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1.  Combined Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Primary Aortoesophageal Fistula 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2010;37(6):722-724.
Primary aortoesophageal fistula is a rare cause of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Conservative treatment of aortoesophageal fistula results in a 60% in-hospital mortality rate with no late survival, and conventional surgical treatment has a reported in-hospital mortality rate that approaches 40%.
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair is an innovative and less invasive technique for the treatment of aortoesophageal fistula. It enables the rapid control of aortic bleeding and prevents fatal early exsanguination. However, the technique does not repair the esophagus, and there remains a substantial risk of mediastinitis and infection of the stent-graft. Herein, we report the cases of 2 patients in whom we used a combined treatment: thoracic endovascular aortic repair and delayed surgical repair of the esophagus. The esophageal repair involved direct suture of the esophageal wall and reinforcement with an intercostal muscle flap. Early follow-up evaluations suggest that our treatment of both patients was successful. We discuss the advantages and limitations of our technical choices and briefly review the pertinent medical literature.
PMCID: PMC3014136  PMID: 21224956
Aorta, thoracic/surgery; aortic diseases/diagnosis/etiology/surgery; esophageal fistula/diagnosis/etiology/therapy; stents; surgical flaps; treatment outcome
2.  Midterm results with thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic type B aortic dissection with associated aneurysm 
Objective
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic type B aortic dissection with associated descending thoracic aneurysm remains controversial. Concerns include potential ischemic complications due to branch vessel origin from the chronic false lumen and continued retrograde false lumen/aneurysm sac pressurization via fenestrations distal to implanted endografts. The present study examines midterm results with thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic (>2 weeks) type B aortic dissection with associated aneurysm to better understand the potential role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for this condition.
Methods
Between March 2005 and December 2009, 51 thoracic endovascular aortic repair procedures were performed at a single institution for management of chronic type B dissection. The indication for thoracic endovascular aortic repair was aneurysm in all cases. A subset of 7 patients (14%) underwent placement of the EndoSure wireless pressure measurement system (CardioMEMS, Inc, Atlanta, Ga) in the false lumen adjacent to the primary tear for monitoring aneurysm sac/false lumen pulse pressure after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.
Results
Mean patient age was 57 ± 12 years (range, 30–82 years); 14 patients (28%) were female. Mean aortic diameter was 6.2 ± 1.4 cm. There were no in-hospital/30-day deaths, strokes, or permanent paraplegia/paresis. There were no complications related to compromise of downstream branch vessels arising from the false lumen. Two patients (3.9%) who had preexisting ascending aortic dilation had retrograde acute type A aortic dissection; both were repaired successfully. Median postoperative length of stay was 4 days. Mean follow-up is 27.0 ± 16.5 months (range, 2–60 months). Actuarial overall survival is 77.7%at 60 months with an actuarial aorta-specific survival of 98%over this same time period. Actuarial freedom from reintervention is 77.3%at 60 months. All patients with the EndoSure wireless pressure measurement system exhibited a decrease in aneurysm sac/false lumen pulse pressure indicating a depressurized false lumen. The aneurysm sac/false lumen pulse pressure ratio decreased from 52% ± 27% at the predischarge measurement to 14% ± 5% at the latest follow-up reading (P = .029).
Conclusions
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic type B dissection with associated aneurysm is safe and effective at midterm follow-up. Aneurysm sac/false lumen pulse pressure measurements demonstrate a significant reduction in false lumen endotension, thus ruling out clinically significant persistent retrograde false lumen perfusion and provide proof of concept for a thoracic endovascular aortic repair-based approach. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine the durability of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for this aortic pathology.
doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.10.043
PMCID: PMC3688644  PMID: 21241855
3.  Safety of elective management of synchronous aortic disease with simultaneous thoracic and aortic stent graft placement 
Journal of vascular surgery  2012;56(4):957-64.e1.
Background
Simultaneous treatment of multilevel aortic disease is controversial due to the theoretic increase in morbidity. This study was conducted to define the outcomes in patients treated electively with simultaneous thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (TEVAR) and abdominal aortic endovascular endografting for synchronous aortic pathology.
Methods
Patients treated with simultaneous TEVAR and endovascular aneurysm repair (T&E) at the University of Florida were identified from a prospectively maintained endovascular aortic registry and compared with those treated with TEVAR alone (TA). The study excluded patients with urgent or emergency indications, thoracoabdominal or mycotic aneurysm, and those requiring chimney stents, fenestrations, or visceral debranching procedures. Demographics, anatomic characteristics, operative details, and periprocedural morbidity were recorded. Mortality and reintervention were estimated using life-table analysis.
