Decorative crystal gel balls are used for decoration purpose. Due to their attractive appearance they may be ingested by children. This may result in grave complications. A case of decorative crystal ball ingestion is being reported in a 6 months old infant who presented with sub acute intestinal obstruction and was operated. Crystal gel balls were causing obstruction of jejunum. Enterotomy and removal of the mass of jelly balls was done with primary closure. The patient was re-operated for anastomotic disruption on 6th postoperative day. Baby developed septicemia, and succumbed after 2 days of second operation.
Crystal balls; Jelly balls; Mortality
There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis.
This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation.
There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%), nonspecific inflammation(26%), obstruction(6%), tuberculosis(4%) and radiation enteritis (1%). Simple closure of the perforation (49%) and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42%) were the mainstay of the surgical management.
Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.
An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract.
We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporary ileostomy. After four months, intestinal continuity was established in the second operation.
Intestinal perforation by a chicken bone is rare and affects the left colon or distal ileum. The lack of information of ingestion and detection of chicken bones preoperatively are of interest to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, which in this case was treated surgically.
Ingested fish bone induced intestinal perforations are seldom diagnosed preoperatively due to incomplete patient history taking and difficulties in image evidence identification. Most literature suggests early surgical intervention to prevent sepsis and complications resulting from fish bone migrations. We report the case of a 44-year-old man suffered from acute abdomen induced by a fish bone micro-perforation. The diagnosis was supported by computed tomography (CT) imaging of fish bone lodged in distal ileum and a history of fish ingestion recalled by the patient. Medical treatment was elected to manage the patient’s condition instead of surgical intervention. The treatment resulted in a complete resolution of abdominal pain on hospital day number 4 without complication. Factors affecting clinical treatment decisions include the nature of micro-perforation, the patient’s good overall health condition, and the early diagnosis before sepsis signs develop. Micro-perforation means the puncture of intestine wall without CT evidence of free air, purulent peritoneum or abscess. We subsequently reviewed the literature to support our decision to pursue medical instead of surgical intervention.
Fish bone ingestion; Micro-perforation; Decision-making; Medical treatment; Small intestine
Perforation of gastric cancer is rare and it accounts for less than 1% of the incidences of an acute abdomen. In this study, we reviewed cases of benign or malignant gastric perforation in terms of the accuracy of diagnosis and investigated the clinical outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer. On the basis of pathological examination, gastric cancer was diagnosed in 8 patients and benign ulcer perforation in 32 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis by pathological examination were 50, 93.8 and 85%, respectively. Except for age, there were no differences in the other demographic characteristics between patients with gastric cancer and benign ulcer perforation. The median survival time of patients with perforated gastric cancer was 195 days after surgery. Patients with gastric cancer perforation had a poorer overall survival rate than those who had T3 tumors without perforation. In addition, in patients with perforation, recurrence of peritoneum occurred more frequently. In conclusion, to improve the survival rate of patients with perforated gastric cancer and to improve the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis, endoscopic examination and/or pathological examination of the frozen section should be performed, if possible. A balanced surgical strategy using laparoscopic local repair as the first-step of surgery, followed by radical open gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy may be considered.
gastric cancer; perforation; prognosis; peritonitis
Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis.
Acute appendicitis; foreign body; bowel perforation
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a selective weedkiller which works by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and is in widespread use. It is known as "agent orange". A 65 year old man had acute hepatitis, thought to be caused by exposure to 2,4-D. The patient ingested 2,4-D as a result of habitual licking of his golf ball. Clinical and histological data together with a challenge test confirmed the diagnosis of "golf ball liver".
Amebiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica. It most commonly results in asymptomatic colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, but some patients develop intestinal invasive or extra-intestinal diseases. Liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation. The large number of clinical presentations of amebic liver abscess makes the diagnosis very challenging in non-endemic countries. Late diagnosis of the amebic abscess may lead to perforation and amebic peritonitis, resulting in high mortality rates.
