There are natural mutations in the coding and noncoding regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CC-chemokine coreceptor 5 (CCR5) and in the related CCR2 protein (the CCR2-64I mutation). Individuals homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32 allele, which prevents CCR5 expression, strongly resist HIV-1 infection. Several genetic polymorphisms have been identified within the CCR5 5′ regulatory region, some of which influence the rate of disease progression in adult AIDS study cohorts. We genotyped 1,442 infants (1,235 uninfected and 207 HIV-1 infected) for five CCR5 and CCR2 polymorphisms: CCR5-59353-T/C, CCR5-59356-C/T CCR5-59402-A/G, CCR5-Δ32, and CCR2-64I. The clinical significance of each genotype was assessed by measuring whether it influenced the rate of perinatal HIV-1 transmission among 667 AZT-untreated mother-infant pairs (554 uninfected and 113 HIV-1 infected). We found that the mutant CCR5-59356-T allele is relatively common in African-Americans (20.6% allele frequency among 552 infants) and rare in Caucasians and Hispanics (3.4 and 5.6% of 174 and 458 infants, respectively; P < 0.001). There were 38 infants homozygous for CCR5-59356-T, of whom 35 were African-Americans. Among the African-American infants in the AZT-untreated group, there was a highly significant increase in HIV-1 transmission to infants with two mutant CCR5-59356-T alleles (47.6% of 21), compared to those with no or one mutant allele (13.4 to 14.1% of 187 and 71, respectively; P < 0.001). The increased relative risk was 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 15.3; P < 0.001). The frequency of the CCR5-59356-T mutation varies between population groups in the United States, a low frequency occurring in Caucasians and a higher frequency occurring in African-Americans. Homozygosity for CCR5-59356-T is strongly associated with an increased rate of perinatal HIV-1 transmission.
The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells. In addition, some virus strains can use alternative chemokine receptors, including CCR2b and CCR3, for infection. A polymorphism in CCR2 (CCR2-V64I) is associated with a 2- to 4-year delay in the progression to AIDS. To investigate the mechanism of this protective effect, we studied the expression of CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I, their chemokine and HIV-1 coreceptor activities, and their effects on the expression and receptor activities of the major HIV-1 coreceptors. CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I were expressed at similar levels, and neither molecule affected the expression or coreceptor activity of CCR3, CCR5, or CXCR4 in cotransfected cell lines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CCR2-V64I heterozygotes had normal levels of CCR2b and CCR5 but slightly reduced levels of CXCR4. CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I functioned equally well as HIV-1 coreceptors, and CCR2-V64I PBMCs were permissive for HIV-1 infection regardless of viral tropism. The MCP-1-induced calcium mobilization mediated by CCR2b signaling was unaffected by the polymorphism, but MCP-1 signaling mediated by either CCR2b- or CCR2-V64I-encoded receptors resulted in heterologous desensitization (i.e., limiting the signal response of other receptors) of both CCR5 and CXCR4. The heterologous desensitization of CCR5 and CXCR4 signaling by both CCR2 allele receptor types provides a mechanistic link that might help explain the in vivo effects of CCR2 gene variants on progression to AIDS as well as the reported antiviral activity of natural CCR2 ligands.
A polymorphism in the gene encoding CCR2 is associated with a delay in progression to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The polymorphism, CCR2-64I, changes valine 64 of CCR2 to isoleucine. However, it is not clear whether the effect on AIDS progression results from the amino acid change or whether the polymorphism marks a genetically linked, yet unidentified mutation that mediates the effect. Because the gene encoding CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV type 1 primary isolates, lies 15 kb 3′ to CCR2, linked mutations in the CCR5 promoter or other regulatory sequences could explain the association of CCR2-64I with slowed AIDS pathogenesis. Here, we show that CCR2-64I is efficiently expressed on the cell surface but does not have dominant negative activity on CCR5 coreceptor function. A panel of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from uninfected donors representing the various CCR5/CCR2 genotypes was assembled. Activated primary CD4+ T cells of CCR2 64I/64I donors expressed cell surface CCR5 at levels comparable to those of CCR2 +/+ donors. A slight reduction in CCR5 expression was noted, although this was not statistically significant. CCR5 and CCR2 mRNA levels were nearly identical for each of the donor PBMC, regardless of genotype. Cell surface CCR5 and CCR2 levels were more variable than mRNA transcript levels, suggesting that an alternative mechanism may influence CCR5 cell surface levels. CCR2-64I is linked to the CCR5 promoter polymorphisms 208G, 303A, 627C, and 676A; however, in transfected promoter reporter constructs, these did not affect transcriptional activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that CCR2-64I does not act by influencing CCR5 transcription or mRNA levels.