Results
From 2001 to 2011, 595 patients underwent TEVAR, of whom 457 had elective repair. Twenty-two (18 men, 82%) were identified who were treated electively with simultaneous T&E. Mean ± standard deviation age was 66 ± 9 years, and median follow-up was 8.8 months (range, 1–34 months). Operative indications for the procedure included dissection-related pathology in 10 (45%) and various combinations of degenerative etiologies in 12 (55%). Compared with TA, T&E patients had significantly higher blood loss (P < .0001), contrast exposure (P < .0001), fluoroscopy time (P < .0001), and operative time (P < .0001). The temporary spinal cord ischemia rate was 13.6% (n = 3) for the T&E group and 6.0% for TA (P = .15); however, the permanent spinal cord ischemia rate was 4% for both groups (P = .96). The 30-day mortality for T&E was 4.5% (n = 1) compared with 2.1% (n = 10) for TA. Temporary renal injury (defined by a 25% increase over baseline creatinine) occurred in two T&E patients (9.1%), with none requiring permanent hemodialysis; no significant difference was noted between the two groups (P = .14). One-year mortality and freedom from reintervention in the T&E patients were 81% and 91%, respectively.
Conclusions
Acceptable short-term morbidity and mortality can be achieved with T&E compared with TA, despite longer operative times, greater blood loss, and higher contrast exposure. There was a trend toward higher rates of renal and spinal cord injury, so implementation of strategies to reduce the potential of these complications or consideration of staged repair is recommended. Short-term reintervention rates are low, but longer follow-up and greater patient numbers are needed to determine procedural durability and applicability.
doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2012.03.272
PMCID: PMC3766713  PMID: 22743020
4.  Practice Patterns for Thoracic Aneurysms in the Stent Graft Era: Health Care System Implications 
The Annals of thoracic surgery  2010;90(6):1833-1839.
Background
The FDA approved the first thoracic aneurysm endograft in 2005. However because the United States lacks a thoracic aneurysm endovascular repair registry, implications of FDA endograft approval on surgical management of thoracic aneurysms in clinical practice are unknown.
Methods
Retrospective review of thoracic aneurysm repair rates for 2000–07 and analysis of patient characteristics and complications for 2006 and 2007 cohorts uses the National Inpatient Sample. ICD-9 codes were used to identify unruptured descending thoracic aneurysm cases undergoing either thoracic endovascular aortic repair (39.73) or Open Repair (38.45).
Results
Thoracic aneurysm Open Repair averaged 3.3 per million from 2000–2002 and increased to 5.6 per million in 2003 with introduction of 16 slice CT scanners. In 2005 endovascular repair was 1.2 repairs per million, which increased dramatically to 6.1 repairs per million in 2006. In 2007, endovascular repair decreased to 4.8 repairs per million while Open Repair rate was 3.1 repairs per million. The 2006 and 2007 Open Repair cohorts had more favorable baseline characteristics compared to the endovascular cohort. Open Repair mortality was significantly greater than endovascular mortality in 2006 (estimated relative risk=8.48, 95% CI 3.03–23.75), but not in 2007 (estimated relative risk=0.71, 95% CI 0.12–4.24). Length of stay was greater for Open Repair in 2006 and 2007.
Conclusions
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair has been rapidly adopted in the United States resulting in increased treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Despite older age and comorbidities, endovascular repair had better outcomes and shorter hospital stays.
doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.08.008
PMCID: PMC3976178  PMID: 21095320
Aneurysm (descending); Endovascular Stents
5.  Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Caused by Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter Lwoffii: The First Case in Korea 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2014;46(1):54-58.
Mycotic aneurysms are uncommon, but are fatal without appropriate management. Previous reports have shown that anaerobes and gram-negative organisms are less common but more dangerous than other causative agents of mycotic aneurysm. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis in the aorta, and a 10-day of history of lower abdominal pain and fever. This man was diagnosed with an uncommon abdominal aorta mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter lwoffii. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotics therapy and aorto-bi-external iliac artery bypass with debridement of the infected aortic wall. We present this case together with a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.3947/ic.2014.46.1.54
PMCID: PMC3970306
Aneurysm; Infected; Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; Acinetobacter lwoffii
6.  Thoracic Aortic Endograft Collapse after Endovascular Treatment of a Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm 
ABSTRACT
Aortic endograft placement is evolving into the standard of care for treatment of patients with anatomically suitable thoracic aortic aneurysms. Application of this technique and these devices in other thoracic aortic pathology, such as traumatic pseudoaneurysms, symptomatic type B aortic dissections, penetrating ulcers, and even mycotic aneurysms, appears to be promising. We report a case in which a stent graft was used to treat a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. The case was complicated by delayed collapse of the endograft, which led to hypoperfusion of the extremities, kidneys, and intestines. Reestablishment of endograft patency and distal reperfusion was achieved by placement of two balloon-expandable stents within the endograft. Potential factors leading to the development of this complication are discussed.
doi:10.1055/s-2007-985735
PMCID: PMC3036329  PMID: 21326469
Thoracic aorta; trauma; endograft; collapse
7.  Endovascular treatment of descending thoracic aneurysms 
Introduction
Current strategies for repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms consist of open repair with surgical graft replacement or thoracic endovascular aortic repair. We review and update our overall experience in aortic thoracic diseases and specifically analyzed our outcomes with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in patients with descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.