This report describes a 37-year-old white man, suffering from hepatitis B, with a gigantic amebic liver abscess presenting as an acute abdomen due to its rupture. Rapid deterioration of the patient's condition and acute abdomen led to an emergency operation. A large volume of free fluid together with debris was found at the moment of entry into the peritoneal cavity because of a rupture of the hepatic abscess at the position of the segment VIII. Surgical drainage of the hepatic abscess was performed; two wide drains were placed in the remaining hepatic cavities and one on the right hemithorax. The patient was hospitalized in the ICU for 14 days and for another 14 days in our department. The diagnosis of amebic abscess was made by the pathologists who identified E. histolytica in the debris.
Acute abdomen due to a ruptured amebic liver abscess is extremely rare in western countries where the parasite is not endemic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are fundamental to preserving the patient's life since the mortality rates remain extremely high when untreated, even nowadays.
Three eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of pitch accents during online discourse comprehension. Participants faced a grid with ornaments, and followed pre-recorded instructions such as “Next, hang the blue ball” to decorate holiday trees. Experiment 1 demonstrated a processing advantage for felicitous as compared to infelicitous uses of L+H* on the adjective noun pair (e.g. blue ball followed by GREEN ball vs. green BALL). Experiment 2 confirmed that L+H* on a contrastive adjective led to ‘anticipatory’ fixations, and demonstrated a “garden path” effect for infelicitous L+H* in sequences with no discourse contrast (e.g. blue angel followed by GREEN ball resulted in erroneous fixations to the cell of angels). Experiment 3 examined listeners’ sensitivity to coherence between pitch accents assigned to discourse markers such as ‘And then,’ and those assigned to the target object noun phrase.
The purpose of this study was to develop a formula to determine and compare the compressibility of selected sport balls. Six balls (basketball, volleyball, soccer ball, baseball, handball, golf ball) were dropped ten times from each of four different heights onto a smooth solid surface overlaid with a white sheet of typing paper, overlaid with a sheet of carbon paper. The diameter of the area of contact of each ball imprinted onto the typing paper was measured in millimetres with calipers. From the data, the distance (d) that each ball compressed for each velocity (v) was calculated. It was found that a linear relationship existed between velocity at impact and the distance for each ball studied. The compressibility coefficient (c) for each ball was calculated and a formula was developed to determine the distance each ball would compress at a given velocity. When velocity is measured in metres per second and the distance a ball compresses is measured in millimetres, the formula to determine d for selected balls, in order of compressibility is: basketball d = 3.07v, volleyball d = 2.90v, soccer ball d = 2.80v, baseball d = 0.77v, handball d = 0.53v, and golf ball d = 0.17v.
Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.
Diverticulum; Intestines; Lithiasis; Intestinal perforation; Diverticulitis
Fecal impaction (FI) is a common cause of lower gastrointestinal tract obstruction lagging behind stricture for diverticulitis and colon cancer. It is the result of chronic or severe constipation and most commonly found in the elderly population. Early recognition and diagnosis is accomplished by way of an adequate history and physical examination in conjunction with an acute abdominal series. Prompt identification and treatment minimizes the risks of complications such as bowel obstruction leading to aspiration, stercoral ulcers, perforation, and peritonitis. Treatment options include gentle proximal softening in the absence of complete bowel obstruction, distal washout, and manual extraction. Surgical resection of the involved colon or rectum is reserved for cases of FI complicated by ulceration and perforation leading to peritonitis. Recurrence is common, and can be managed by increasing dietary fiber content to 30 gm/day, increased water intake, and discontinuation of medications that can contribute to colonic hypomotility.
fecal impaction; constipation; stercoral perforation; inspissated stool syndrome
We describe the very unusual case of a patient with a large, free-floating left-atrial thrombus secondary to severe mitral stenosis, in whom the peculiar symptoms and complications of a ball thrombus were absent. The patient's only symptom before the episode reported here was mild dyspnea, which was attributed to mitral stenosis. She experienced neither embolism nor syncope. While even her clinical signs did not indicate a left-atrial ball thrombus, both echocardiography and angiography showed a free-floating thrombus. Because of the risk of stroke and acute obstruction of the mitral valve, emergency surgery was performed upon diagnosis of the ball thrombus. The surgery, which consisted of removing the thrombus and replacing the mitral valve with a mechanical prosthesis, was uneventful. A computed tomographic brain scan prior to discharge did not detect any cerebral infarction.
Objectives—To assess the rate of wrist fractures in young goalkeepers sustained by the specific mechanism of "saving the ball" and the potential influence of ball size and environmental conditions.
