Tumor-host interaction at the invasive front of colorectal cancer represents a critical interface encompassing a dynamic process of de-differentiation of colorectal carcinoma cells known as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT can be identified histologically by the presence of “tumor budding”, a feature which can be highly specific for tumors showing an infiltrating tumor growth pattern. Importantly, tumor budding and tumor border configuration have generated considerable interest as additional prognostic factors and are also recognized as such by the International Union Against Cancer. Evidence seems to suggest that the presence of tumor budding or an infiltrating growth pattern is inversely correlated with the presence of immune and inflammatory responses at the invasive tumor front. In fact, several tumor-associated antigens such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, Granzyme B, FOXP3 and other immunological or inflammatory cell types have been identified as potentially prognostic in patients with this disease. Evidence seems to suggest that the balance between pro-tumor (including budding and infiltrating growth pattern) and anti-tumor (immune response or certain inflammatory cell types) factors at the invasive front of colorectal cancer may be decisive in determining tumor progression and the clinical outcome of patients with colorectal cancer. On one hand, the infiltrating tumor border configuration and tumor budding promote progression and dissemination of tumor cells by penetrating the vascular and lymphatic vessels. On the other, the host attempts to fend off this attack by mounting an immune response to protect vascular and lymphatic channels from invasion by tumor buds. Whereas standard pathology reporting of breast and prostate cancer involves additional prognostic features, such as the BRE and Gleason scores, the ratio of pro- and anti-tumor factors could be a promising approach for the future development of a prognostic score for patients with colorectal cancer which could complement tumor node metastasis staging to improve the clinical management of patients with this disease.
Colorectal cancer; Prognosis; Tumor invasive front; Tumor budding; Tumor growth pattern; Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes; Tumor immunity; Microsatellite instability
While several molecular markers of bladder cancer prognosis have been identified, the limited value of current prognostic markers has created the need for new molecular indicators of bladder cancer outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify genetic signatures associated with disease prognosis in bladder cancer.
We used 272 primary bladder cancer specimens for microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Microarray gene expression analysis of randomly selected 165 primary bladder cancer specimens as an original cohort was carried out. Risk scores were applied to stratify prognosis-related gene classifiers. Prognosis-related gene classifiers were individually analyzed with tumor invasiveness (non-muscle invasive bladder cancer [NMIBC] and muscle invasive bladder cancer [MIBC]) and prognosis. We validated selected gene classifiers using RT-PCR in the original (165) and independent (107) cohorts. Ninety-seven genes related to disease progression among NMIBC patients were identified by microarray data analysis. Eight genes, a progression-related gene classifier in NMIBC, were selected for RT-PCR. The progression-related gene classifier in patients with NMIBC was closely correlated with progression in both original and independent cohorts. Furthermore, no patient with NMIBC in the good-prognosis signature group experienced cancer progression.
We identified progression-related gene classifier that has strong predictive value for determining disease outcome in NMIBC. This gene classifier could assist in selecting NMIBC patients who might benefit from more aggressive therapeutic intervention or surveillance.
Maspin is a 42-kDa protein that belongs to the family of serine protease inhibitors. It is involved in various physiological processes. In cancer tissue, Maspin was found to influence angiogenesis, tumor growth, metastasis and the prognosis of tumor patients. This study was performed to analyze the involvement of Maspin in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder as well as its prognostic impact in a large patient cohort. Specimens from 162 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients (pTa, 91; pT1, 71) treated by transurethral resection with a minimum 3-year follow-up (median 58.5 months) were included in the present investigation. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and the specimens were immunohistochemically stained for Maspin protein expression. Each tissue specimen was assessed on a staining scale ranging from 0 (no staining) to 300 (strong staining) and correlated with various clinicopathological parameters. Maspin protein expression predicted progression with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 70% (p<0.001). In predicting recurrence, Maspin staining showed 52% sensitivity and 67% specificity (p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed, and a low Maspin protein expression was correlated with a higher incidence of tumor progression (p<0.0001). However, expression levels of Maspin protein did not distinguish between pTa and pT1 specimens. Multivariate analyses indicated Maspin expression as an independent factor for predicting progression (p<0.0001) and recurrence (p<0.05). The present results suggest that the Maspin protein expression is an independent prognostic indicator for predicting recurrence and progression to muscle invasive disease. This study further emphasizes a possible clinical role of this novel tumor suppressor gene in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