Recent studies have identified several coreceptors that are required for fusion and entry of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) into CD4+ cells. One of these receptors, CCR5, serves as a coreceptor for nonsyncytium inducing (NSI), macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1, while another, fusin or CXCR-4, functions as a coreceptor for T cell line–adapted, syncytiuminducing (SI) strains. Using sequential primary isolates of HIV-1, we examined whether viruses using these coreceptors emerge in vivo and whether changes in coreceptor use are associated with disease progression. We found that isolates of HIV-1 from early in the course of infection predominantly used CCR5 for infection. However, in patients with disease progression, the virus expanded its coreceptor use to include CCR5, CCR3, CCR2b, and CXCR-4. Use of CXCR-4 as a coreceptor was only seen with primary viruses having an SI phenotype and was restricted by the env gene of the virus. The emergence of variants using this coreceptor was associated with a switch from NSI to SI phenotype, loss of sensitivity to chemokines, and decreasing CD4+ T cell counts. These results suggest that HIV-1 evolves during the course of infection to use an expanded range of coreceptors for infection, and that this adaptation is associated with progression to AIDS.
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, transmitted viruses generally use the CCR5 chemokine receptor as a coreceptor for host cell entry. In more than 50% of subtype B infections, a switch in coreceptor tropism from CCR5- to CXCR4-use occurs during disease progression. Phenotypic or genotypic approaches can be used to test for the presence of CXCR4-using viral variants in an individual’s viral population that would result in resistance to treatment with CCR5-antagonists. While genotyping approaches for coreceptor-tropism prediction in subtype B are well established and verified, they are less so for subtype C.
Here, using a dataset comprising V3 loop sequences from 349 CCR5-using and 56 CXCR4-using HIV-1 subtype C viruses we perform a comparative analysis of the predictive ability of 11 genotypic algorithms in their prediction of coreceptor tropism in subtype C. We calculate the sensitivity and specificity of each of the approaches as well as determining their overall accuracy. By separating the CXCR4-using viruses into CXCR4-exclusive (25 sequences) and dual-tropic (31 sequences) we evaluate the effect of the possible conflicting signal from dual-tropic viruses on the ability of a of the approaches to correctly predict coreceptor phenotype.
We determined that geno2pheno with a false positive rate of 5% is the best approach for predicting CXCR4-usage in subtype C sequences with an accuracy of 94% (89% sensitivity and 99% specificity). Contrary to what has been reported for subtype B, the optimal approaches for prediction of CXCR4-usage in sequence from viruses that use CXCR4 exclusively, also perform best at predicting CXCR4-use in dual-tropic viral variants.
The accuracy of genotyping approaches at correctly predicting the coreceptor usage of V3 sequences from subtype C viruses is very high. We suggest that genotyping approaches can be used to test for coreceptor tropism in HIV-1 group M subtype C with a high degree of confidence that they will identify CXCR4-usage in both CXCR4-exclusive and dual tropic variants.
Human immunodeficiency virus; Coreceptor; Chemokine receptors; CXCR4; CCR5; Genotype; Phenotype; Subtype C
The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a coreceptor with CD4 to permit infection by primary macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. The CCR5Δ32 mutation, which is associated with resistance to infection in homozygous individuals and delayed disease progression in heterozygous individuals, is rare in Africa, where the HIV-1 epidemic is growing rapidly. Several polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 have been identified, the clinical and functional relevance of which remain poorly defined. We evaluated the effect of 4 CCR5 promoter mutations on systemic and mucosal HIV-1 replication, disease progression, and perinatal transmission in a cohort of 276 HIV-1–seropositive women in Nairobi, Kenya. Mutations at positions 59353, 59402, and 59029 were not associated with effects on mortality, virus load, genital shedding, or transmission in this cohort. However, women with the 59356 C/T genotype had a 3.1-fold increased risk of death during the 2-year follow-up period (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–9.5) and a significant increase in vaginal shedding of HIV-1–infected cells (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.3), compared with women with the 59356 C/C genotype.