Methods—A prospective, clinic based study in one institution over a 17 month period. Patients were identified by specific questioning. Information on play circumstances and subsequent clinical progress was documented.
Results—Twenty nine fractures of the distal radius were identified in young goalkeepers (age range 6–15 years) as a direct result of saving the ball. Most were managed simply in a plaster cast. Three patients required minor surgical interventions, and all fractures went on to unite without significant complications. Where ball size was known, 12 of the 15 fractures in children aged 11 years or less occurred as the result of impact with an adult sized ball compared with three when a junior ball was involved. This is statistically significant (p = 0.039). In the 10 children aged 12–15 years, only one fracture involved a junior ball; this is also statistically significant (p = 0.027). Six of the injuries (21%) occurred when the ball was kicked by an adult. Injuries occurred in both organised and informal games throughout the year.
Conclusions—This specific mechanism of injury has not been widely acknowledged nor has the potential influence of ball size as a causative factor been examined. Recommendations for an appropriately sized soccer ball for young players exist but are not in universal use. Increased awareness of this particular injury mechanism is required.
Key Words: soccer; goalkeeper; fracture; distal radius; children
Open digestive surgery in cirrhotic patients is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Laparoscopy in this setting has the potential to reduce postoperative complications. Laparoscopic treatment of a perforated gastric ulcer in a severely cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension is herein described.
A 75-year-old woman affected by cirrhosis of the liver (Child class C) and chronic gastric ulcer presented with acute abdominal pain. The diagnosis of perforation was made with plain films of the abdomen and computed tomography. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed intense peritonitis due to a perforated ulcer of the anterior gastric wall, 2 cm proximal to the pylorus. Suture closure and placement of an omental patch were performed laparoscopically.
Postoperative recovery was complicated by a minor leak of the gastric suture, managed by total parenteral nutrition. Closure of the gastric wound was demonstrated by Gastrografin studies on the 10th postoperative day. The patient was discharged on the 16th postoperative day. At 3-months follow-up, the patient is alive and free of gastric disease.
Liver Cirrhosis; Perforated peptic ulcer; Laparoscopy
We have decorated microtubules with monomeric and dimeric kinesin constructs, studied their structure by cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, and compared the results with the x-ray crystal structure of monomeric and dimeric kinesin. A monomeric kinesin construct (rK354, containing only a short neck helix insufficient for coiled-coil formation) decorates microtubules with a stoichiometry of one kinesin head per tubulin subunit (α–β-heterodimer). The orientation of the kinesin head (an anterograde motor) on the microtubule surface is similar to that of ncd (a retrograde motor). A longer kinesin construct (rK379) forms a dimer because of the longer neck helix forming a coiled-coil. Unexpectedly, this construct also decorates the microtubule with a stoichiometry of one head per tubulin subunit, and the orientation is similar to that of the monomeric construct. This means that the interaction with microtubules causes the two heads of a kinesin dimer to separate sufficiently so that they can bind to two different tubulin subunits. This result is in contrast to recent models and can be explained by assuming that the tubulin–kinesin interaction is antagonistic to the coiled-coil interaction within a kinesin dimer.
Background: Perforation of the gall bladder with cholecystohepatic communication is a rare cause of liver abscess. We are reporting here six rare cases of gall bladder perforation with variable clinical presentations.
Materials and Methods: Most patients presented with right hypochondrium pain and fever but two patients presented with only pain in the abdomen. Ultrasonography (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) were used for diagnosis. The patients were also successfully treated.
Results: There was a gall bladder perforation with cholecystohepatic communication, leading to liver abscess formation in most cases on USG and CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed on surgery.
Conclusion: The perforation of the gall bladder which leads to liver abscess is a rare complication of acute, chronic or empyema gall bladder. USG and CT scans are the most important diagnostic tool in diagnosing this rare complication. In the set up, where advanced options are not available, the only treatment of choice is the conservative one or surgery, according to the status of the patients.
ultrasonography; acute cholecystitis; peritonitis
Gastrointestinal perforation due to a foreign body is not unknown. The foreign body often mimics another cause of acute abdomen and requires emergency surgical intervention. The majority of patients do not recall ingesting the foreign body. Perforations have been reported to occur in a pathologically abnormal colon.
