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1.  Ticlopidine-, Clopidogrel-, and Prasugrel-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A 20-Year Review from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR) 
Thienopyridine-derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel) are the primary antiplatelet agents. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare drug-associated syndrome, with the thienopyridines being the most common drugs implicated in this syndrome. We reviewed 20 years of information on clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings for thienopyridine-associated TTP. Four, 11, and 11 cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP were reported in the first year of marketing of ticlopidine (1989), clopidogrel (1998), and prasugrel (2010), respectively. As of 2011, the FDA received reports of 97 ticlopidine-, 197 clopidogrel-, and 14 prasugrel-associated TTP cases. Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) was present in 80% and antibodies to 100% of these TTP patients on ticlopidine, 0% of the patients with clopidogrel-associated TTP (p < 0.05), and an unknown percentage of patients with prasugrel-associated TTP. TTP is associated with use of each of the three thienopyridines, although the mechanistic pathways may differ.
PMCID: PMC3804561  PMID: 23111862
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; ticlopidine; clopidogrel; prasugrel; adverse event
2.  Ticlopidine- and clopidogrel-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and pharmacovigilance findings (1989–2008) 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a fulminant disease characterized by platelet aggregates, thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, neurologic changes, and mechanical injury to erythrocytes. Most idiopathic cases of TTP are characterized by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease, with thrombospondin-1-like domains) metalloprotease activity. Ironically, use of anti-platelet agents, the thienopyridine derivates clopidogrel and ticlopidine, is associated with drug induced TTP. Data were abstracted from a systematic review of English-language literature for thienopyridine-associated TTP identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the public website of the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from national scientific conferences from 1991 to April 2008. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel are the two most common drugs associated with TTP in FDA safety databases. Epidemiological studies identify recent initiation of anti-platelet agents as the most common risk factor associated with risks of developing TTP. Laboratory studies indicate that most cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP involve an antibody to ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, present with severe thrombocytopenia, and respond to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); a minority of thienopyridine-associated TTP presents with severe renal insufficiency, involves direct endothelial cell damage, and is less responsive to TPE. The evaluation of this potentially fatal drug toxicity can serve as a template for future efforts to comprehensively characterize other severe adverse drug reactions.
PMCID: PMC3500614  PMID: 19180126
drug-associated TTP; epidemiology; ADAMTS13
3.  Clopidogrel-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura–Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome After Coronary Artery Stenting 
Pharmacotherapy  2012;24(5):664-667.
The antiplatelet drug clopidogrel has largely replaced ticlopidine, due to an association between ticlopidine and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura–hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP-HUS). Clopidogrel at first was thought to be void of this potentially fatal adverse effect, but recent case reports have called that assumption into question. Even with proper treatment (plasma exchange), TTP-HUS can persist for weeks. Clinicians should be aware of this possible adverse effect because prompt therapy is imperative for patients' survival. Earlier reports of clopidogrel-related TTP-HUS have involved patients who had received at least 72 hours of therapy. We describe a case of TTP-HUS in a patient who had received only a 300-mg loading dose of clopidogrel.
PMCID: PMC3886298  PMID: 15162901
clopidogrel; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; hemolytic uremic syndrome
4.  Low ADAMTS-13 in plavix induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) was first described in 1924 as a “pathologic alteration of the microvasculature, with detachment or swelling of the endothelium, amorphous material in the sub-endothelial space, and luminal platelet aggregation leading to compromise of the microcirculation”. Ticlopidine induced TTP has been highly associated with autoimmune induced reduction in ADAMTS-13 activity. These findings, to a lesser extent, have also been found in clopidogrel induced TTP. We report a case of clopidogrel associated TTP in a patient that presented with acute stroke, renal failure, and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction.
PMCID: PMC3845918  PMID: 24303458
Plavix; Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; Antiplatelet therapy
5.  Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura associated with Clopidogrel: a case report and review of the literature 
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is a life threatening, multisystem disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, neurological changes, renal failure, and fever. These signs and symptoms are thought to be caused by microthrombi, composed of agglutinated platelets and fibrin, which deposit in the arterioles and capillaries without mediation by an inflammatory process. TTP can occur in the first two weeks of initiation of Clopidogrel therapy. Early signs of TTP may be a skin reaction, which may precede the onset of TTP or it may be other type of purpura or neurological changes. We report the clinical and laboratory findings in a 67 years old female patient in whom TTP developed soon after treatment with 40 mg/day oral Clopidogrel after 8 days. She developed thrombocytopenia (platelets count 12000 /mm3). Her clinical signs and symptoms were fever (39.6C), bleeding from the nose and gum, large skin bruises (purpura and ecchymoses), neurological changes including hallucinations, bizarre behavior, altered mental status (fluctuating), headache, and renal dysfunction. Physicians should be aware of the possibility early onset of this syndrome when initiate Clopidogrel treatment.
