine (α-PC) and β2-glycoprotein-1-dependent anticardiolipin (α-CL), and these antibodies may link chronic inflammatory diseases at a mechanistic level. Antibody-mediated uptake of oxLDL or bacteria dramatically enhances DC-IL-12, and DC-IL-12 induces NK-cell-IFN-γ responses that promote Th-1 responses and sustained inflammation. DCs may be derived from monocytes, and this is striking in cultures of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) monocytes, where DC numbers are about double control levels. Moreover, serum α-CL levels in individuals with AgP are frequently elevated, and these antibodies promote atherosclerosis in persons with antiphospholipid syndrome. Elevated serum levels of soluble-intercellular adhesion molecule, soluble-vascular cell adhesion molecule, and soluble-E-selectin are atherosclerosis-associated indicators of vascular inflammation, and these markers are elevated in the subset of AgP patients with high α-CL. We reason that periodontitis patients with elevated antibodies reactive with oxLDL could be a subgroup at high risk for cardiovascular sequelae.
aggressive periodontitis; dendritic cells; oxidized low-density lipoprotein; α-oxLDL; chronic inflammation; antiphospholipid syndrome
Proteolysis is a common microbial virulence mechanism that enables the destruction of host tissue and evasion from host defense mechanisms. Antimicrobial peptides, also known as host defense peptides, are effector molecules of the innate immunity that demonstrate a broad range of antimicrobial and immunoregulatory activities. Deficiency of the human LL-37 antimicrobial peptide was previously correlated with severe periodontal disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major pathogen associated with periodontitis, is highly proteolytic. In this study, P. gingivalis was found capable of degrading LL-37 by utilizing its arginine-specific gingipains. Saliva collected from volunteers with a healthy periodontium protected LL-37 from proteolysis by P. gingivalis. Salivary protection of LL-37 was heat resistant and specific and enabled LL-37 to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli in the presence of the P. gingivalis proteases. Previously, saliva and other body fluids have been shown to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of LL-37. Here we demonstrate that at a cost of a small reduction in the bactericidal activity of LL-37, saliva enables the antibacterial activity of LL-37 despite the presence of proteases secreted by the main periodontopathogen.
This study assessed the effect of periodontal therapy on specific serum antibody concentration, expressed as titer, and antibody binding strength, expressed as relative avidity. The immune responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were investigated. Antibody titer was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and relative avidity was measured by thiocyanate elution in 17 adult periodontitis patients before and after therapy. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidities (expressed as thiocyanate molarity) to P. gingivalis increased from 1.01 to 1.38 M (P = 0.05) and IgA titers (expressed as ELISA units [EU]) increased from 89 to 237 EU (P = 0.012). There were no significant changes in avidity to A. actinomycetemcomitans, but the titer of all three immunoglobulin classes increased significantly (P < 0.03). More specifically, when patients were divided into subgroups which had originally been either IgG seropositive (i.e., having an IgG titer to this organism > 2 times the control median) or seronegative for P. gingivalis, only patients who were initially seropositive showed a significant increase in antibody avidity (P = 0.026; mean difference, 0.69 M). Patients who were originally seropositive in terms of IgG and IgA titer to P. gingivalis had demonstrably better treatment outcomes in terms of a reduced number of deep pockets and sites which bled on probing (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that periodontal therapy affects the magnitude and quality of the humoral immune response to suspected periodontopathogens, that this effect is dependent on initial serostatus, and that initial serostatus may have a bearing on treatment outcome.
The oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes proteases such as Arg-gingipain B (RgpB) that activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Human beta-defensins (hBDs) and the macrophage inflammatory protein 3α/CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) produced by epithelial cells are antimicrobial peptides that provide cytokine function and play an important role in innate immunity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific members of the PAR family mediate the expression of these innate immunity markers in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) when exposed to P. gingivalis cell-free culture supernatant or purified RgpB. hBD-2 mRNA in GECs was induced in response to supernatant and purified RgpB from P. gingivalis (P = 0.02 and P = 0.016, respectively). This effect was abrogated by the protease inhibitor tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) (P < 0.05). In response to P. gingivalis supernatant and to purified RgpB, the hBD-2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in PAR-2 gene knockdown cells, whereas no change was detected in PAR-1 gene knockdown cells. CCL20 mRNA expression also increased in response to the supernatant of P. gingivalis, and this effect was blocked by the protease inhibitor, TLCK (P = 0.05 and P = 0.024, respectively), and was blocked in PAR-2 gene knockdown cells. Our data indicate that hBD-2 and CCL20 mRNA up-regulation by P. gingivalis supernatant and purified RgpB was mediated via PAR-2, but not via PAR-1, and that proteases play a role in the regulation of innate immune responses in GECs. GECs use PARs to recognize P. gingivalis and mediate cell responses involved in innate immunity.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis are strongly associated with periodontitis. However, little is known about their distribution in periodontally healthy individuals, because culturing techniques are not sufficiently sensitive. A modified multiplex PCR was developed to address that question. Our method uses two species-specific forward primers in combination with a single reverse primer. These primers target variable and conserved regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis cells. Primer specificity was tested against (i) six A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and four P. gingivalis strains, (ii) seven different species of oral bacteria, and (iii) supra- and subgingival plaque from 20 subjects. The multiplex PCR had a lower limit of detection of 2 A. actinomycetemcomitans and 30 P. gingivalis cells. Species-specific amplicons were obtained for all A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis strains tested and did not occur with seven other bacterial species unless A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were added. Neither target species was detected in supragingival plaque; A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in one subgingival specimen, and P. gingivalis was detected in another. When plaque samples were spiked with 10 A. actinomycetemcomitans cells and 100 P. gingivalis cells, species-specific amplicons were detected. These findings show our multiplex PCR to be highly sensitive and specific while allowing simultaneous detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. This assay has potential applications in epidemiological studies, diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of periodontal pathogens.
