Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is one of the more common generalised skeletal dysplasias. Due to its clinical heterogeneity diagnosis may be difficult. Mutations of at least six separate genes can cause MED. Joint deformities, joint pain and gait disorders are common symptoms.
We report on a 27-year-old male patient suffering from clinical symptoms of autosomal recessive MED with habitual dislocation of a multilayered patella on both sides, on the surgical treatment and on short-term clinical outcome. Clinical findings were: bilateral hip and knee pain, instability of femorotibial and patellofemoral joints with habitual patella dislocation on both sides, contractures of hip, elbow and second metacarpophalangeal joints. Main radiographic findings were: bilateral dislocated multilayered patella, dysplastic medial tibial plateaus, deformity of both femoral heads and osteoarthritis of the hip joints, and deformity of both radial heads. In the molecular genetic analysis, the DTDST mutation g.1984T > A (p.C653S) was found at the homozygote state. Carrier status was confirmed in the DNA of the patient's parents. The mutation could be considered to be the reason for the patient's disease. Surgical treatment of habitual patella dislocation with medialisation of the tibial tuberosity led to an excellent clinical outcome.
The knowledge of different phenotypes of skeletal dysplasias helps to select genes for genetic analysis. Compared to other DTDST mutations, this is a rather mild phenotype. Molecular diagnosis is important for genetic counselling and for an accurate prognosis. Even in case of a multilayered patella in MED, habitual patella dislocation could be managed successfully by medialisation of the tibial tuberosity.
A retrospective study was performed on the use of bioabsorbable pins in the fixation of osteochondral fractures (OCFs) after traumatic patellar dislocation in children. Eighteen children (13 females, 5 males) aged 11 to 15 years (mean age 13.1 years) with osteochondral fracture (OCF) of the knee joint were treated at the authors' institution. Followup ranged from 22 months to 5 years. Diagnosis was verified by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee and patella. In seven patients the osteochondral fragment was detached from the patella and in 11 it was detached from the lateral femoral condyle. All patients were subjected to open reduction and fixation of the lesion with bioabsorbable pins. Postoperatively, the knee was immobilized in a cast and all patients were mobilized applying a standardized protocol. Bone consolidation was successful in 17 of the 18 patients. Bioabsorbable pins reliably fix OCF in children and adolescents, demonstrating a high incidence of consolidation of the detached osteochondral fragment in short- and middle-term followup without requiring further operative procedures.
Many surgical techniques, including microfracture, periosteal and perichondral grafts, chondrocyte transplantation, and osteochondral grafts, have been studied in an attempt to restore damaged articular cartilage. However, there is no consensus regarding the best method to repair isolated articular cartilage defects of the knee.
We compared postoperative functional outcomes, followup MRI appearance, and arthroscopic examination after microfracture (MF), osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT), or autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI).
We prospectively investigated 30 knees with MF, 22 with OAT, and 18 with ACI. Minimum followup was 3 years (mean, 5 years; range, 3–10 years). We included only patients with isolated cartilage defects and without other knee injuries. The three procedures were compared in terms of function using the Lysholm knee evaluation scale, Tegner activity scale, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score; modified Outerbridge cartilage grades using MRI; and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) repair grade using arthroscopy.
All three procedures showed improvement in functional scores. There were no differences in functional scores and postoperative MRI grades among the groups. Arthroscopy at 1 year showed excellent or good results in 80% after MF, 82% after OAT, and 80% after ACI. Our study did not show a clear benefit of either ACI or OAT over MF.