PMCID: PMC3214346  PMID: 22091257
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP); Clopidogrel; plasma exchange
6.  Is clopidogrel superior to aspirin in secondary prevention of vascular disease? 
The cornerstone in clinical evidence of the relative efficacy of thienopyridines (clopidogrel, ticlopidine) versus aspirin in the secondary prevention of vascular disease is the Clopidogrel versus Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events trial. This trial showed a modest benefit in the reduction of vascular events by clopidogrel. The results differed according to qualifying disorder: myocardial infarction, -3.7%; ischaemic stroke, +7.3%; and peripheral arterial disease, +23.8% (P = 0.042). Similar results were found for ticlopidine after brain ischaemia. The safety of clopidogrel appears to be similar to that of aspirin and better than that of ticlopidine. However, the recent report of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in association with clopidogrel causes concern.
PMCID: PMC59615  PMID: 11714429
aspirin; cerebral ischaemia; clopidogrel; myocardial infarction; peripheral artery disease
7.  Antibody Inhibitors to von Willebrand Factor Metalloproteinase and Increased Binding of von Willebrand Factor to Platelets in Ticlopidine-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Annals of internal medicine  2000;132(10):794-799.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) affects 1 in 1600 to 1 in 5000 patients who receive ticlopidine, but little is known about the pathogenesis of this complication.
To investigate whether von Willebrand factor (vWF), which has been associated with idiopathic TTP, is involved in the pathogenesis of ticlopidine-associated TTP.
Case series.
Three tertiary care, university-affiliated medical centers.
Seven patients who developed TTP 2 to 7 weeks after initiation of ticlopidine therapy. Controls were 7 consecutive patients without thrombocytopenia who had been receiving ticlopidine for 3 to 5 weeks and 10 randomly selected hospitalized patients.
Platelet-bound vWF in patients’ EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples; vWF proteinase activity in patients’ plasma samples; inhibitory activity of IgG isolated from patients’ plasma samples against the proteinase from the controls’ plasma samples; and vWF multimeric patterns in patients’ EDTA-anticoagulated plasma samples.
Binding of vWF to single platelets was increased in the three patients tested during the most thrombocytopenic phase of TTP episodes. Initial plasma samples from all seven patients lacked the largest vWF multimers and were severely deficient in vWF metalloproteinase. IgG molecules, isolated from plasma samples of five patients, inhibited metalloproteinase in plasma samples from the controls. In patients examined, these abnormalities resolved upon the remission that accompanied plasma exchange and discontinuation of ticlopidine therapy.
In the patients who developed ticlopidine-associated TTP, autoantibodies to the vWF metalloproteinase were formed; this led to the same type of vWF abnormalities observed in patients with idiopathic acute TTP. The findings suggest that failure to process large and unusually large vWF multimers in vivo caused binding of vWF to platelets, systemic platelet thrombosis, and TTP.
PMCID: PMC3152977  PMID: 10819702
8.  Recurrent Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura-Like Syndrome as a Paraneoplastic Phenomenon in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
We report the case of an African American male with no significant past medical history presenting with recurrent, rapidly relapsing episodes of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) despite aggressive treatment with several lines of treatment. Incidentally, these episodes were associated with severe abdominal pain which eventually developed into acute abdomen and prompted exploratory laparotomy, revealing diffuse carcinomatosis with a tumor located on the left pelvis that was encasing the distal sigmoid colon. Pathology made a final diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma. TTP-like syndrome (TTP-LS) has been described as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in several malignancies but never before in the setting of malignant mesothelioma. Paraneoplastic TTP-like syndrome has historically been associated with a dismal prognosis and particular clinical and laboratory abnormalities described in this paper. It is of utmost importance to make a prompt determination whether TTP is idiopathic or secondary to an underlying condition because of significant differences in their prognosis, treatment, and response. This paper also reviews the current literature regarding this challenging condition.
PMCID: PMC3469074  PMID: 23082261
9.  Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with clopidogrel: report of two new cases 
Heart  2004;90(9):e57.