Three ovine-derived cathelicidins, SMAP29, OaBac5mini, and OaBac7.5mini, were compared with respect to their antibacterial activities and interactions with membranes. SMAP29 was confirmed to be α-helical, broad spectrum, and able to disrupt both the outer and the cytoplasmic membranes at relatively low concentrations. In contrast, the two proline- and arginine-rich OaBac peptides had more-modest antibacterial activities, reduced levels of lipopolysaccharide binding, and a lesser ability to depolarize the cytoplasmic membrane, consistent with a cytoplasmic target.
Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to accelerate atherosclerotic lesion development in hyperlipidemic animals. We assessed the potential of a nasal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-deficient spontaneously hyperlipidemic (Apoeshl) mice were nasally immunized with the 40-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) of P. gingivalis plus cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant and then challenged intravenously with P. gingivalis strain 381. The animals were euthanized 11 or 14 weeks later. Atheromatous lesions in the proximal aorta of each animal were analyzed histomorphometrically, and the serum concentrations of 40-kDa OMP-specific antibodies and cytokines were determined. The areas of the aortic sinus that were covered with atherosclerotic plaque and the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were increased in Apoeshl mice challenged with P. gingivalis compared to nonchallenged mice. In comparison, nasal immunization with 40-kDa OMP plus CT significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque accumulation in the aortic sinus and lowered the serum levels of cytokines and chemokines compared to nonimmunized animals. Nasal immunization also induced 40-kDa OMP-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and saliva IgA antibody responses. These findings suggest that systemic infection with P. gingivalis accelerates atherosclerosis in Apoeshl mice, and 40-kDa OMP plus CT may be an effective nasal vaccine for the reduction of atherosclerosis accelerated by P. gingivalis in the hyperlipidemic mouse model.
Endogenous peptide antibiotics are under investigation as inhaled therapeutic agents for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The bactericidal activities of five cathelicidin peptides (LL37 [human], CAP18 [rabbit], mCRAMP [mouse], rCRAMP [rat], and SMAP29 [sheep]), three novel alpha-helical peptides derived from SMAP29 and termed ovispirins (OV-1, OV-2, and OV-3), and two derivatives of CAP18 were tested by broth microdilution assays. Their MICs were determined for multiply antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 24), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 5), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n = 5), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5) strains isolated from CF patients. SMAP29 was most active and inhibited mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains (MIC, 0.06 to 8 μg/ml). OV-1, OV-2, and OV-3 were nearly as active (MIC, 0.03 to 16 μg/ml), but CAP18 (MIC, 1.0 to 32 μg/ml), CAP18-18 (MIC, 1.0 to >32 μg/ml), and CAP18-22 (MIC, 0.5 to 32 μg/ml) had variable activities. LL37, mCRAMP, and rCRAMP were least active against the clinical isolates studied (MIC, 1.0 to >32 μg/ml). Peptides had modest activities against S. maltophilia and A. xylosoxidans (MIC range, 1.0 to > 32 μg/ml), but none inhibited B. cepacia. However, CF sputum inhibited the activity of SMAP29 substantially. The effects of peptides on bacterial cell membranes and eukaryotic cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy and by measuring transepithelial cell resistance, respectively. SMAP29 caused the appearance of bacterial membrane blebs within 1 min, killed P. aeruginosa within 1 h, and caused a dose-dependent, reversible decrease in transepithelial resistance within 5 h. The tested cathelicidin-derived peptides represent a novel class of antimicrobial agents and warrant further development as prophylactic or therapeutic agents for CF lung disease.
The FimA of Porphyromonas gingivalis is a crucial pathogenic component of the bacteria and has been implicated as a target for vaccine development against the periodontal diseases.
In this study, the purified fimbriae (FimA subunit polymers) protein was used for immunization in their native form and B hybridoma clones producing antibodies specific to FimA were established.