Owing to a lack of superiority of any one treatment, we believe MF is a reasonable option as a first-line therapy given its ease and affordability relative to ACI or OAT.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The clamshell fracture of the femoral head and its arthroscopic osteosynthesis are described. This suprafoveal osteochondral fracture may have folded onto itself during closed reduction of the associated anterior hip dislocation. The resultant fracture fragment had almost circumferential chondral coverage that required arthroscopic manipulation to “pry apart the clamshell,” permitting arthroscopic reduction. This patient also had pre-existing silent femoroacetabular impingement, and the novel use of arthroscopic acetabuloplasty permitted internal fixation by improving the path for headless screw fixation. The arthroscopic techniques and clinical outcome at greater than 2 years are presented. Albeit rare, the clamshell fracture configuration should be recognized and may be amenable to successful arthroscopic osteosynthesis. Of broader clinical impact and application, adjunctive acetabuloplasty may permit the successful osteosynthesis of select femoral head fractures in patients with concurrent acetabular overcoverage by completely arthroscopic techniques that engage both the fracture fragment and the attractive benefits of less invasive surgery.
Lateral Patella dislocations are common injuries seen in the active and young adult populations. Our study focus was to evaluate medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) injury patterns and associated knee pathology using Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies.
MRI studies taken at one imaging site between January, 2007 to January, 2008 with the final diagnosis of patella dislocation were screened for this study. Of the 324 cases that were found, 195 patients with lateral patellar dislocation traumatic enough to cause bone bruises on the lateral femoral trochlea and the medial facet of the patella were selected for this study. The MRI images were reviewed by three independent observers for location and type of MPFL injury, osteochondral defects, loose bodies, MCL and meniscus tears. The data was analyzed as a single cohort and by gender.
This study consisted of 127 males and 68 females; mean age of 23 yrs. Tear of the MPFL at the patellar attachment occurred in 93/195 knees (47%), at the femoral attachment in 50/195 knees (26%), and at both the femoral and patella attachment sites in 26/195 knees (13%). Attenuation of the MPFL without rupture occurred in 26/195 knees (13%). Associated findings included loose bodies in 23/195 (13%), meniscus tears 41/195 (21%), patella avulsion/fracture in 14/195 (7%), medial collateral ligament sprains/tears in 37/195 (19%) and osteochondral lesions in 96/195 knees (49%). Statistical analysis showed females had significantly more associated meniscus tears than the males (27% vs. 17%, p = 0.04). Although not statistically significant, osteochondral lesions were seen more in male patients with acute patella dislocation (52% vs. 42%, p = 0.08).
Patients who present with lateral patella dislocation with the classic bone bruise pattern seen on MRI will likely rupture the MPFL at the patellar side. Females are more likely to have an associated meniscal tear than males; however, more males have underlying osteochondral lesions. Given the high percentage of associated pathology, we recommend a MRI of the knee in all patients who present with acute patella dislocation.
Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee primarily affects subchondral bone, with a secondary effect on the overlying articular cartilage. This process can lead to pain, effusions, and loose body formation. While stable juvenile lesions often respond well to nonoperative management, unstable juvenile lesions, as well as symptomatic adult lesions, often require operative intervention. Short-term goals focus on symptomatic relief, while long-term expectations include the hope of preventing early-onset arthritis. Surgical options include debridement, loose body removal, microfracture, arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation, subchondral drilling, osteochondral autograft or allograft transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Newer single-stage cell-based procedures have also been developed, utilizing mesenchymal stem cells and matrix augmentation. Proper treatment requires evaluation of both lesional (size, depth, stability) and patient (age, athletic level) characteristics.
Osteochondritis dissecans; Knee; Microfracture; Osteochondral autologous transplant; Drilling; Internal fixation; Allograft; Autologous chondrocyte implantation; Loose body; Surgical treatment; Cartilage
Young patients with cartilage defects in the hip present a complex problem for the treating physician with limited treatment modalities available. Cartilage repair/replacement techniques have shown promising results in other joints, however, the literature regarding the hip joint is limited. The purpose of the current study is to conduct a systematic review of clinical outcomes following various treatments for chondral lesions of the hip and define the techniques for the treatment of these cartilage defects. The full manuscripts of 15 studies were reviewed for this systematic review including case studies, case series, and clinical studies. A variety of techniques have been reported for the treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in the hip. Microfracture, cartilage repair, autologous chondrocyte implantation, mosaicplasty, and osteochondral allografting have all been used in very limited case series. Although good results have been reported, most studies lack both a control group and a large number of patients. However, the reported results in this article do provide a good foundation for treatments and stimulant for further study in an inherently difficult to treat young patient population with articular cartilage defects in the hip.