We report an interesting case of a 47-year-old Caucasian man who had a perforation of the sigmoid colon caused by an ingested chicken bone mimicking acute appendicitis. Our patient presented with right iliac fossa pain and local tenderness. When a laparotomy was performed, a chicken bone was found protruding through the sigmoid colon, which was found to lie in the right iliac fossa, thus mimicking acute appendicitis. Our case is different from previously reported cases in that perforation occurred in a non-pathological colon.
Our case emphasises the fact that the operating surgeon has to be aware of various differential diagnostic possibilities which mimic acute appendicitis. This has implications on the training of junior surgeons who are often involved in performing these procedures, and may do so out of hours. Care needs to be taken while obtaining consent for the necessary operation.
Jejunal diverticula are an uncommon acquired disease that is usually silent and asymptomatic. When symptomatic, they present with chronic nonspecific symptoms like pain, nausea, malnutrition and sometimes with acute presentation like gastrointestinal hemorrhage, peritonitis and obstruction. The majority of complications seen as an acute abdomen similar to appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis but they also may appear with atypical symptoms. We are presenting a 63-year-old male reported in emergency with painful abdomen and diagnosed as having peritonitis. On laparotomy, we incidentally found giant and multiple jejunal diverticula along with ileal perforation. Nothing was done to the jejunal diverticula, as these were multiple and non-obstructive. In the follow-up of 16 months, the patient was doing well. Jejuno-ileal diverticulosis is a rare condition that continues to present formidable challenges in diagnosis and treatment.
acute abdomen; ileum; small bowel diverticulum; perforation; surgery
Goblet cell carcinoid of the large intestine is a rare neoplasm, usually located in ascending colon and rectum. A 60-year-old male patient underwent surgery after the diagnosis of acute abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy revealed perforation with a diameter of 1 cm at the site of the previously performed gastroenterostomy and dilatation of the right colic flexure, secondary to a solid obstructive mass located in the mid-portion of transverse colon. Histopathological investigation of the biopsies, taken from the gastroenterostomy site and the tumor, revealed mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma with carcinoid component, predominantly composed of goblet cells. Three cycles of FOLFOX-4 protocol was administered. Following respiratory distress secondary to pulmonary metastasis, the patient's condition deteriorated and subsequently died in the fourth postoperative month. Our aim with this paper is to point out that more cases should be reported for more effective diagnosis, histopathological study, clinical investigation, treatment and prognosis of this specific neoplasm.
Introduction and objectives
Prostatic inflammation could be a key component in prostate enlargement and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. Our aim was to characterize inflammatory cells infiltrate within BPH tissue and to correlate inflammation and clinical data.
Material and methods
Inflammation was profiled on three clinical outcome tissue microarrays (TMAs), including 282 patients treated by surgery for a complicated and/or symptomatic BPH. Inflammation score was defined by combining six cytological parameters and 5 markers on immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cytological parameters were lymphocytes, macrophages and polynuclears leukocytes infiltrates, and three glandular aspect modifications: glandular atrophy, glandular destruction and tissue fibrosis. IHC markers were CD3, CD4 and CD8 decorating T-lymphocytes, CD20 decorating B-lymphocytes, and CD163 decorating macrophages.
The majority of patients had inflammatory cells infiltrating BPH tissues: 81% had T-lymphocytes markers (CD3), 52% had B-lymphocytes markers (CD20) and 82% had macrophages markers (CD163). IPSS score (21 vs 12; p=0,02) and prostate volume (77cc vs 62cc; p=0.002) were significantly higher in patients with high grade prostatic inflammation.
We characterized inflammatory cells infiltrate in a large cohort of surgically treated BPH specimens. The role of inflammation in BPH development was highlighted by the strong correlation between histological inflammation, IPSS and prostate volume. Prostate enlargement due to chronic inflammatory process may progressively conduce to BPH progression. Therefore, inflammation is a therapeutic target for BPH.