Clopidogrel has been reported to be safe and effective in reducing vascular events. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that clopidogrel may cause thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/haemolytic uraemic syndrome (TTP/HUS). This association has been debated, since in several cases alternative causes could not be excluded. Two new cases of TTP/HUS associated with clopidogrel are reported here. After discontinuation of clopidogrel and treatment with plasma exchange, both patients had a complete and sustained recovery from TTP/HUS. These cases corroborate previous observations that clopidogrel may indeed be a rare cause of TTP/HUS.
PMCID: PMC1768406  PMID: 15310726
platelet aggregation inhibitors; clopidogrel; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; haemolytic uraemic syndrome; adverse effects
10.  Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome 
A bisexual male presented with acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in association with established acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The patient had classic clinical and laboratory findings of TTP and responded well to plasmapheresis therapy. Previously reported cases of TTP in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are briefly reviewed. Basic concepts in the pathogenesis of TTP are examined in reference to HIV infection.
PMCID: PMC3307417  PMID: 22451762
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; Anemia; Human immunodeficiency virus; Thrombocytopenia; Thrombotic microangiopathy; Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
11.  Clinical features and prognostic factors of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with systemic lupus erythematosus: a literature review of 105 cases from 1999 to 2011 
Clinical Rheumatology  2013;33:419-427.
This study aims to review clinical features, treatments, and prognostic factors of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus patients (sTTP). The case reports of sTTP published in world literature from 1999 to 2011 were collected, and 105 cases were divided into death group and survival group. The epidemiologic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, treatments, and prognostic factors were analyzed. We found that coexistence of renal and neurological impairments were significantly frequent in the death group (100 %) than in the survival group (56.5 %) (P = 0.002). Type IV was predominant in 57.7 % of renal pathological damage, followed by type V (11.5 %), type II (5.8 %), and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) (5.8 %). TMA appeared more frequently (50 %) in the death group than in the survival group (6.25 %) (P = 0.042). End-stage renal disease occurred in nine cases with type IV in five (55.6 %), type TMA in one (11.1 %), and unspecified in three cases (33.3 %). Of 32 cases, 40.6 % showed severe ADAMTS13 deficiency and returned to normal or mildly deficient after remission. The total mortality rate of sTTP was 12.4 % and the mortality rate of patients with infection (27.3 %) was significantly higher than those without infection (8.4 %) (P = 0.028). Plasma exchange and glucocorticoids were administrated in over 80 % of cases with 65.7 % remission rate, while additional cytotoxics or rituximab was mostly used in refractory sTTP and achieved over 90 % of remission rate. Above all, coexistence of renal and neurological impairments, infection, and renal damage with type IV or TMA might denote a poor prognosis of sTTP.
PMCID: PMC3937538  PMID: 23954922
ADAMTS13; Infection; Prognostic factors; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
12.  Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura: How Close Is Close Enough? 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:267508.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an uncommon life-threatening disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, commonly associated with infections, malignancy, drugs, and autoimmune diseases. We report a case of 19-year-old previously healthy female that presents with anemia and thrombocytopenia diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura that was treated successfully with plasmapheresis and corticosteroids. Laboratory findings also revealed antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Two weeks after presentation developed inflammatory arthritis, fulfilling diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Prompt diagnosis and treatment with plasma exchange and corticosteroids should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis of TTP is suspected, even if other diagnoses, including lupus, are possible. When present, the coexistence of these two etiologies can have a higher mortality than either disease alone. An underlying diagnosis of SLE should be considered in all patients presenting TTP and the study of this association may provide a better understanding of their immune-mediated pathophysiology.
PMCID: PMC3099202  PMID: 21629797
13.  Hematologic dyscrasia associated with ticlopidine therapy: evidence for causality 
Several rare, potentially fatal types of hematologic dyscrasia, such as agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), have been associated with ticlopidine therapy. The extent to which ticlopidine is the causative factor has not been addressed quantitatively.
We identified 211 published case reports of hematologic dyscrasia associated with ticlopidine therapy from a MEDLINE search. We analyzed the 91 reports that could be evaluated, using the Bayesian Adverse Reaction Diagnostic Instrument to calculate the posterior probability that ticlopidine caused the hematologic dyscrasia based on epidemiologic and clinical trial data (prior odds) and case information (likelihood ratio).
The median posterior probability values (and range) for agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia and TTP were 0.95 (0.53–0.98), 0.81 (0.57–0.93), 0.86 (0.75–0.96), 0.78 (0.61–0.89), 0.74 (0–0.92) and 1.0 (0.33–1.00) respectively. The posterior probability was 0.75 or greater in 82 (90%) of the case reports.