Individuals homozygous for a 32-bp deletion (delta 32) in the CCR5 gene encoding the coreceptor for macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are resistant to virus infection, and heterozygous individuals show some slowing of disease progression. The impact of the CCR5 genotype on HIV-1 infection was assessed in vitro and in the human PBL-SCID (hu-PBL-SCID) model. Cells and hu-PBL-SCID mice from CCR5 delta 32/delta 32 donors were resistant to infection with macrophage-tropic HIV-1 and showed slower replication of dual-tropic HIV-1. hu-PBL-SCID mice derived from CCR5 delta 32/+ heterozygotes showed delayed replication of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 despite a small and variable effect of heterozygosity on viral replication in vitro. The level of CCR5 expression appears to limit replication of macrophage-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains in vivo.
We used cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, a powerful in vivo measure of cell-mediated immunity, to evaluate the relationships among cell-mediated immunity, AIDS, and polymorphisms in CCR5, the HIV-1 coreceptor. There was high concordance between CCR5 polymorphisms and haplotype pairs that influenced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy persons and HIV disease progression. In the cohorts examined, CCR5 genotypes containing -2459G/G (HHA/HHA, HHA/HHC, HHC/HHC) or -2459A/A (HHE/HHE) associated with salutary or detrimental delayed-type hypersensitivity and AIDS phenotypes, respectively. Accordingly, the CCR5-Δ32 allele, when paired with non-Δ32-bearing haplotypes that correlate with low (HHA, HHC) versus high (HHE) CCR5 transcriptional activity, associates with disease retardation or acceleration, respectively. Thus, the associations of CCR5-Δ32 heterozygosity partly reflect the effect of the non-▵32 haplotype in a background of CCR5 haploinsufficiency. The correlations of increased delayed-type hypersensitivity with -2459G/G-containing CCR5 genotypes, reduced CCR5 expression, decreased viral replication, and disease retardation suggest that CCR5 may influence HIV infection and AIDS, at least in part, through effects on cell-mediated immunity.
Cervical cancer, caused by specific oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. A large number of young sexually active women get infected by HPV but only a small fraction of them have persistent infection and develop cervical cancer pointing to co- factors including host genetics that might play a role in outcome of the HPV infection. This study investigated the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer, pre-cancers and HPV infection in South African women resident in Western Cape. CCR2-V64I polymorphism has been previously reported to influence the progression to cervical cancer in some populations and has also been associated with decreased progression from HIV infection to AIDS.
Genotyping for CCR2-V64I was done by PCR-SSP in a case-control study of 446 women (106 black African and 340 mixed-ancestry) with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer and 1432 controls (322 black African and 1110 mixed-ancestry) group-matched (1:3) by age, ethnicity and domicile status. In the control women HPV was detected using the Digene Hybrid Capture II test and cervical disease was detected by cervical cytology.
The CCR2-64I variant was significantly associated with cervical cancer when cases were compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Further analysis comparing selected groups within the controls showed that individuals with abnormal cytology and high grade squamous intraepitleial neoplasia (HSIL) did not have this association when compared to women with normal cytology. HPV infection also showed no association with CCR2-64I variant. Comparing SIL positive controls with the cases showed a significant association of CCR2-64I variant (P = 0.001) with cervical cancer.
This is the first study of the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer in an African population. Our results show that CCR2-64I variant is associated with the risk of cervical cancer but does not affect the susceptibility to HPV infection or HSIL in South African women of black and mixed-ancestry origin. This result implies that the role of CCR2 is important in invasive cancer of the cervix but not in HPV infection or in the development of pre-cancers.