Methods
From 1993 to present a total of 1144 patients were treated in our Center for pathology involving the thoracic aorta. Since 1998, 322 patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and among this group, in 188 cases the descending aorta was involved. In 74% of patients treated for a descending thoracic aortic lesion, a degenerative aneurysm was observed.
Results
In patients with descending thoracic aortic aneurysms receiving thoracic endovascular aortic repair, our technical success rate, i.e. deployment of endograft with complete exclusion of the lesion/minimal endoleak, was 99.5% (one case required emergent open conversion) with a perioperative mortality of 2.6% (five patients). The rate of spinal cord ischemia, manifesting either as paraplegia or paraparesis, was 4.7%. Delayed onset spinal cord ischemia ameliorated with adequate arterial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid drainage.
Conclusions
Our experience of selected patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair of descending thoracic aorta aneurysms is satisfactory with very low mortality and morbidity. A large use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair is foreseen in the next future.
PMCID: PMC3484596  PMID: 23439690
thoracic aortic aneurysm; endovascular aortic repair; aortic endoprostheses; thoracic aortic aneurysms; type B aortic dissection
8.  Aortoesophageal fistula as a complication of thoracic aorta aneurism stent grafting – a case report and literature review 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2012;77(4):77-80.
Summary
Background:
Endovascular stent grafting is performed in patients with aneurysms of aorta or other major vessels. The procedure is considered to be generally safe, with a low risk of complications, the most common of which include endoleaks, stenosis or thrombosis at the stagraft and itsmigration.
Very rare complications include aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas (0.5–1.7% cases).
Case Report:
A 64-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital with suspected aortoesophageal fistula. Two years prior, the patient had undergone a stent graft repair of the thoracic aorta at the local vascular surgery clinic. Both laboratory results and CT angiography revealed aortoesophageal fistula, which was also detected in endoscopic examination.
Despite intensive treatment and preparation for surgery, the patient died 6 days after admission.
Conclusions:
Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications in the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms by endovascular stent-grafting. This clearly indicates that preventive care and regular medical examinations are important to prevent their occurrence.
PMCID: PMC3529719  PMID: 23269943
aortoesophageal fistula; thoracic aortic aneurysm; stent graft
9.  Multi-resistant Escherichia coli and mycotic aneurysm: two case reports 
Introduction
Mycotic aneurysms account for a small proportion of all aneurysms. Escherichia coli a gram-negative organism, is recognised as a rare cause of aortic aneurysm. We report two cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by the same strain of multi-resistant Escherichia coli. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the possibility that this strain may be associated with an increased risk of endovascular infection especially in extra-aortic sites. These aneurysms can be difficult to detect and can have serious consequences.
Case presentation
In case one, the patient presented with symptoms and signs of septicaemia secondary to a urinary tract infection. Despite adequate treatment the patient continued with pyrexia and raised inflammatory markers, therefore a series of CT scans of the abdomen and thorax were performed, which revealed two intra-thoracic pseudo-aneurysms with associated haematomas. In case two, the patient also developed Escherichia coli septicaemia. On day 44 he developed a swelling on the right side of his neck. An ultrasound scan showed a pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery.