This systematic analysis provides stronger evidence to implicate ticlopidine as the causative factor in the various types of hematologic dyscrasia in most published case reports.
PMCID: PMC80411  PMID: 11192649
14.  Acquired Idiopathic ADAMTS13 Activity Deficient Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Population from Japan 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33029.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Studies report that the majority of TTP patients present with a deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity. In a database of TMA patients in Japan identified between 1998 and 2008, 186 patients with first onset of acquired idiopathic (ai) ADAMTS13-deficient TTP (ADAMTS13 activity <5%) were diagnosed. The median age of onset of TTP in this group of patients was 54 years, 54.8% were female, 75.8% had renal involvement, 79.0% had neurologic symptoms, and 97.8% had detectable inhibitors to ADAMTS13 activity. Younger patients were less likely to present with renal or neurologic dysfunction (p<0.01), while older patients were more likely to die during the TTP hospitalization (p<0.05). Findings from this cohort in Japan differ from those reported previously from the United States, Europe, and Korea with respect to age at onset (two decades younger in the other cohort) and gender composition (60% to 100% female in the other cohort). We conclude that in one of the largest cohorts of ai-TTP with severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity reported to date, demographic characteristics differ in Japanese patients relative to those reported from a large Caucasian registry from Western societies. Additional studies exploring these findings are needed.
PMCID: PMC3299727  PMID: 22427934
15.  Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Gemcitabine 
Case Reports in Oncology  2011;4(1):143-148.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare and life-threatening complication of gemcitabine treatment. Since the approval of this nucleoside analog for the treatment of pancreatic cancer by the FDA in 1996, reported incidence varies from 0.015 to 1.4%. The classic ‘pentad’ describing the disease process (fever, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurological complications and renal impairment) is not always present to the same extent in every patient. Here, we present a rare case of TTP associated specifically with gemcitabine treatment, and further, we briefly discuss the manifestations, treatment options and outcomes related to the complication. In our opinion, it is important to realize that as the indications for the use of gemcitabine increase and its use becomes more widespread, TTP and other disorders on the spectrum of thrombotic microangiopathies are important considerations to remember in patients with worsening anemia and thrombocytopenia. New onset or exacerbation of underlying hypertension may provide a clue to diagnose the disease entity earlier in this subgroup of patients.
PMCID: PMC3114619  PMID: 21691573
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; Gemcitabine Non-small cell lung cancer
16.  A Case of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnostic Utility of ADAMTS-13 Activity 
Autoimmune Diseases  2011;2011:483642.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) caused by a deficiency in ADAMTS-13 activity is considered to involve a subset of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Although concept of TTP is included under the umbrella of TMA, discrimination of TTP from TMA is occasionally difficult in an autoimmune disorder. Herein, we report a case with TTP associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this case, it was difficult to discriminate TTP from TMA and the measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity was useful for obtaining an accurate diagnosis. SLE patients having thrombocytopenia in complication with anemia should be considered a monitoring of ADAMTS-13 activity even though the patients lacked symptoms of TTP related to the microvascular coagulation.
PMCID: PMC3138087  PMID: 21776377
17.  Subacute coronary stent thrombosis in a patient developing clopidogrel associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura 
Heart  2005;91(2):e14.
Clopidogrel, in combination with aspirin, is commonly used for the prevention of thrombosis in patients who have received coronary artery stents. As a rare but critical complication, clopidogrel associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has previously been described. A 78 year old man presented with unstable angina and filiform subtotal stenosis of the left anterior descending artery. He was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. After four days the patient again had angina caused by stent thrombosis, which was treated with balloon angioplasty. During hospital stay the typical course of clopidogrel associated TTP was observed with thrombocytopenia and petechial purpura occurring 14 days after drug initiation and prompt response to therapeutic plasma exchanges. These findings strongly suggest that clopidogrel may have increased platelet activation and aggregation in this immunologically susceptible patient, ultimately leading to a stent thrombosis.
PMCID: PMC1768676  PMID: 15657204
clopidogrel; stent; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
18.  Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with statin treatment 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2004;80(947):551-552.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare condition but associated with 90% mortality if left untreated. The diagnosis is usually made when there is thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, although the full pentad also includes fever, renal impairment, and neurological dysfunction. A variety of underlying causes have been implicated in acquired TTP including bacterial and viral infections, bone marrow and organ transplantation, pregnancy, immune disorders, and certain drugs. To date there is just one case report of TTP associated with statin treatment. The clinical course of a patient who presented with TTP after being started on simvastatin, a HMG-CoA inhibitor, is described.