To initiate infection, HIV-1 requires a primary receptor, CD4, and a secondary receptor, principally the chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Coreceptor usage plays a critical role in HIV-1 disease progression. HIV-1 transmitted in vivo generally uses CCR5 (R5), but later CXCR4 (X4) strains may emerge; this shift heralds CD4+ cell depletion and clinical deterioration. We asked whether antiretroviral therapy can shift HIV-1 populations back to R5 viruses after X4 strains have emerged, in part because treatment has been successful in slowing disease progression without uniformly suppressing plasma viremia. We analyzed the coreceptor usage of serial primary isolates from 15 women with advanced disease who demonstrated X4 viruses. Coreceptor usage was determined by using a HOS-CD4+ cell system, biological and molecular cloning, and sequencing the envelope gene V3 region. By constructing a mathematical model to measure the proportion of virus in a specimen using each coreceptor, we demonstrated that the predominant viral population shifted from X4 at baseline to R5 strains after treatment. Multivariate analyses showed that the shift was independent of changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA level and CD4+ cell count. Hence, combination therapy may lead to a change in phenotypic character as well as in the quantity of HIV-1. Shifts in coreceptor usage may thereby contribute to the clinical efficacy of anti-HIV drugs.
CCR5Δ32 is a loss-of-function mutation that abolishes cell surface expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptor CCR5 and provides genetic resistance to HIV infection and disease progression. Since CXCR4 and other HIV coreceptors also exist, we hypothesized that CCR5Δ32-mediated resistance may be due not only to the loss of CCR5 function but also to a gain-of-function mechanism, specifically the active inhibition of alternative coreceptors by the mutant CCR5Δ32 protein. Here we demonstrate that efficient expression of the CCR5Δ32 protein in primary CD4+ cells by use of a recombinant adenovirus (Ad5/Δ32) was able to down-regulate surface expression of both wild-type CCR5 and CXCR4 and to confer broad resistance to R5, R5X4, and X4 HIV type 1 (HIV-1). This may be important clinically, since we found that CD4+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who were homozygous for CCR5Δ32, which expressed the mutant protein endogenously, consistently expressed lower levels of CXCR4 and showed less susceptibility to X4 HIV-1 isolates than cells from individuals lacking the mutation. Moreover, CD4+ cells from individuals who were homozygous for CCR5Δ32 expressed the mutant protein in five of five HIV-exposed, uninfected donors tested but not in either of two HIV-infected donors tested. The mechanism of inhibition may involve direct scavenging, since we were able to observe a direct interaction of CCR5 and CXCR4 with CCR5Δ32, both by genetic criteria using the yeast two-hybrid system and by biochemical criteria using the coimmunoprecipitation of heterodimers. Thus, these results suggest that at least two distinct mechanisms may account for genetic resistance to HIV conferred by CCR5Δ32: the loss of wild-type CCR5 surface expression and the generation of CCR5Δ32 protein, which functions as a scavenger of both CCR5 and CXCR4.
The correlation among the presence of a 32-bp deletion in the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene, disease progression, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses was analyzed for a cohort of 79 Caucasian HIV-1-infected patients. The CCR5 genotype (CCR5/CCR5 = wild type/wild type or Δ32CCR5/CCR5 = 32-bp deletion/wild type) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by PCR, followed by sequencing of both wild-type and Δ32CCR5 gene fragments. HIV-1-specific humoral responses to gp41 and V3MN peptides were determined by enzyme immunoassays. The prevalence of the Δ32CCR5 allele was lower among 37 patients with rapid progression (progression to AIDS or to a CD4 cell count of <200 × 106/liter in less than 9 years; P < 0.01) compared to that for 42 patients with slow progression (no AIDS and CD4 cell count of >200 × 106/liter after at least 9 years from infection) or to that for 25 non-HIV-1-infected Swedish blood donors (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the wild-type CCR5 sequences between the different groups of patients. For three analyzed patients, the 32-bp Δ32CCR5 gene deletions were identical. The antibody titers against gp41 and a V3MN peptide in patients with the Δ32CCR5/CCR5 genotype were not significantly different from those in pair-matched CCR5/CCR5 controls. However, in 13 analyzed patients, a stronger serum neutralizing activity was associated with the Δ32CCR5/CCR5 genotype. Thus, a CCR5/CCR5 genotype correlates with a shortened AIDS-free HIV-1 infection period and possibly with a worse neutralizing activity, without an evident influence on the antibody response to two major antigenic regions of HIV-1 envelope.