Conclusions
Whilst a case report cannot prove that a heightened risk exists, we suggest that it is an area worthy of further surveillance. We recommend when older patients with atheromatosis develop prolonged Escherichia coli septicaemia, the possibility of an infected aneurysm should be borne in mind.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-6453
PMCID: PMC2726478  PMID: 19830106
10.  A Case of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Short Angulated Proximal Neck Treated with the Chimney Graft Technique 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(6):416-421.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using stent grafts has shown to be an effective alternative to surgical repair in treating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). EVAR is associated with shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, shorter operating times, and lower early morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair, although EVAR required a higher reintervention rate during a longer follow-up period. However, short or severely an angulated infrarenal proximal aortic neck is considered unsuitable for EVAR. The chimney graft technique is a modified procedure based on the deployment of a covered or bare-metal stent parallel to the main aortic endograft within the aneurysm, thereby creating a conduit that runs outside the aortic main endograft to preserve flow to the aortic branches. In this case report, we present a 78-year-old patient with an AAA with a short and severely angulated proximal neck who was successfully treated by EVAR using the chimney graft technique.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.6.416
PMCID: PMC3717426  PMID: 23882292
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; Endovascular techniques
11.  Surgical Treatment of Aortobronchial and Aortoesophageal Fistulae due to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
We present a review of our single-institution experience, over 19 years, with aortobronchial and aortoesophageal fistulae due to descending thoracic aortic aneurysm.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of 10 cases involving surgery for aortobronchial and aortoesophageal fistulae in our clinic from February 1985 through October 2004. Pathologic or predisposing conditions associated with aortobronchial fistula were descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (n = 8), previous aortic surgery (n = 1), and concomitant aortoesophageal fistula (n = 1). Three patients presented emergently with aortobronchial fistula (n = 2) and aortoesophageal fistula (n = 1). Ages of the 10 patients ranged from 42 to 74 years (median, 63 years). The median cross-clamp time was 34 minutes (range, 27–41 min). Repairs, in 9 patients, involved an inlay of prosthetic tube graft using the clamp-and-sew technique, and in 1 patient repair involved patch aortoplasty.
The operative mortality rate was 20%: 1 patient had acute concomitant aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulae, and another had chronic aortobronchial fistula. There was no embolic stroke or paraplegia. During follow-up (median, 2.5 years), there were no deaths or postoperative morbidity.
We conclude that repair of aortobronchial and aortoesophageal fistulae using the clamp-and-sew technique can be performed with acceptable operative mortality and long-term results. However, the mortality rate continues to be highly significant in patients with acute bleeding aortobronchial fistula or with aortoesophageal fistula, despite rapid surgical intervention.
PMCID: PMC1351823  PMID: 16429896
Aortic aneurysm/surgery; bronchial fistula/etiology/surgery; esophageal fistula/etiology/surgery; hemoptysis/diagnosis
12.  In Situ Reconstruction with Cryopreserved Arterial Allografts for Management of Mycotic Aneurysms or Aortic Prosthetic Graft Infections 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2006;33(1):14-18.
We designed this study to evaluate a multi-institutional experience regarding the efficacy of cryopreserved aortic allografts in the treatment of infected aortic prosthetic grafts or mycotic aneurysms. We reviewed clinical data of all patients from 4 institutions who underwent in situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts for either infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms from during a 6-year period. Relevant clinical variables and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
A total of 42 patients (37 men; overall mean age 63 ± 13 years, range 41–74 years) were identified during this study period. Treatment indications included 34 primary aortic graft infections (81%), 6 mycotic aneurysms (22%), and 2 aortoenteric erosions (5%). Transabdominal and thoracoabdominal approaches were used in 38 (90%) and 4 patients (10%), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified organism (n=27, 64%). Although there was no intraoperative death, the 30-day operative mortality was 17% (n=7). There were 21 (50%) nonfatal complications, including local wound infection (n=8), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (n=5), amputation (n=6), and renal failure requiring hemodialysis (n=2). The average length of hospital stay was 16.4 ± 7 days. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 months, reoperation for allograft revision was necessary in 1 patient due to graft thrombosis (6%). The overall treatment mortality rate was 21% (n=9).
In situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts is an acceptable treatment method in patients with infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms. Our study showed that mid-term graft-related complications such as reinfection or aneurysmal degeneration were uncommon.
PMCID: PMC1413601  PMID: 16572862
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; bacterial infections/complications/surgery; arteries/transplantation; blood vessel prosthesis/adverse effects; cryopreservation; prosthesis-related infections/ surgery; staphylococcal infections/surgery; surgical wound infection/surgery; reoperation; transplantation, homologous
13.  A Case of Secondary Aortoesophageal Fistula Inserted a Covered Self-Expanding Esophageal Stent to Control Gastrointestinal Bleeding 
A 73-year-old man presented with melena. After a thorough workup including esophageal endoscopy, computed tomography scans, and esophagography, the diagnosis of secondary aortoesophageal fistula was made. Two years previously, he had undergone endovascular stent-graft repair for the dissection of his descending thoracic aorta. Because of the generally poor condition of the patient and the high risk of any aggressive surgical intervention, we inserted a covered self-expanding esophageal stent on postadmission day 18. Esophagography after insertion did not show any evidence of a leak of contrast medium. Despite treatment with antibiotics, he developed sepsis and expired on day 52, but rebleeding did not occur in this period. We consider insertion of a covered self-expanding esophageal stent as a feasible option in the management of secondary aortoesophageal fistula in high-risk patients.