PMCID: PMC1743097  PMID: 15356359
American journal of hematology  2010;85(11):844-847.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) represent multiple disorders with diverse etiologies. We compared the gender and race of 335 patients enrolled in the Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry across 21 years for their first episode of TTP or HUS to appropriate control groups. The relative frequency of women and white race among patients with TTP-HUS associated with a bloody diarrhea prodrome and the relative frequency of women with quinine-associated TTP-HUS were significantly greater than their control populations. The relative frequency of women and black race among patients with idiopathic TTP and TTP associated with severe ADAMTS13 deficiency was significantly greater than their control populations. The relative frequency of black race among patients who had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) preceding TTP was significantly greater than among a population of patients with SLE, and the relative frequency of black race among patients with other autoimmune disorders preceding TTP was significantly greater than their control population. No significant gender or race disparities were present among patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, TTP associated with pregnancy, or TTP associated with drugs other than quinine. The validity of these observations is supported by the enrollment of all consecutive patients across 21 years from a defined geographic region, without selection or referral bias. These observations of different gender and race disparities among the TTP-HUS syndromes suggest the presence of different risk factors and may serve as starting points for novel investigations of pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3420337  PMID: 20799358
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; hemolytic uremic syndrome; ADAMTS13; quinine; race disparities; gender disparities
20.  Efficacy and Safety Profile of Solvent/Detergent Plasma in the Treatment of Acute Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Single-Center Experience 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare clinical disorder which was associated with poor prognosis for a long time. The outcome has been improved by the consistent introduction of thera-peutic plasma exchange (TPE) as standard treatment of TTP.
Patients and Methods
We describe our experience in the use of solvent/detergent-treated plasma (SDP) for TPE in TTP. We retrospectively analyzed acute TTP epi-sodes in 8 patients (mean age = 27 years, range 18–44 years) treated with TPE using SDP with regard to tolerability and efficacy.
All 8 patients were positive for anti-ADAMTS-13 antibody. Seven out of 8 had a se-vere ADAMTS-13 deficiency. All patients responded rapidly to SDP TPE with an increase in platelet count to above 150 × 109/l. Hemolytic anemia disappeared over the treatment period. Approximately 2,000 l SDP were used for more than 500 treatments. Treatment with SDP was well tolerated; none of the patients experienced an adverse drug reaction after exposure to SDP. No major complications occurred even after multiple TPE.
Our investigations suggest that TPE using SDP as replacement fluid is an effective treatment for TTP. The data described also indicate that SDP might offer the benefit of reducing adverse drug reactions.
PMCID: PMC2914404  PMID: 20737012
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; TTP; Therapeutic plasma exchange; TPE; Solvent/detergent-treated plasma; SDP; ADAMTS-13
21.  A case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura induced by acute pancreatitis 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a multisystemic microvascular disorder that may be caused by an imbalance between unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers and the cleaving protease ADAMTS13. In acquired TTP, especially in secondary TTP with various underlying diseases, the diagnosis is difficult because there are many cases that do not exhibit severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 or raised levels of ADAMST13 inhibitors. It is well known that collagen disease, malignancy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be underlying conditions that induce TTP. However, TTP induced by acute pancreatitis, as experienced by our patient, has rarely been reported. Our patient completely recovered with treatments using steroids and plasma exchange (PE) only. In cases where patients develop acute pancreatitis with no apparent causes for hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, the possibility of TTP should be considered. Treatments for TTP including PE should be evaluated as soon as a diagnosis is made.
PMCID: PMC3333833  PMID: 22536085
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; ADAMTS13; acute pancreatitis; plasma exchange
22.  Management of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura with Autoantibodies to ADAMTS-13 and Concurrent Preeclampsia in Pregnancy: Multidisciplinary Team Approach 
AJP Reports  2012;2(1):37-38.
Background Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) can present with many laboratory features of preeclampsia, which can make an accurate diagnosis difficult in late pregnancy. Because the treatments of TTP and preeclampsia are different and the clinical sequelae of delayed therapy potentially lethal, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is important.
Case Report We present a case of an acute episode of TTP secondary to acquired autoantibodies complicated by severe preeclampsia with headache and treated with corticosteroids, plasma exchange therapy, magnesium sulfate, and delivery. The postpartum course was complicated and resulted in a prolonged hospital stay. A multidisciplinary team was recruited as consultants.