We studied the distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in CCR5-positive and -negative peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in HIV-1-infected individuals. While HIV-1 DNA in the CCR5-positive population showed no correlation with CD4 count, the increase of total HIV-1 DNA with lower CD4 count was mainly contributed by the increase of HIV-1 DNA in the CCR5-negative population. This might indicate the change in coreceptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4 in later stages of disease progression. However, some of the samples with a high viral DNA load in the CCR5-negative population did not have any characteristic of the V3 loop sequence that is compatible with CXCR4 usage or the syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype. We also did not find any known characteristic change predictive of the SI phenotype in V1 and V2 sequences. Our findings showed that there might be a shift in target cell populations during disease progression, and this shift was not necessarily associated with the genetic changes characteristic of CXCR4 usage.
CCR5 expression determines susceptibility to infection, cell tropism, and the rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression. CCR5 is also considered the major HIV-2 coreceptor in vivo, in spite of broad coreceptor use in vitro. Here we report a significantly increased proportion of memory-effector CD4 T cells expressing CCR5 in HIV-2-infected patients correlating with CD4 depletion. Moreover, HIV-2 proviral DNA was essentially restricted to memory-effector CD4, suggesting that this is the main target for HIV-2. Similar levels of proviral DNA were found in the two infection categories. Thus, the reduced viremia and slow rate of CD4 decline that characterize HIV-2 infection seem to be unrelated to coreceptor availability.
The human CCR5 chemokine receptor functions as a coreceptor with
CD4 for infection by macrophage-tropic isolates of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A mutated CCR5 allele which
encodes a protein that does not function as a coreceptor for HIV-1 has
been identified. Thus, expression of the wild-type and/or mutation
allele is relevant to determining the infectibility of patient
peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and affects disease
progression in vivo. We developed a qualitative CCR5 genotyping assay
using NASBA, an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The
method involves three enzymes and two oligonucleotides and targets the
CCR5 mRNA, which is expressed in PBMC at a copy number higher than 2,
the number of copies of DNA present encoding the gene. The single
oligonucleotide set amplifies both alleles, and genotyping is achieved
by separate hybridizations of wild-type- and mutation-specific probes
directly to the single-stranded RNA amplification product. Assay
sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated with RNAs produced in
vitro from plasmid clones bearing the DNA encoding each allele. No
detectable cross-reactivity between wild-type and mutation probes was
found, and 50 copies of each allele were readily detectable. Analysis
of patient samples found that 20% were heterozygous and 1% were
homozygous for the CCR5 mutation. Thus, NASBA is a sensitive and
specific means of rapidly determining CCR5 genotype and provides
several technical advantages over alternative assay systems.
The human gene for CC chemokine receptor 5, a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), affects susceptibility to infection. Most studies of predominantly male cohorts found that individuals carrying a homozygous deleted form of the gene, Δ32, were protected against transmission, but protection did not extend to Δ32 heterozygotes. The role played by this mutation in HIV-1 transmission to women was studied in 2605 participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The Δ32 gene frequency was 0.026 for HIV-1–seropositive women and 0.040 for HIV-1–seronegative women, and statistical analyses showed that Δ32 heterozygotes were significantly less likely to be infected (odds ratio, 0.63 [95% confidence interval, 0.44–0.90]). The CCR5 Δ32 heterozygous genotype may confer partial protection against HIV-1 infection in women. Because Δ32 is rare in Africans and Asians, it seems plausible that differential genetic susceptibility, in addition to social and behavioral factors, may contribute to the rapid heterosexual spread of HIV-1 in Africa and Asia.