doi:10.1155/2013/857135
PMCID: PMC3679725  PMID: 23781353
14.  Dysphagia due to thoracic aortic aneurysm, relieved by thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair: a case report and review of the literature 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0920114793.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a rare clinical entity that is usually asymptomatic. Failure to treat this type of aneurysm can prove fatal. Here, the authors report a case of thoracic aortic aneurysm causing chronically worsening compressive symptoms including dysphagia. This was diagnosed following a suspicious chest radiograph, and confirmed with thoracic CT angiogram. These symptoms remitted over a period of months following thoracic endovascular repair of the aneurysm. Aneurysmal compression and deviation of the oesophagus is noticeably reduced following repair. This is one of few cases in the literature of a remittance of dysphagia following endovascular aneurysm repair, and highlights that rare causes of dysphagia ought not to be disregarded.
doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4793
PMCID: PMC3229326  PMID: 22674948
15.  Endoluminal Stenting of Mycotic Saccular Aneurysm at the Aortic Arch 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2006;33(3):371-375.
Endovascular grafts have been widely used for the treatment of aneurysms since the early 1990s. They are preferred especially for use in patients in whom conventional surgical methods carry high risks of death and morbidity. Increasing operator experience and technical refinements in endovascular grafting have enabled these procedures to be performed even in critical segments of the aorta, such as the thoracic and arch levels. In this report, we present the case of a patient who was treated successfully with an endovascular graft for a mycotic saccular aneurysm located just below the left subclavian artery.
PMCID: PMC1592276  PMID: 17041700
Aortic aneurysm; aneurysm, infected/therapy; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; hoarseness/diagnosis; stents
16.  Technical Challenges in Endovascular Repair of Complex Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2012;5(1):21-29.
Background: Endovascular aneurysm repair has gained widespread acceptance, and there has been a significant increase in the number of aneurysms treated with stent grafts. However, the endovascular technique alone is often not appropriate for anatomically complex aneurysms involving the neck branches. We used the TAG stent for thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), and report our initial results.
Patients and Results: We deployed 80 TAG stents in 65 patients electively treated with TAA between June 2006 and June 2008. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) was performed in 45 cases of descending aortic aneurysm with no morbidity or mortality. A combination of open surgery and TEVAR was performed in 11 out of 20 cases with aneurysms of the aortic arch. The prior total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure was performed in 3 cases with dilated ascending aorta, total debranching from ascending aorta with sternotomy in 5, and carotid-carotid artery crossover bypass in 3 cases. Meanwhile, TEVAR with coverage of the left subclavian artery was performed in the remaining 9 distal arch cases. In 3 cases with extremely short necks, a 0.018” guide wire was inserted percutaneously in a retrograde manner through the common carotid artery (CCA) into the ascending aorta to place the stent graft in close proximity to the CCA (wire protection). In 1 of these 3 cases, the TAG stent was deployed through the CCA, and the 0.018” guide wire was used to deliver a balloon-expandable stent in order to restore the patency of the CCA. In arch and distal arch aneurysm cases, perioperative mortality and the incidence of stroke were both 5.0%; dissection of the ascending aorta was seen in one case (5.0%).
Conclusion: As treatment for descending aortic aneurysms, TEVAR can replace conventional open repair. However, TEVAR for arch aneurysms has some problems, and further improvement is necessary. (English Translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2010; 19: 547-555.)
doi:10.3400/avd.oa.11.01011
PMCID: PMC3595906  PMID: 23555482
Keywordsthoracic aortic aneurysm; endovascular surgery; stent graft
17.  Surgical treatment of primary aortojejunal fistula☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Primary aortoenteric fistula is a rare clinical situation with a high mortality rate. One should suspect that condition when an abdominal aortic aneurysm is known to be present. We describe the case of a 60 year old man who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding as the first and sole manifestation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, due to the rupture of the aneurysm in the jejunum.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The patient was admitted with hematemesis and melena. He reported no abdominal pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy disclosed no bleeding or lesions of the stomach and duodenum. Bleeding stopped the following day, only to recur 4 days later. The patient was then subjected to abdominal CT scan, which revealed the presence of a subrenal aortic aneurysm, with fistulization to the small intestine. At laparotomy the aortic aneurysm was adherent to the first centimeters of jejunum. The diseased aorta was excised and replaced with a Dacron Y graft in situ.
DISCUSSION
Primary aortojejunal fistulas are only rarely encountered. They usually are the result of a nonspecific aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. They usually manifest with premonitory bleeding, followed by catastrophic hemorrhage few days later. Even with surgery the mortality rate is high.