Conclusion Concurrent TTP and severe preeclampsia can result in life-threatening complications. To ensure the best possible clinical outcome, an awareness of the medical systems' resources is required.
PMCID: PMC3653518  PMID: 23946903
TTP; severe preeclampsia; multidisciplinary team; autoantibodies
23.  Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Medicine  2011;2011:953890.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, which may be accompanied by fever, renal, or neurologic abnormalities. Cases are divided into acute idiopathic TTP and secondary TTP. Autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, in association with TTP have been described so far in many patients. In contrast, TTP occurring in a patient with mixed connected tissue disease (MCTD) is extremely rare and has only been described in nine patients. We describe the case of a 42-year-old female with MCTD who developed thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, fever, and neurological symptoms. The patient had a good clinical evolution with infusion of high volume of fresh frozen plasma, steroid therapy, and support in an intensive care unit. Although the occurrence of TTP is rare in MCTD patients, it is important to recognize TTP as a cause of thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia in any patient with autoimmune diseases. Prompt institution of treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment of TTP even if plasma exchange is not available like what frequently happens in developing countries.
PMCID: PMC3170900  PMID: 21915182
24.  Splenectomy: Does it still play a role in the management of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura? 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2010;53(5):349-355.
Plasma exchange is first-line therapy for patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Splenectomy is often indicated for patients with relapsing or refractory disease. Concerns exist about its efficacy and safety in these patients. We describe a series of patients whose TTP was treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. We also reviewed the literature in order to describe the use and safety of splenectomy for refractory or relapsing TTP.
We reviewed the charts of consecutive patients with TTP referred for splenectomy and searched MEDLINE for studies describing outcomes following splenectomy for relapsing or refractory TTP.
In all, 5 patients were referred for relapsing TTP and underwent uneventful laparoscopic splenectomy. All 5 were in remission after more than 40 months of follow-up. We found 18 studies (87 patients) reporting the results of splenectomy for relapsing TTP and 15 studies (74 patients) involving patients who underwent splenectomy for refractory TTP. The aggregate complication (6% v. 10%) and mortality rates (1.2% v. 5%) were lower for patients who received treatment for relapsing versus refractory TTP. The rate of postsplenectomy relapse among patients with relapsing disease was 17%, whereas the nonresponse rate was 8% for patients with refractory TTP. There were no complications among the 22 laparoscopic cases reported.
Although the data supporting splenectomy for treatment of TTP are limited to case series with no control groups, they suggest that splenectomy is an option for patients with refractory or relapsing disease. When performed laparoscopically in patients with relapsing disease, splenectomy is associated with minimal morbidity and mortality.
PMCID: PMC2947115  PMID: 20858382
25.  Effect of Prophylactic Cyclosporine Therapy on ADAMTS13 Biomarkers in Patients with Idiopathic Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
American journal of hematology  2008;83(12):911-915.
Several reports have been published regarding the use of cyclosporine (CSA) in the treatment of idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We hypothesized that prophylactic CSA therapy may prevent recurrences in patients with a history of multiple relapses of TTP. Nineteen patients with idiopathic TTP were enrolled on prospective studies at Ohio State University between September 2003 and May 2007. Patients achieving remission remained on CSA therapy for 6 months, allowing us to evaluate the efficacy of CSA as prophylactic therapy. CSA was administered orally at a dose of 2–3 mg/kg in a twice a day divided dose in all patients and continued for a total of 6 months. Long-term clinical follow-up with serial analysis of ADAMTS13 biomarkers during and after CSA therapy were performed to evaluate the efficacy of CSA as a prophylactic therapy. 17/19(89%) patients completed 6 months of CSA therapy in a continuous remission. Two patients relapsed during therapy with CSA and 7 patients relapsed after discontinuing CSA therapy. Ten patients have maintained a continuous remission a median of 21 months (range, 5 to 46) after discontinuing CSA. The ADAMTS13 data suggest that CSA resulted in a significant increase in the ADAMTS13 activity during therapy with CSA. 8/9(89%) relapsing patients had severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (< 5%) suggesting this is a significant risk factor for relapse of TTP. These data support the hypothesis that prophylactic CSA improves the ADAMTS13 activity and may be effective at preventing relapses in patients at risk for recurrences of TTP.
PMCID: PMC2824143  PMID: 18821711
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; ADAMTS13; cyclosporine; relapse; prophylactic therapy

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