Chromosome 3p21–22 harbors two clusters of chemokine receptor genes, several of which serve as major or minor coreceptors of HIV-1. Although the genetic association of CCR5 and CCR2 variants with HIV-1 pathogenesis is well known, the role of variation in other nearby chemokine receptor genes remain unresolved. We genotyped exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chemokine receptor genes: CCR3, CCRL2, and CXCR6 (at 3p21) and CCR8 and CX3CR1 (at 3p22), the majority of which were non-synonymous. The individual SNPs were tested for their effects on disease progression and outcomes in five treatment-naïve HIV-1/AIDS natural history cohorts. In addition to the known CCR5 and CCR2 associations, significant associations were identified for CCR3, CCR8, and CCRL2 on progression to AIDS. A multivariate survival analysis pointed to a previously undetected association of a non-conservative amino acid change F167Y in CCRL2 with AIDS progression: 167F is associated with accelerated progression to AIDS (RH = 1.90, P = 0.002, corrected). Further analysis indicated that CCRL2-167F was specifically associated with more rapid development of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (RH = 2.84, 95% CI 1.28–6.31) among four major AIDS–defining conditions. Considering the newly defined role of CCRL2 in lung dendritic cell trafficking, this atypical chemokine receptor may affect PCP through immune regulation and inducing inflammation.
Human chemokine receptors are cell surface proteins that may be utilized by HIV-1 for entry into host cells. DNA variation in the HIV-1 major coreceptor CCR5 affects HIV-1 infection and progression. This study comprehensively assesses the role of genetic variation of multiple chemokine receptor genes clustered in the chromosome 3p21 and 3p22 on HIV-1 disease outcomes in HIV-1 natural history cohorts. The multivariate survival analyses identified functional variants that altered disease progression rate in CCRL2, CCR3, and CCR8. CCRL2-F167Y affects the rate to AIDS development through a specific protection against pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a common AIDS–defining condition. Our study identified this atypical chemokine receptor CCRL2 as a key factor involved in PCP, possibly through inducing inflammation in the lung.
CCR5 serves as a requisite fusion coreceptor for clinically relevant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and provides a promising target for antiviral therapy. However, no study to date has examined whether monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, or other nonchemokine agents possess broad-spectrum activity against the major genetic subtypes of HIV-1. PRO 140 (PA14) is an anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody that potently inhibits HIV-1 entry at concentrations that do not affect CCR5's chemokine receptor activity. In this study, PRO 140 was tested against a panel of primary HIV-1 isolates selected for their genotypic and geographic diversity. In quantitative assays of viral infectivity, PRO 140 was compared with RANTES, a natural CCR5 ligand that can inhibit HIV-1 entry by receptor downregulation as well as receptor blockade. Despite their divergent mechanisms of action and binding epitopes on CCR5, low nanomolar concentrations of both PRO 140 and RANTES inhibited infection of primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by all CCR5-using (R5) viruses tested. This is consistent with there being a highly restricted pattern of CCR5 usage by R5 viruses. In addition, a panel of 25 subtype C South African R5 viruses were broadly inhibited by PRO 140, RANTES, and TAK-779, although ∼30-fold-higher concentrations of the last compound were required. Interestingly, significant inhibition of a dualtropic subtype C virus was also observed. Whereas PRO 140 potently inhibited HIV-1 replication in both PBMC and primary macrophages, RANTES exhibited limited antiviral activity in macrophage cultures. Thus CCR5-targeting agents such as PRO 140 can demonstrate potent and genetic-subtype-independent anti-HIV-1 activity.
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B, CXCR4 coreceptor use ranges from ∼20% in early infection to ∼50% in advanced disease. Coreceptor use by non-subtype B HIV is less well characterized. We studied coreceptor tropism of subtype A and D HIV-1 collected from 68 pregnant, antiretroviral drug-naive Ugandan women (HIVNET 012 trial). None of 33 subtype A or 10 A/D-recombinant viruses used the CXCR4 coreceptor. In contrast, nine (36%) of 25 subtype D viruses used both CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors. Clonal analyses of the nine subtype D samples with dual or mixed tropism revealed heterogeneous viral populations comprised of X4-, R5-, and dual-tropic HIV-1 variants. In five of the six samples with dual-tropic strains, V3 loop sequences of dual-tropic clones were identical to those of cocirculating R5-tropic clones, indicating the presence of CXCR4 tropism determinants outside of the V3 loop. These dual-tropic variants with R5-tropic-like V3 loops, which we designated “dual-R,” use CCR5 much more efficiently than CXCR4, in contrast to dual-tropic clones with X4-tropic-like V3 loops (“dual-X”). These observations have implications for pathogenesis and treatment of subtype D-infected individuals, for the association between V3 sequence and coreceptor tropism phenotype, and for understanding potential mechanisms of evolution from exclusive CCR5 use to efficient CXCR4 use by subtype D HIV-1.
Inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by blocking the host cell coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 is an emerging strategy for antiretroviral therapy. Currently, several novel coreceptor inhibitors are being developed in the clinic, and early results have proven promising. In this report, we describe a novel CCR5 antagonist, vicriviroc (formerly SCH-D or SCH 417690), with improved antiviral activity and pharmacokinetic properties compared to those of SCH-C, a previously described CCR5 antagonist. Like SCH-C, vicriviroc binds specifically to the CCR5 receptor and prevents infection of target cells by CCR5-tropic HIV-1 isolates. In antiviral assays, vicriviroc showed potent, broad-spectrum activity against genetically diverse and drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates and was consistently more active than SCH-C in inhibiting viral replication. This compound demonstrated synergistic anti-HIV activity in combination with drugs from all other classes of approved antiretrovirals. Competition binding assays revealed that vicriviroc binds with higher affinity to CCR5 than SCH-C. Functional assays, including inhibition of calcium flux, guanosine 5′-[35S]triphosphate exchange, and chemotaxis, confirmed that vicriviroc acts as a receptor antagonist by inhibiting signaling of CCR5 by chemokines. Finally, vicriviroc demonstrated diminished affinity for the human ether a-go-go related gene transcript ion channel compared to SCH-C, suggesting a reduced potential for cardiac effects. Vicriviroc represents a promising new candidate for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Treatment of HIV-1 infection has produced dramatic success for many patients. Nevertheless, viral resistance continues to limit the efficacy of currently available agents in many patients. The CCR5 antagonists are a new class of antiretroviral agents that target a necessary coreceptor for viral entry of many strains of HIV-1. Recently, the first agent within this class, maraviroc, was approved by a number of regulatory agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration. Herein we review the role of the CCR5 receptor in HIV-1 infection and potential methods to target it in anti-HIV-1 therapy. We review the various categories of agents and discuss specific agents that have progressed to clinical study. We discuss in detail the recently approved, first in class CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc, and discuss aspects of resistance to CCR5 antagonism and the potential role of CCR5 antagonism in the management of HIV-1 infection.
CCR5; HIV-1 tropism; coreceptor; maraviroc; viral entry; chemokine receptor
The mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of a man (VH) homozygous for the CCR5Δ32 mutation were investigated, and coreceptors other than CCR5 used by HIV type 1 (HIV-1) isolated from this individual were identified. In contrast to previous reports, this individual's rate of disease progression was not accelerated. Homozygosity for CCR5Δ32 mutation was demonstrated by PCR and DNA sequencing (R. Biti et al., Nat. Med. 3:252-253, 1997). CCR5 surface expression was absent on T lymphocytes and macrophages. HIV was isolated by coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from siblings who were homozygous (VM) or wild type (WT) for the CCR5Δ32 mutation. The virus demonstrated dual tropism for infection of MT2 cell line and primary macrophages. Sequencing of the full HIV genome directly from the patient's PBMCs revealed 21 nucleotide insertions in the V1 region of gp120. The VH envelope sequence segregated apart from both the T-cell-line-adapted tropic strains NL4-3 and SF2 and M-tropic strain JRFL or YU2 by phylogenetic tree analysis. VH was shown to utilize predominantly CXCR4 for entry into T lymphocytes and macrophages by HOS.CD4 cell infection assay, direct envelope protein fusion, and inhibition by anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (12G5), SDF-1, and AMD3100. Microsatellite mapping demonstrated the separate inheritance of CXCR4 by both homozygote brothers (VH and VM). Our study demonstrates the ability of certain strains of HIV to readily use CXCR4 for infection or entry into macrophages, which is highly relevant to the pathogenesis of late-stage disease and presumably also HIV transmission.