biomarker; maspin; recurrence; prognosis; progression; transitional cell carcinoma; transitional bladder cancer
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and patients occasionally develop local recurrence or distant metastasis soon after curative resection. Reports of new therapeutic strategies for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) are extremely rare, while selective anticancer therapy has been reported for lung adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to identify clinicopathological prognostic factors for SqCC. We analyzed tumor budding and infiltrative patterns (INF) in 103 cases of surgically-resected SqCC. Tumor infiltrative patterns were classified into three groups (INFa, b and c) and INFc was infiltrative growth at the tumor invasive front. The cases with an INFc component [INFc(+)]were significantly associated with venous invasion (P=0.014) and the scirrhous stromal type (P<0.001). The overall survival rate of patients with INFc(+) was significantly lower than that of patients without the INFc component [INFc(−); P=0.003]. Tumor budding was defined as a single cancer cell or a small nest of up to four cancer cells within stromal tissue. The cases with tumor budding [Bud(+)] were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.001), lymphatic invasion (P=0.002), INFc(+) (P<0.001) and the scirrhous stromal type (P=0.014). Patients with the Bud(+) type had a lower overall survival rate than patients with the Bud(−) type (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor budding [hazard ratio (HR), 2.766; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.497–5.109] and lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.937; 95% CI, 1.097–3.419) were independent predictors of mortality. In conclusion, tumor budding is a significant indicator of a high malignant potential and poor prognosis in SqCC of the lung.
lung cancer; squamous cell carcinoma; patient prognosis; tumor budding
Numerous trials have been conducted to develop new treatment regimens for superficial and invasive bladder cancer, because there is an urgent need to identify novel agents to prevent the recurrence and progression of these cancers. We evaluated the prognostic and biological significance of mTOR pathway-related markers in patients with bladder cancer who had undergone transurethral resection of their bladder tumors and radical cystectomy.
Materials and Methods
We retrieved 208 bladder cancer specimens collected from patients between 1989 and 2007 and constructed a tissue microarray comprising 208 tumor samples and 25 benign urothelium samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for mTOR, phosphorylated (phos) S6, and phos4E-BP1. The pattern, percentage, and intensity of staining for all three markers were evaluated.
The median age at diagnosis of the patient cohort was 67 years (range: 29-87 years), and the median follow-up was 72 months (range: 1-257 months). The expression of phos4E-BP1 was higher in the bladder cancer cohort than in the benign cohort, whereas phosS6 expression was lower in the bladder cancer cohort than in the benign cohort. The expression of phosS6 was significantly higher in high-grade bladder cancer (p<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between the H-scores of mTOR and phos4E-BP1 (coefficient of correlation, r=0.37, p<0.01) as well as between the H-scores of mTOR and phosS6 (r=0.17, p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, strong phosS6 expression predicted shorter progression (p<0.01; hazard ratio [HR], 2.516) and disease-specific survival (p<0.01; HR, 2.396) but not overall survival (p=0.112), whereas strong phos4E-BP1 expression was a predictor of disease-specific survival (p<0.05; HR, 2.105). Moreover, strong phosS6 expression predicted shorter recurrence-free (p<0.05) and progression-free (p<0.05) survival in the superficial bladder cancer cohort.
Our results demonstrate that mTOR pathway activation, as assessed by phos4E-BP1 phosphorylation, is related to bladder cancer tumorigenesis and that S6 protein phosphorylation is associated with a high level of disease recurrence and progression and poor cancer-specific survival.
Bladder; Cancer; mTOR protein
Tumor size and multiplicity are known to be important prognostic factors in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, evaluation of accurate tumor size is subjective and difficult. Furthermore, there are limitations to the objectification of tumor volume in the case of multiple lesions. In this study, we investigated the relation between resection weight after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and the prognosis of NMIBC.
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of 406 patients diagnosed with pTa or pT1 bladder tumors after TURBT between September 1999 and May 2010. The patient's age, sex, underlying diseases, cancer stage, grade, multiplicity, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, and resection weight were analyzed in relation to cancer progression and recurrence. The resection weight was weighted after formaldehyde fixation.
The mean follow-up time was 76.9 months (range, 12 to 167 months) in 406 patients diagnosed as having NMIBC. Mean resection weight was 4.5 g (range, 0.1 to 35.0 g). The cancer recurred in 99 patients (24.4%), and disease progression was noted in 30 patients (7.4%). Resection weight was categorized as greater than or less than 2 g by use of receiver operator characteristic curves. Cancer grade (p=0.022) and multiplicity (p=0.043) were significantly related to cancer recurrence in the analysis with Cox's multivariate proportional hazard model. Cancer grade (p=0.001) and resection weight (p=0.018) were related to disease progression.