Hip; Cartilage; Sports; Musculoskeletal; Operative treatment
The aim of this study was to evaluate subsidence tendency, surface congruency, chondrocyte survival and plug incorporation after osteochondral transplantation in an animal model. The potential benefit of precise seating of the transplanted osteochondral plug on the recipient subchondral host bone (‘bottoming’) on these parameters was assessed in particular.
In 18 goats, two osteochondral autografts were harvested from the trochlea of the ipsilateral knee joint and inserted press-fit in a standardized articular cartilage defect in the medial femoral condyle. In half of the goats, the transplanted plugs were matched exactly to the depth of the recipient hole (bottomed plugs; n = 9), whereas in the other half of the goats, a gap of 2 mm was left between the plugs and the recipient bottom (unbottomed plugs; n = 9). After 6 weeks, all transplants were evaluated on gross morphology, subsidence, histology, and chondrocyte vitality.
The macroscopic morphology scored significantly higher for surface congruency in bottomed plugs as compared to unbottomed reconstructions (P = 0.04). However, no differences in histological subsidence scoring between bottomed and unbottomed plugs were found. The transplanted articular cartilage of both bottomed and unbottomed plugs was vital. Only at the edges some matrix destaining, chondrocyte death and cluster formation was observed. At the subchondral bone level, active remodeling occurred, whereas integration at the cartilaginous surface of the osteochondral plugs failed to occur. Subchondral cysts were found in both groups.
In this animal model, subsidence tendency was significantly lower after ‘bottomed’ versus ‘unbottomed’ osteochondral transplants on gross appearance, whereas for histological scoring no significant differences were encountered. Since the clinical outcome may be negatively influenced by subsidence, the use of ‘bottomed’ grafts is recommended for osteochondral transplantation in patients.
Autologous osteochondral transplantation; Osteochondral defect; Cartilage repair; Cartilage defect; Histology
Osteochondral defects (OCDs) of the talus are a common cause of residual pain after ankle injuries. When conservative treatment fails, arthroscopic debridement combined with drilling/microfracturing of the lesion (bone marrow stimulation [BMS] procedures) has been shown to provide good to excellent outcomes. Not uncommonly, talar OCDs involve the borders of the talar dome. These uncontained lesions are sometimes difficult to visualize with the 30° arthroscope, with potential negative effect on the clinical outcome of an arthroscopic BMS procedure. The use of the 70° arthroscope has been described for a multitude of common knee, shoulder, elbow, and hip procedures. The purpose of this article is to show the usefulness of the 70° arthroscope in arthroscopic BMS procedures, pointing out which kinds of talar OCDs can benefit most from its use.
A dislocation of the shoulder joint is rare in children with an open physis. The fractures associated with an anterior dislocation generally reported in the literature have been Hill-Sachs lesions, avulsions of the greater tuberosity and glenoid fractures. We present a case of a previously unreported shearing osteochondral fracture, which is distinct from a classic Hill-Sachs lesion of the humeral head, in 12-year-old boy. The patient suffered a traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation with a spontaneous reduction along with this associated fracture. The fracture subsequently healed with no further evidence of persistent instability.
shoulder dislocation; pediatric; humerus fracture
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) primarily affects subchondral bone. Multiple drilling, fixation implant or autogenous osteochondral grafts are reported as treatment options. We present the midterm results of cases in which an OCD lesion was treated by osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling.