Factors accounting for long-term nonprogression may include infection with an attenuated strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), genetic polymorphisms in the host, and virus-specific immune responses. In this study, we examined eight individuals with nonprogressing or slowly progressing HIV-1 infection, none of whom were homozygous for host-specific polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF-1-3′A) which have been associated with slower disease progression. HIV-1 was recovered from seven of the eight, and recovered virus was used for sequencing the full-length HIV-1 genome; full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from the eighth were determined following amplification of viral sequences directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Longitudinal studies of one individual with HIV-1 that consistently exhibited a slow/low growth phenotype revealed a single amino acid deletion in a conserved region of the gp41 transmembrane protein that was not seen in any of 131 envelope sequences in the Los Alamos HIV-1 sequence database. Genetic analysis also revealed that five of the eight individuals harbored HIV-1 with unusual 1- or 2-amino-acid deletions in the Gag sequence compared to subgroup B Gag consensus sequences. These deletions in Gag have either never been observed previously or are extremely rare in the database. Three individuals had deletions in Nef, and one had a 4-amino-acid insertion in Vpu. The unusual polymorphisms in Gag, Env, and Nef described here were also found in stored PBMC samples taken 3 to 11 years prior to, or in one case 4 years subsequent to, the time of sampling for the original sequencing. In all, seven of the eight individuals exhibited one or more unusual polymorphisms; a total of 13 unusual polymorphisms were documented in these seven individuals. These polymorphisms may have been present from the time of initial infection or may have appeared in response to immune surveillance or other selective pressures. Our results indicate that unusual, difficult-to-revert polymorphisms in HIV-1 can be found associated with slow progression or nonprogression in a majority of such cases.
Earlier studies have supported a significant role for cocaine in the susceptibility to and the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, several unique HIV-1 entry coreceptors (e.g., CCR5 and CCR3) and a trio of HIV-1-specific suppressor chemokines, namely, RANTES (regulated-upon-activation T expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β, were identified. Although cocaine has been linked to the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, the corresponding cellular and molecular mechanism(s) have not been well defined. We hypothesize that cocaine mediates these pathologic effects through the downregulation of HIV-1-suppressing chemokines and/or upregulating HIV-1 entry coreceptors in HIV-1-infected subjects, resulting in disease progression to AIDS. Our results show that cocaine selectively downregulates endogenous MIP-1β secretion by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), while cocaine did not affect the MIP-1β production by PBMC from AIDS patients. Cocaine also selectively suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced MIP-1β production by PBMC from HIV-infected patients. Further, cocaine significantly downregulates endogenous MIP-1β gene expression, while it upregulates HIV-1 entry coreceptor CCR5 by normal PBMC. These studies suggests a role for cocaine as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and support the premise that cocaine increases susceptibility to and progression of HIV-1 infection by inhibiting the synthesis of HIV-1 protective chemokines and/or upregulating the HIV-1 entry coreceptor, CCR5.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires, in addition to CD4, coreceptors of the CC or CXC chemokine families for productive infection of T cells and cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Based on the hypothesis that coreceptor expression on alveolar macrophages (AM) may influence HIV-1 infection of AM in the lung, this study analyzes the expression and utilization of HIV-1 coreceptors on AM of healthy individuals. AM were productively infected with five different primary isolates of HIV-1. Levels of surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and CD4 were low compared to those of blood monocytes, but CCR3 was not detectable. mRNA for CCR5, CXCR4, CCR2, and CCR3 were all detectable, but to varying degrees and with variability among donors. Expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR2 mRNA was downregulated following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, secretion of the chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β was upregulated with LPS stimulation. Interestingly, HIV-1 replication was diminished following LPS stimulation. Infection of AM with HIV-1 in the presence of the CC chemokines demonstrated blocking of infection. Together, these studies demonstrate that AM can be infected by a variety of primary HIV-1 isolates, AM express a variety of chemokine receptors, the dominant coreceptor used for HIV entry into AM is CCR5, the expression of these receptors is dependent on the state of activation of AM, and the ability of HIV-1 to infect AM may be modulated by expression of the chemokine receptors and by chemokines per se.