Resection weight after TURBT was significantly related to progression of NMIBC. Resection weight was an independent factor of progression. Further management should be considered if the resection weight exceeds 2 g.
Prognosis; Tumor burden; Urinary bladder neoplasms
Background and Objectives:
To evaluate the long-term prognostic value of the combination of the EORTC risk calculator and proapoptotic, antiapoptotic, proliferation, and invasiveness molecular markers in predicting the outcome of intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.
Materials and Methods:
This study included 42 patients accrued prospectively presenting with intermediate- to high-risk NMIBC (high-grade T1 tumors or multiple rapidly recurrent tumors refractory to intravesical chemotherapy) treated with transurethral resection (TUR) and BCG. TUR samples were analyzed for the molecular markers p53, p21 waf1/cip, Bcl-2, CyclinD1, and metallothionein 9 (MMP9) using immunohistochemistry. Frequency of positivity, measured as a percentage, was assessed alone or in combination with EORTC risk calculator, for interaction with outcome in terms of recurrence and progression using univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
Median follow-up was 88 months (mean, 99; range, 14-212 months). The overall recurrence rate was 61.9% and progression rate was 21.4%. In univariate analysis, CyclinD1 and EORTC risk groups were significantly associated with recurrence (P value 0.03 and 0.02, respectively), although none of the markers showed a correlation to progression. In combining EORTC risk groups to markers expression status, high-risk group associated with positive MMP9, Bcl-2, CyclinD1, or p21 was significantly correlated to tumor recurrence (log rank P values <0.001, 0.03, 0.02, and 0.006, respectively) and when associated with positive MMP9 or p21, it was significantly correlated to progression (log rank P values 0.01 and 0.04, respectively).
Molecular markers have a long-term prognostic value when combined with EORTC scoring system and they may be used to improve the predictive accuracy of currently existing scoring system. Larger series are needed to confirm these findings.
BCG; Bcl-2; bladder cancer; cyclinD1; EORTC; high risk; long-term response; metallothionein 9; p53; p21; waf1/cip
Superficial bladder tumors are the most prevalent form of bladder cancers and transurethral resection is the primary surgical modality for those tumors. However, nearly 65% of patients will have tumor recurrence in five years while about 15% will have progression to muscle invasion. Thus, the primary therapeutic aim is to prevent multiple recurrences and progression to a more advanced, invasive disease. We here report an 87-year-old white male patient with invasive bladder cancer who received an unconventional oral regimen of D-fraction, the bioactive extract of Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), following endoscopic transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Despite a high risk for disease recurrence, follow-up yet indicated no clinical evidence of progression of residual disease or recurrence of invasive cancer. It has been nearly two years but the patient remains remarkably well and appears to be in remission. To our knowledge, this is the first and only case report of possible disease remission in a bladder cancer patient after the two-year follow-up of D-fraction regimen, so that further studies with long terms are required for drawing a relevant conclusion. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that D-fraction is a natural agent that may have clinical implications in patients with superficial bladder tumors.
invasive bladder cancer; D-fraction; disease remission
Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression.
Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer.
The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies.
The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer.
AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6), a membranous adhesion molecule, in rectal cancer.
METHODS: Altogether, 210 rectal cancer samples from 214 patients treated with short-course radiotherapy (RT, n = 90), long-course (chemo) RT (n = 53) or surgery alone (n = 71) were studied with immunohistochemistry for CD44v6. The extent and intensity of membranous and cytoplasmic CD44v6 staining, and the intratumoral membranous staining pattern, were analyzed.
RESULTS: Membranous CD44v6 expression was seen in 84% and cytoplasmic expression in 81% of the cases. In 59% of the tumors with membranous CD44v6 expression, the staining pattern in the invasive front was determined as “front-positive” and in 41% as “front-negative”. The latter pattern was associated with narrower circumferential margin (P = 0.01), infiltrative growth pattern (P < 0.001), and shorter disease-free survival in univariate survival analysis (P = 0.022) when compared to the “front-positive” tumors.
CONCLUSION: The lack of membranous CD44v6 in the rectal cancer invasive front could be used as a method to identify patients at increased risk for recurrent disease.