CONCLUSION
Diagnosis of primary aortoenteric fistula requires a high index of suspicion in cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when endoscopy is negative and there is no knowledge of the existence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. CT scan and prompt surgery are crucial to the survival of these patients.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.01.024
PMCID: PMC3731696  PMID: 23557938
Aortojejunal fistula; Primary; Abdominal aneurysm; Left thoracotomy; Abdominal aneurysm repair
18.  Mycotic Aneurysms of the Ascending Aorta in the Absence of Endocarditis 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2012;39(5):692-695.
Mycotic aneurysm formation is a rare and potentially fatal sequela of bacteremia. We present the cases of 2 octogenarians who had surgically confirmed mycotic aneurysms that involved the ascending aorta, with contained rupture (pseudoaneurysm). Neither patient had evidence of valvular endocarditis. Patient 1, an 82-year-old man, had streptococcal bacteremia. Imaging confirmed a mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and resection was successful. Patient 2, an 83-year-old woman, had recurrent staphylococcal bacteremia and progressive widening of the mediastinum, and imaging revealed a mycotic pseudoaneurysm. She underwent surgical repair with use of a bovine pericardial patch, but she died 2 weeks later because of patch dehiscence.
We did not initially suspect mycotic aneurysm in either patient. Despite the availability of accurate, noninvasive imaging techniques, strong clinical suspicion is required for the early diagnosis of mycotic aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3461658  PMID: 23109770
Aneurysm, infected/diagnosis/etiology/pathology/surgery/ultrasonography; anti-bacterial agents/therapeutic use; aorta/pathology/surgery; aortic aneurysm/diagnosis/surgery; staphylococcus infections/complications/pathology
19.  Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
Executive Summary
Objective
To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA).
Clinical Need
Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition.
The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases.
The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia.
The Technology
Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a stent graft, a procedure called endovascular stent-graft (ESG) placement, is a new alternative to the traditional surgical approach. It is less invasive, and initial results from several studies suggest that it may reduce mortality and morbidity associated with the repair of descending TAAs.
The goal in endovascular repair is to exclude the aneurysm from the systemic circulation and prevent it from rupturing, which is life-threatening. The endovascular placement of a stent graft eliminates the systemic pressure acting on the weakened wall of the aneurysm that may lead to the rupture. However, ESG placement has some specific complications, including endovascular leak (endoleak), graft migration, stent fracture, and mechanical damage to the access artery and aortic wall.
The Talent stent graft (manufactured by Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) is licensed in Canada for the treatment of patients with TAA (Class 4; licence 36552). The design of this device has evolved since its clinical introduction. The current version has a more flexible delivery catheter than did the original system. The prosthesis is composed of nitinol stents between thin layers of polyester graft material. Each stent is secured with oversewn sutures to prevent migration.
Review Strategy
Objectives
To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of TAAs with a conventional surgical approach
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of descending TAAs
Measures of Effectiveness
Primary Outcome
Mortality rates (30-day and longer term)
Secondary Outcomes
Technical success rate of introducing a stent graft and exclusion of the aneurysm sac from systemic circulation
Rate of reintervention (through surgical or endovascular approach)
Measures of Safety
Complications were categorized into 2 classes:
Those specific to the ESG procedure, including rates of aneurysm rupture, endoleak, graft migration, stent fracture, and kinking; and
Those due to the intervention, either surgical or endovascular. These include paraplegia, stroke, cardiovascular events, respiratory failure, real insufficiency, and intestinal ischemia.
Inclusion Criteria
Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of ESG treatment with surgical approaches
Studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of the ESG procedure for the treatment of descending TAAs
Exclusion Criteria
Studies investigating the clinical effectiveness of ESG placement for other conditions such as aortic dissection, aortic ulcer, and traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta
Studies investigating the aneurysms of the ascending and the arch of the aorta
Studies using custom-made grafts
Literature Search
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for health technology assessments. It also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Cochrane CENTRAL from January 1, 2000 to July 11, 2005 for studies on ESG procedures. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies.
One health technology assessment from the United Kingdom was identified. This systematic review included all pathologies of the thoracic aorta; therefore, it did not match the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 435 citations; of these, 9 studies met inclusion criteria.
Summary of Findings
Mortality
The results of a comparative study found that in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between ESG placement and surgery patients (2 [4.8%] for ESG vs. 6 [11.3%] for surgery).
Pooled data from case series with a mean follow-up ranging from 12 to 38 months showed a 30-day mortality and late mortality rate of 3.9% and 5.5%, respectively. These rates are lower than are those reported in the literature for surgical repair of TAA.
Case series showed that the most common cause of early death in patients undergoing endovascular repair is aortic rupture, and the most common causes of late death are cardiac events and aortoesophageal or aortobronchial fistula.