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Antigens, CD; metabolism; Antigens, CD20; metabolism; Antigens, CD3; metabolism; Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; metabolism; B-Lymphocytes; immunology; Biological Markers; metabolism; Cohort Studies; Disease Progression; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Macrophages; immunology; Male; Microarray Analysis; Middle Aged; Prostatic Hyperplasia; complications; pathology; Prostatitis; complications; metabolism; pathology; Receptors, Cell Surface; metabolism; Risk Assessment; T-Lymphocytes; immunology; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH; inflammation; CD3; CD4; CD8; CD20; CD163; lymphocyte
Objectives: Head impacts from footballs are an essential part of the game but have been implicated in mild and acute neuropsychological impairment. Ball characteristics have been noted in literature to affect the impact response of the head; however, the biomechanics are not well understood. The present study determined whether ball mass, pressure, and construction characteristics help reduce head and neck can impact response.
Methods: Head responses under ball impact (6–7 m/s) were measured with a biofidelic numerical human model and controlled human subject trials (n = 3). Three ball masses and four ball pressures were investigated for frontal heading. Further, the effect of ball construction in wet/dry conditions was studied with the numerical model. The dynamic ball characteristics were determined experimentally. Head linear and angular accelerations were measured and compared with injury assessment functions comprising peak values and head impact power. Neck responses were assessed with the numerical model.
Results: Ball mass reductions up to 35% resulted in decreased head responses up to 23–35% for the numerical and subject trials. Similar decreases in neck axial and shear responses were observed. Ball pressure reductions of 50% resulted in head and neck response reductions up to 10–31% for the subject trials and numerical model. Head response reductions up to 15% were observed between different ball constructions. The wet condition generally resulted in greater head and neck responses of up to 20%.
Conclusion: Ball mass, pressure, and construction can reduce the impact severity to the head and neck. It is foreseeable that the benefits can be extended to players of all ages and skill levels.
Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency in India. The spectrum of etiology of perforation in Tropical countries continues to be different from its Western counterpart. The objective of the study was to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis as encountered by us at Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), Chandigarh.
Five hundred and four consecutive cases of perforation peritonitis over a period of five years were reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, operative findings and postoperative course retrospectively at GMCH, Chandigarh.
The most common cause of perforation in our series was perforated duodenal ulcer (289 cases) followed by appendicitis (59 cases), gastrointestinal perforation due to blunt trauma abdomen (45 cases), typhoid fever (41 cases) and tuberculosis (20 cases). Despite delay in seeking medical treatment (53%), the overall mortality (10%) was favourably comparable with other published series though the overall morbidity (50%) was unusually high.
In contrast to western literature, where lower gastrointestinal tract perforations predominate, upper gastrointestinal tract perforations constitute the majority of cases in India. The increasing incidence of post-traumatic gastro-enteric injuries may be due to an increase in high speed motor vehicle accidents which warrant early recognition and prompt treatment to avoid serious complications and death.
Inflammatory fibroid polyps (Vanek's tumor) are rare benign localized lesions originating in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusceptions due to inflammatory fibroid polyps are uncommon; moreover, ileo-ileal intussusception with small bowel necrosis and perforation has rarely been reported. We report a 56-year-old woman who was admitted two days after complaints of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal examination revealed distension, signs of gastrointestinal perforation and clanging intestinal sounds. The patient underwent a emergency laparotomy which found a 17-cm invaginated mid-ileal segment with necrosis, perforation and fecal peritonitis. The ileal segment was resected and single-layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathological analysis showed an ulcerative lesion with variable cellularity, formed by spindle cells with small number of mitosis and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate comprising mainly eosinophils. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of ileal Vanek's tumor. Although inflammatory fibroid polyps are seen very rarely in adults, they are among the probable diagnoses that should be considered in obstructive tumors of the small bowel causing intussusception with intestinal necrosis and perforation.
Intestinal polyps; Polyps; Ileal neoplasm; Intussusception; Intestinal obstruction; Intestinal perforation; Immunohistochemistry
Toothpick ingestion is implicated in gut injuries which may cause severe complications, mimicking diseases causing acute abdomen. However, toothpick ingestion-related perforation may also cause mild, non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms without significant findings or major complications. We describe a young male with chronic postprandial lower abdominal pain caused by a toothpick impaction at the rectosigmoid junction after inadvertent ingestion. The foreign body was detected and successfully removed during flexible sigmoidoscopy. Perforation due to foreign body ingestion must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with unexplained symptoms and findings, even when they do not recall any foreign body ingestion.