CD44 variant 6; Rectal cancer; Invasive front; Disease-free survival; Disease-specific survival
Evaluation of the intravesical instillation of doxorubicin for its effect on disease recurrence for patients with non-invasive bladder tumour.
The study was performed at Al Assad University Hospital in Lattakia, Syria and included patients with non-invasive bladder tumours who were managed with transurethral resection and induction and maintenance therapy with intravesical doxorubicin. They were followed up by cystoscopy every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter with special emphasis on recurrence rates.
The study included 85 patients with non-invasive bladder tumours: 23 with non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Stage Ta), 62 with tumour invading subepithelial connective tissue (Stage T1). Twelve patients had well differentiated tumours (Grade 1), 48 had moderately differentiated (Grade 2), 25 had poorly differentiated (Grade 3) tumours. The total recurrence rate was 23%. The rates of recurrence were 56% in Grade 3 and 0% in Grade 1. The recurrence rate was 41% in patients with large tumours versus 17% in those with small tumours; 44% in those with multiple tumours compared to 18% in those with solitary tumours; 30% of Stage Ta tumours recurred and 21% of Stage T1 tumours.
In short term follow-up, our rate of recurrence was 23%. Adjuvant intravesical doxorubicin was shown to reduce the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Tumour grade, size and number were shown to be prognostic factors for recurrence.
Intravesical Instillations; Doxorubicin; Non-Invasive bladder cancer
Airway remodeling is characterized by airway wall thickening, subepithelial fibrosis, increased smooth muscle mass, angiogenesis and increased mucous glands, which can lead to a chronic and obstinate asthma with pulmonary function depression. In the present study, we investigated whether the astragalus extract inhibits airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model and observed the effects of astragalus extract on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to establish a model of asthma. Treatments included the astragalus extract and budesonide. Lung tissues were obtained for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Periodic acid-Schiff staining after the final ovalbumin challenge. Levels of TGF-β1 were assessed by immunohistology and ELISA, levels of TGF-β1 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR, and levels of P-Smad2/3 and T-Smad2/3 were assessed by western blotting. Astragalus extract and budesonide reduced allergen-induced increases in the thickness of bronchial airway and mucous gland hypertrophy, goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Levels of lung TGF-β1, TGF-β1 mRNA and P-Smad2/3 were significantly reduced in mice treated with astragalus extract and budesonide. Astragalus extract improved asthma airway remodeling by inhibiting the expression of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and may be a potential drug for the treatment of patients with a severe asthma airway.
astragalus plant; airway remodeling; asthma; trans-forming growth factor-β1/Smad signaling pathway
Background and Aim:
Bladder tumor is one of the most common genitourinary tumors. Management of non-muscle invasive (NMI) bladder tumors is primarily by transurethral resection (TURBT) followed by intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most effective adjuvant therapy in NMI bladder tumor. Since angiogenesis is an essential factor in solid tumor progression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor in angiogenesis, the aim of this study is the assessment of angiogenic factor, VEGF, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical BCG.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 23 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in stage Ta/T1 or carcinoma insitu (CIS), low or high grade, which passed a 2-4 week period from TURBT participated in this study. Blood and urine samples were obtained at first and sixth sessions before instillation of BCG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to obtain VEGF level in samples.
Urine and serum VEGF levels did not change significantly before and after BCG therapy. Changes in VEGF level were significantly different neither in low grade against high grade tumors nor in stage T1 against stage Ta tumors. A significant difference in VEGF level was seen between low grade and high grade tumors in serum after BCG therapy (P=0.007); but not in urine samples.
Although intravesical BCG possesses anti-angiogenic activity, it seems that it exerts its effect through pathways other than VEGF, especially in low grade tumors.
Angiogenic factor; intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin; superficial bladder tumors; vascular endothelial growth factor
We apply competition colonization tradeoff models to tumor growth and invasion dynamics to explore the hypothesis that varying selection forces will result in predictable phenotypic differences in cells at the tumor invasive front compared to those in the core. Spatially, ecologically, and evolutionarily explicit partial differential equation models of tumor growth confirm that spatial invasion produces selection pressure for motile phenotypes. The effects of the invasive phenotype on normal adjacent tissue determine the patterns of growth and phenotype distribution. If tumor cells do not destroy their environment, colonizer and competitive phenotypes coexist with the former localized at the invasion front and the latter, to the tumor interior. If tumors cells do destroy their environment, then cell motility is strongly selected resulting in accelerated invasion speed with time. Our results suggest that the widely observed genetic heterogeneity within cancers may not be the stochastic effect of random mutations. Rather, it may be the consequence of predictable variations in environmental selection forces and corresponding phenotypic adaptations.
tumor invasion; spatial ecology; competition colonization tradeoff; partial differential equation model; spatial selection
Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC.
AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test.
59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025).
Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC.
Urothelial bladder carcinoma; Stage pT1; Aquaporin 3 protein; Immunohistochemistry; Progression
There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results.
We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59) and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234) were evaluated separately.
Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0%) who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS) only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1%) who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis.
Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.
Background: This study assessed the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) protein expression and its relationship with gene amplification in invasive bladder carcinoma, using the same criteria than for breast cancer.
Patients and methods: In 1005 patients, paraffin-embedded tissues of transurethral resection or cystectomy were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), using antibodies against HER2. All samples with a 2+ or 3+ HER2 overexpression were evaluated by FISH.
Results: HER2 overexpression was observed in 93 (9.2%) tumors (2+: 42 tumors and 3+: 51 tumors). Using FISH, all HER2 3+ tumors had a gene amplification, whereas no amplification was found in 2+ tumors. Intratumoral heterogeneity was observed in 35% of cases. These tumors showed the same heterogeneous pattern, with adjacent 3+ positive and negative areas by both IHC and FISH.
Conclusions: This study showed that 5.1% of invasive bladder carcinomas had a HER2 gene amplification. These findings may have clinical implications for the management of patients with HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer, as they could be potential candidates for targeted therapy.
FISH; HER2; immunohistochemistry; targeted therapy; urothelial bladder carcinoma
For bladder cancer (BCa) patients undergoing bladder-sparing treatments, molecular markers may aid in accurately predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan that promotes tumor metastasis. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL-1)–type hyaluronidase (HAase) promotes tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis. Urinary HA and HAase levels are diagnostic markers for BCa.
We evaluated whether HA and HYAL-1 can predict progression to muscle invasion and recurrence among patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa.
Design, setting, and participants
Based on tissue availability, tissue microarrays were prepared from a cohort of 178 BCa specimens (144 non–muscle invasive, 34 muscle invasive). Follow-up information was available on 111 patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa (mean follow-up: 69.5 mo); 58 patients recurred and 25 progressed to muscle invasion (mean time to progress: 22.3 mo).
HA and HYAL-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and graded for intensity and area of staining. Association of HA and HYAL-1 staining with BCa recurrence and muscle invasion was evaluated by univariate and multivariate models.
Results and limitations
HA and HYAL-1 expression correlated with tumor grade, stage, and multifocality (p < 0.05). In non–muscle-invasive BCa specimens, HYAL-1 staining was higher (234.3 ± 52.2; 200.6 ± 61.4) if patients experienced progression to muscle invasion or recurrence when compared with no progression or recurrence (164.1 ± 48.2; 172.1 ± 57; p < 0.001). HA staining correlated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), multifocality (p = 0.023), and HYAL-1 staining (p < 0.001) correlated with muscle invasion, whereas only HYAL-1 correlated with recurrence (p = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, significantly associated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001; 76.8% accuracy) and recurrence (p = 0.01; 67.8% accuracy).
HYAL-1 is a potential prognostic marker for predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence.
Bladder cancer; Hyaluronic acid; Hyaluronidase; HYAL-1; non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; Prognostic markers; Tissue microarray
A new modality is necessary to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after complete transurethral resection because of the high recurrence rate even with current prophylaxis protocols.
In order to analyze the predictive value of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in recurrence of this disease tumor specimens from 127 patients with solitary papillary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), 78 with recurrent disease and 49 without recurrence during follow up of minimum 5 years, were retrieved for tissue microarrays construction and immunohistochemical analysis. COX-2 expression was scored according to Allred’s scoring protocol, while presence of TILs was categorized as absent (no) or present (yes) on whole tissue sections.
COX-2 immunoreactivity was presented in 70 (71%), weak in 16% and strong in 55% of cases, while 29 (29%) tumors were negative. TILs were present in 64 (58%) NMIBC, while 44 cases (41%) did not reveal mononuclear infiltration in tumoral stroma. Statistical analysis demonstrated a higher proportion of patients with recurrence in the group with the COX-2 score 0, and lower in the group with score 2 (p=0.0001, p=0.0101, respectively). In addition, a higher proportion of recurrent patients in the group with no TILs, and lower proportion in the group with TILs were found (p=0.009, p=0.009, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed overexpression of COX-2 and presence of TILs as negative predictors.