Technical Success Rate
Technical success rates reported by case series are 55% to 100% (100% and 94.4% in 2 studies with all elective cases, 89% in a study with 5% emergent cases, and 55% in a study with 42% emergent cases).
Surgical Reintervention
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients in the ESG group and 14 (26.5%) patients in the surgery group required surgical reintervention. In the ESG group, the reasons for surgical intervention were postoperative bleeding at the access site, paraplegia, and type 1 endoleak. In the surgical group, the reasons for surgery were duodenal perforation, persistent thoracic duct leakage, false aneurysm, and 11 cases of postoperative bleeding.
Pooled data from case series show that 9 (2.6%) patients required surgical intervention. The reasons for surgical intervention were endoleak (3 cases), aneurysm enlargement and suspected infection (1 case), aortic dissection (1 case), pseudoaneurysm of common femoral artery (1 case), evacuation of hematoma (1 case), graft migration (1 case), and injury to the access site (1 case).
Endovascular Revision
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Pooled data from case series show that 19 (5.3%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Graft Migration
Two case series reported graft migration. In one study, 3 proximal and 4 component migrations were noted at 2-year follow-up (total of 5%). Another study reported 1 (3.7%) case of graft migration. Overall, the incidence of graft migration was 2.6%.
Aortic Rupture
In the comparative study, aortic rupture due to bare stent occurred in 1 case (2%). The pooled incidence of aortic rupture or dissection reported by case series was 1.4%.
Postprocedural Complications
In the comparative study, there were no statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery groups in postprocedural complications, except for pneumonia. The rate of pneumonia was 9% for those who received an ESG and 28% for those who had surgery (P = .02). There were no cases of paraplegia in either group. The rate of other complications for ESG and surgery including stroke, cardiac, respiratory, and intestinal ischemia were all 5.1% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery. The rate for mild renal failure was 16% in the ESG group and 30% in the surgery group. The rate for severe renal failure was 11% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery.
Pooled data from case series show the following postprocedural complication rates in the ESG placement group: paraplegia (2.2%), stroke (3.9%), cardiac (2.9%), respiratory (8.7%), renal failure (2.8%), and intestinal ischemia (1%).
Time-Related Outcomes
The results of the comparative study show statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery group for mean operative time (ESG, 2.7 hours; surgery, 5 hours), mean duration of intensive care unit stay (ESG, 11 days; surgery, 14 days), and mean length of hospital stay (ESG, 10 days; surgery, 30 days).
The mean duration of intensive care unit stay and hospital stay derived from case series is 1.6 and 7.8 days, respectively.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
In Ontario, the annual treatment figures for fiscal year 2004 include 17 cases of descending TAA repair procedures (source: Provincial Health Planning Database). Fourteen of these have been identified as “not ruptured” with a mean hospital length of stay of 9.23 days, and 3 cases have been identified as “ruptured,” with a mean hospital length of stay of 28 days. However, because one Canadian Classification of Health Interventions code was used for both procedures, it is not possible to determine how many were repaired with an EVAR procedure or with an open surgical procedure.
Hospitalization Costs
The current fiscal year forecast of in-hospital direct treatment costs for all in-province procedures of repair of descending TAAs is about $560,000 (Cdn). The forecast in-hospital total cost per year for in-province procedures is about $720,000 (Cdn). These costs include the device cost when the procedure is EVAR (source: Ontario Case Costing Initiative).
Professional (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) Costs
Professional costs per treated patient were calculated and include 2 preoperative thoracic surgery or EVAR consultations.
The professional costs of an EVAR include the fees paid to the surgeons, anesthetist, and surgical assistant (source: fee service codes). The procedure was calculated to take about 150 minutes.
The professional costs of an open surgical repair include the fees of the surgeon, anesthetist, and surgical assistant. Open surgical repair was estimated to take about 300 minutes.
Services provided by professionals in intensive care units were also taken into consideration, as were the costs of 2 postoperative consultations that the patients receive on average once they are discharged from the hospital. Therefore, total Ontario Health Insurance Plan costs per treated patient treated with EVAR are on average $2,956 (ruptured or not ruptured), as opposed to $5,824 for open surgical repair and $6,157 for open surgical repair when the aneurysm is ruptured.
Conclusions
Endovascular stent graft placement is a less invasive procedure for repair of TAA than is open surgical repair.
There is no high-quality evidence with long-term follow-up data to support the use of EVAR as the first choice of treatment for patients with TAA that are suitable candidates for surgical intervention.