The monoclonal antibodies prepared from selected two clones, designated #123 (IgG2b/ kappa) and #265 (IgG1/kappa), displayed different patterns of binding activity against the cognate antigen. Both antibodies reacted with conformational epitopes expressed by partially dissociated oligomers, but not with monomer as elucidated by Western blot analysis. Ascites fluid containing the monoclonal antibodies showed the inhibitory activity against P. gingivalis to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads, an in vitro model for the pellicle-coated tooth surface.
These results suggest that the monoclonal antibodies could be used as vaccine material against the periodontal diseases through passive immunization.
monoclonal antibody; fimbriae; passive immunization; hybridoma clone
This study explores a new approach for antimicrobial therapy with light activation of targeted poly-l-lysine (pL)–chlorin e6 (ce6) conjugates. The goal was to test the hypothesis that these conjugates between pL and ce6 would efficiently target photodestruction towards gram-positive (Actinomyces viscosus) and gram-negative (Porphyromonas gingivalis) oral species while sparing an oral epithelial cell line (HCPC-1). Conjugates of ce6 with pL (average molecular weight, 2,000) having a positive, neutral, or negative charge were prepared. Illumination with red light (λmax = 671 nm) from a diode array produced a dose-dependent loss of CFU from the bacteria, under conditions that did not affect the viability of the epithelial cells. For P. gingivalis, the cationic conjugate produced 99% killing, while the neutral conjugate killed 91% and the anionic conjugate killed 76% after 1 min of incubation and exposure to red light for 10 min. For A. viscosus, the cationic conjugate produced >99.99% killing while HCPC-1 cells remained intact. The importance of the positive charge was shown by the effectiveness of ce6-monoethylenediamine monoamide (a monocationic derivative of ce6) in killing both bacteria. The clinically employed benzoporphyrin derivative under the same conditions killed epithelial cells while leaving P. gingivalis relatively unharmed. A mixture of ce6 with pL did not show phototoxicity comparable with that of the cationic conjugate. These results were explained by the selective uptake of the conjugates by bacteria (20- to 100-fold) compared to that by mammalian cells, while free ce6 showed much less selectivity for bacteria (5- to 20-fold). The data suggest that the cationic pL-ce6 conjugate may have an application for the photodynamic therapy of periodontal disease.
This study is to assess the antibacterial activity of omega-6, -7, -9 (n-6, n-7, n-9) fatty acids against various oral microorganisms.
The n-6, n-7, n-9 fatty acids, such as γ-linoleic acid (GLA), linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (ARA), palmitoleic acid (PA), and oleic acid (OA), their fatty acid ethyl esters, GLA-EE, LA-EE, ARA-EE, PA-EE, OA-EE, and their fatty acid methyl esters, GLA-ME, LA-ME, ARA-ME, PA-ME, OA-ME were investigated for antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Various concentrations of the fatty acids, their methyl and ethyl esters were tested against various oral pathogens in 96-well plates and blood-agar plate. The plates were incubated anaerobically or aerobically at 37°C for 48 hours, and the colony forming units (CFU) were determined.
The data demonstrated that select n-6, n-7, n-9 fatty acids and their esters exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against these oral microorganisms, demonstrating some specificity for individual microbial species.
The potential use or the combinations of the n-6, n-7, n-9 fatty acids and/or their esters, provided in a local delivery vehicle to infected sites in the oral cavity, could be considered as an additional therapeutic approach to improving oral health.
Omega-6, -7, -9 (n-6, n-7, n-9) fatty acids; Antimicrobial activity; Fatty acid ethyl esters; Fatty acid methyl esters
This study assessed the antibacterial activity of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids against various oral microorganisms.
The short-chain fatty acids [formic acid (C1), acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), butyric acid (C4), isobutyric acid (C4), isovaleric acid (C5), hexanoic acid (C6)], medium-chain fatty acids [octanoic acid (C8), capric acid (C10), lauric acid (12)], and long-chain fatty acids [myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16)], were investigated for antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis.
The data demonstrated that the fatty acids exhibited patterns of inhibition against oral bacteria with some specificity that appeared related more to the bacterial species that the general structural characteristics of the microorganism. As a group the fatty acids were much less effective against C. albicans than the oral bacteria, with effectiveness limited to hexanoic, octanoic, and lauric acids. Formic acid, capric, and lauric acids were broadly inhibitory for the bacteria. Interestingly, fatty acids that are produced at metabolic end-products by a number of these bacteria, were specifically inactive against the producing species, while substantially inhibiting the growth of other oral microorganisms.
The results indicate that the antimicrobial activity of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) could influence the microbial ecology in the oral cavity via at least 2 potential pathways. First, the agents delivered exogenously as therapeutic adjuncts could be packaged to enhance a microbial-regulatory environment in the subgingival sulcus. Second, it would be the intrinsic nature of these fatty acid inhibitors in contributing to the characteristics of the microbial biofilms, their evolution, and emergence of species within the biofilms. Further studies on these functions are required to better understand the nature of these potential microbial interactions in the biofilms.
Short-chain; Medium-chain; Long-chain fatty acids; Antimicrobial activity; Bacterial ecology