Patients with lower COX-2 expression and absence of TILs in NMIBC need to be followed up more vigorously and probably selected for adjuvant therapy.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1411318819790406
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; Recurrence; Cyclooxygenase-2; Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
Various therapeutic modalities are available for treatment of bladder cancer, and their effectiveness and patient outcome often depend on cancer cell invasiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the early steps of bladder cancer cell invasion remain unknown. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between S100A4 expression and bladder cancer invasion of surrounding muscles, prognosis and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer. S100A4 and MMP-14 expression was analyzed in 85 cases of organ-confined (pTa, pT1 and pT2) bladder cancer using immunohistochemical technique. The expression levels were compared among the pTa, pT1 and pT2 tumors. In addition, the predictive values of S100A4 or MMP-14 expression for muscle invasion, metastasis and survival were investigated, as was the possible correlation between the expression of the two proteins. The proportion of S100A4-positive cancer cells in pT2 tumors (53%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in pTa (38.7%) or pT1 (40.9%) tumors; there was no difference between pTa and pT1. The results were similar for MMP-14 expression, which was significantly correlated with S100A4 expression (r=0.360, p<0.001). S100A4 expression predicted metastasis-free survival (p=0.009), but not cause-specific survival. The results implicated S100A4 in the early steps of muscle invasion via MMP-14, but not for mucosal invasion. S100A4 is therefore a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer, and its expression is a risk factor for muscle invasion in patients with superficial tumors. In addition, S100A4 expression may be a useful prognostic factor for metastasis in patients with organ-confined bladder cancer.
bladder cancer; S100A4; matrix metalloproteinase-14; muscle invasion; disease-specific survival
We aimed to validate and improve prognostic signatures for high-risk urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
We evaluated microarray data from 93 bladder cancer patients managed by radical cystectomy to determine gene expression patterns associated with clinical and prognostic variables. We compared our results with published bladder cancer microarray datasets comprising 578 additional patients, and with 49 published gene signatures from multiple cancer types. Hierarchical clustering was utilized to identify subtypes associated with differences in survival. We then investigated whether the addition of survival-associated gene expression information to a validated post-cystectomy nomogram utilizing clinical and pathologic variables improves prediction of recurrence.
Multiple markers for muscle invasive disease with highly significant expression differences in multiple datasets were identified, such as FN1, NNMT, POSTN and SMAD6. We identified signatures associated with pathologic stage and the likelihood of developing metastasis and death from bladder cancer, as well as with two distinct clustering subtypes of bladder cancer. Our novel signature correlated with overall survival in multiple independent datasets, significantly improving the prediction concordance of standard staging in all datasets (mean ΔC-statistic: 0.14, 95% CI 0.01–0.27; P < 0.001). Tested in our patient cohort, it significantly enhanced the performance of a postoperative survival nomogram (ΔC-statistic: 0.08, 95% CI −0.04–0.20; P < 0.005).
Prognostic information obtained from gene expression data can aid in post-treatment prediction of bladder cancer recurrence. Our findings require further validation in external cohorts and prospectively in a clinical trial setting.
Bladder cancer; gene expression analysis; molecular subtypes; survival analysis; bioinformatics
S100A8 is a member of the S100 protein family containing 2EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. Altered expression of this protein is associated with various diseases and cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate whether S100A8 has prognostic value for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Materials and Methods
A total of 103 primary NMIBC samples obtained by transurethral resection were evaluated. mRNA levels were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The results were compared with clinico-pathological parameters. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to plot the curves for progression-free survival. The multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify the independent prognostic factors for progression.
mRNA expression levels of S100A8 were significantly related to the progression of NMIBC. Kaplan-Meier estimates demonstrated significant differences in tumor progression according to the level of S100A8 expression (log-rank test, p<0.001). The multivariate Cox regression model revealed that the S100A8 mRNA expression level (hazard ratio: 12.538; 95% confidence interval: 2.245-70.023, p=0.004) was an independent predictor for disease progression of NMIBC.
Expression levels of S100A8 might be a useful prognostic marker for disease progression of NMIBC.