However, short- and medium-term outcomes of ESG placement reported by several studies are satisfactory and comparable to surgical intervention; therefore, for patients at high risk of surgery, it is a practical option to consider. Short- and medium-term results show that the benefit of ESG placement over the surgical approach is a lower 30-day mortality and paraplegia rate; and shorter operative time, ICU stay, and hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC3382300  PMID: 23074469
20.  Mycotic Abdominal Aneurysm Caused by Campylobacter Fetus: A Case Report for Surgical Management 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2011;4(1):56-59.
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.10.01028
PMCID: PMC3595778  PMID: 23555431
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
21.  Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Injury: Current Thoughts and Technical Considerations 
ABSTRACT
Thoracic aortic traumatic injury is a highly morbid event. Mortality and paraplegia rates after emergent open repair remain high. Now, however, thoracic aortic endografting for trauma (TAET) is commonly used. It is appealing due to reduction of operative stress for the multiply injured trauma victim. This minimizing of stress and risk is secondary to avoidance of thoracotomy, single-lung ventilation, aortic cross-clamping, and the more complex anesthetic techniques required. Early and midterm results from TAET delineate improved outcomes, yet access and aortic constraints continue to challenge TAET. Questions regarding longer-term durability of endografts in younger patients remain unanswered. Broader application of TAET within endovascular programs is challenged by appropriate imaging, operating suite inventories, and the logistics and personnel required for TAET. Currently developed thoracic endograft devices are not ideal for TAET due to platform size and graft diameter. This is changing, however, as new modifications have been developed and trials are ongoing. In light of these collective factors, the management paradigm for traumatic aortic injury is beginning to favor TAET.
doi:10.1055/s-0030-1247889
PMCID: PMC3036502  PMID: 21359015
Aortic trauma; thoracic aortic repair; endovascular repair; thoracic endografts
22.  Endovascular Exclusion of Mycotic Aortic Aneurysm 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2007;34(4):459-462.
The presence of prohibitive risk may preclude usual surgical management. Such was the case for a critically ill, 60-year-old woman who presented with concomitant, life-threatening conditions.
The patient presented with acute central cord syndrome and lower-extremity paraplegia after completing a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine. Radiologic examination revealed bony destruction of thoracic vertebrae T4 through T6, impingement on the spinal cord and canal by an inflammatory mass, and a separate 2.5-cm mycotic aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta.
The clinical and radiologic findings warranted immediate decompression and stabilization of the spinal cord, aneurysmectomy, and vascular reconstruction. However, the severely debilitated patient could not tolerate 2 simultaneous open procedures. She underwent emergent endovascular exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm with a stent-graft, followed immediately by laminectomy and stabilization of the thoracic spine.
Intraoperative microbiology specimens showed no growth. The patient was maintained on prophylactic antibiotic therapy for 6 months. Fourteen months postoperatively, her neurologic function was near full recovery, and neither surveillance blood cultures nor radiologic examinations showed a recurrence of infection or aneurysm.
Although the long-term outcome of endovascular stent-grafts in the treatment of culture-negative mycotic aneurysms is unknown, the use of these grafts in severely debilitated patients can reduce operative risk and enable recovery in the short term.
PMCID: PMC2170503  PMID: 18172531
Aneurysm, infected/diagnosis/therapy; aortic aneurysm/pathology/therapy; aortic diseases/physiopathology/therapy; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; critical care/methods; diagnosis, differential; infection/complications; risk assessment; stents; treatment outcome; vascular surgical procedures/methods
23.  Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta due to Listeria monocytogenes 
INTRODUCTION
Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics.
DISCUSSION
Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity.
CONCLUSION
Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.02.024
PMCID: PMC3679443  PMID: 23711639
Mycotic; Aneurysm; Listeria; Monocytogenes; Aortic
24.  Awake, Percutaneous Repair of a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 
The Ochsner Journal  2013;13(2):248-251.
Background
The rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a highly lethal event, claiming approximately 15,000 lives each year. Traditionally, open surgical repair has been the mainstay for treatment. However, this surgery is associated with almost a 50% perioperative mortality rate. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafts have been used with great success in the elective repair of aortic aneurysms. This technology has subsequently been applied to the repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with a substantial reduction in the periprocedural death rate and associated complications.
Case Report
We report a case of a patient with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction who was treated with an endovascular stent graft in a totally percutaneous fashion using only conscious sedation and local anesthesia.
Conclusion
Although the risk of mortality and complications remains high, endovascular repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm offers the patient the best chance of survival.
PMCID: PMC3684334  PMID: 23789011
Aortic aneurysm–abdominal; endovascular procedures
25.  Aorto-enteric fistula development secondary to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm following intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) treatment for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder 
INTRODUCTION
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
DISCUSSION
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
CONCLUSION
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.09.009
PMCID: PMC3537938  PMID: 23127864
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma

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