Urinary bladder neoplasms; S100A8 protein; Polymerase chain reaction; Biological tumor markers
A 64-year-old man underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy-resistant, recurrent muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. He had a history of left radical nephroureterectomy for a papillary TCC of the left ureter 10 months ago. On microscopic examination, not only multifocal residual papillary TCCs in the urinary bladder but also multiple small granulomas in the urinary bladder and prostate were noted. Interestingly, unusually severe granulomatous inflammation accompanying focal central caseating necrosis was identified in the subepithelial tissue of the left seminal vesicle and vas deferens. Neither prostatic adenocarcinoma nor TCC involvement was identified in the prostate and seminal vesicles. A few acid-fast bacilli were identified by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining in the seminal vesicle granulomas, confirming the BCG-induced inflammation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of BCG-induced granuloma involving the seminal vesicle. It is uncertain why only the left seminal vesicle was involved with BCG granulomas and the incidence and mechanism of seminal vesicle BCG granuloma await more cases.
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin; BCG; seminal vesicles; granuloma
Previous studies have shown important effects of stromal elements in carcinogenesis. To explore the tumor-stromal relationship in esophageal neoplasia, we examined methylation of COX-2 (PTGS2), a gene etiologically associated with the development of gastrointestinal cancers, in adjacent foci of epithelium, subepithelial lymphocytes and non-lymphocytic stromal cells found in sections of normal squamous epithelium, squamous dysplasia and invasive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Adjacent foci of epithelium, subepithelial lymphocytic aggregates and non-lymphocytic stromal tissues were laser microdissected from six fully embedded, ethanol fixed, esophagectomy samples from Shanxi, China, a high-risk region for esophageal cancer. Promoter CpG site-specific hypermethylation status of COX-2 was determined using real-time methylation specific PCR (qMS-PCR) based on Taqman Chemistry. The methylation status of a subset of samples was confirmed by pyrosequencing.
Forty-nine microdissected foci were analyzed. COX-2 gene methylation was significantly more common in subepithelial lymphocytes (12/16 (75% of all foci)) than in epithelial foci (3/16 (19%)) or foci of non-lymphocytic stromal tissues (3/17 (18%)) (Fisher’s Exact p=0.05). Two of three epithelial samples and all three stromal samples that showed COX-2 methylation were adjacent to foci of methylated subepithelial lymphocytes. Pyrosequencing confirmed the methylation status in a subset of samples.
In these esopohageal cancer patients, COX-2 gene methylation was more common in subepithelial lymphocytes than in adjacent epithelial or stromal cells in both grades of dysplasia and in foci of invasive cancer. These findings raise the possibility that methylation of subepithelial lymphocytes may be important for tumorigenesis. Future studies of gene methylation should consider separate evaluation of epithelial and non-epithelial cell populations.
COX2 (PTGS2) gene methylation increases with disease severity and is more common in subepithelial lymphocytes than in adjacent epithelial or stromal cells in dysplastic and early invasive esophageal squamous cell cancer foci.
esophagus; neoplasms; cancer; cyclooxgenase-2; precancerous conditions; methylation; lymphocytes; squamous cell cancer
The development of new cancer therapeutics would benefit from incorporating efficient tumor models that mimic human disease. We have developed a subcutaneous bladder tumor regeneration system that recapitulates primary human bladder tumor architecture by recombining benign human fetal bladder stromal cells with SW780 bladder carcinoma cells. As a first step, SW780 cells were seeded in ultra low attachment cultures in order to select for sphere-forming cells, the putative cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. Spheroids were combined with primary human fetal stromal cells or vehicle control and injected subcutaneously with Matrigel into NSG mice. SW780 bladder tumors that formed in the presence of stroma showed accelerated growth, muscle invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), decreased differentiation, and greater activation of growth pathways compared to tumors formed in the absence of fetal stroma. Tumors grown with stroma also demonstrated a greater similarity to typical malignant bladder architecture, including the formation of papillary structures. In an effort to determine if cancer cells from primary tumors could form similar structures in vivo using this recombinatorial approach, putative CSCs, sorted based on the CD44+CD49f+ antigenic profile, were collected and recombined with fetal bladder stromal cells and Matrigel prior to subcutaneous implantation. Retrieved grafts contained tumors that exhibited the same structure as the original primary human tumor. Primary bladder tumor regeneration using human fetal bladder stroma may help elucidate the influences of stroma on tumor growth and development, as well as provide an efficient and accessible system for therapeutic testing.
Bladder cancer; cancer stem cell (CSC); subcutaneous tumor model; stroma; sphere