Materials and Methods:
Between 2002 and 2006, 14 knees with International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS-OCD) type II and III lesions were treated in our clinic using osteochondral autograft transfer and drilling by arthroscopic or open surgery. The average age of our patients was 22.14 years (range 17-29 years) and average followup was of 24.3 months (range 11-40 months). Lesion type was ICRS type II in five patients (35.7%) and ICRS type III in nine patients (64.3%). In cases with ICRS-OCD type II lesions, in situ fixation was applied following circumferential multiple drilling, while mosaicplasty was done following debridement and multiple drilling in cases with ICRS-OCD type III lesion. Mosaicplasty was performed in the lesion area by an average of 2.5 (range 1-3) cylindrical osteochondral autografts. Patients were not allowed to perform loading activities for 3 weeks in the postoperative period; movement was initiated by using CPM device in the early phase; full range of motion was achieved in third week, and full weight bearing was permitted in 6 to 8 weeks
While 6 and 8 patients were classified preoperatively as fair and poor, respectively, according to Hughston scale, excellent and good results were obtained postoperatively in 10 and 4 patients, respectively. During the followup, no problems were detected in any of the patients in the regions where osteochondral graft was harvested.
Biologic fixation or mosaicplasty and drilling as a technique to treatment of the lesion in OCD by osteochondral autograft transfer has resulted in good and excellent clinical outcomes in our patients and it is considered that providing blood flow to subchondral bone by circumferencial drilling leads to an increase in the robustness of biological internal fixation and shortens the duration of recovery.
Osteochondritis dissecans; Hughston scale; knee; mosaicplasty
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is most often seen in adolescents who participate in sports that involve repetitive loading of the elbow. Unstable defects typically require surgical intervention that involves fragment fixation, debridement, or reconstruction with an osteochondral autograft transfer. Optimum surgical management of unstable defects remains controversial.
Type of Study:
Relevant articles published after 1992 were identified using MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, and the Cochrane Library.
Both debridement and osteochondral autograft transfer for treatment of capitellar OCD lesions result in good short- and midterm outcomes with a high rate of return to sports. Larger defects involving more than 50% of the articular surface or involving the lateral margin of the capitellum may have worse outcomes after debridement and may be better treated with fragment fixation or osteochondral autograft transfer.
High-level evidence is lacking to determine the superiority of debridement or osteochondral autograft transfer for the treatment of capitellar OCD lesions. A prospective longitudinal multicenter study, using validated outcome measures, that enrolls a large number of patients is needed to establish optimal treatment for unstable capitellar OCD lesions.
osteochondritis dissecans; elbow; capitellum
To present two new approaches to acetabular surgery that were established in Berne, and which aim at enhanced visualization and anatomical reconstruction of acetabular fractures.
The trochanteric flip osteotomy allows for surgical hip dislocation, and was introduced as a posterior approach for acetabular fracture management involving the posterior column and wall. For acetabular fractures predominantly involving the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate, the Pararectus approach is described.
Full exposure of the hip joint, as provided by the trochanteric flip osteotomy, facilitates anatomical reduction of acetabular or femoral head fractures and safe positioning of the anterior column screw in transverse or T-shaped fractures. Additionally, the approach enables osteochondral transplantation as a salvage procedure for severe chondral femoral head damage and osteoplasty of an associated inadequate offset at the femoral head–neck junction. The Pararectus approach allows anatomical restoration with minimal access morbidity, and combines advantages of the ilioinguinal and modified Stoppa approaches.
Utilization of the trochanteric flip osteotomy eases visualization of the superior aspect of the acetabulum, and enables the evaluation and treatment of chondral lesions of the femoral head or acetabulum and labral tears. Displaced fractures of the anterior column with a medialized quadrilateral plate can be addressed successfully through the Pararectus approach, in which surgical access is associated with minimal morbidity. However, long-term results following the two presented Bernese approaches are needed to confirm that in the treatment of complex acetabular fractures the rate of poor results in almost one-third of all cases (as currently yielded using traditional approaches) might be reduced by the utilization of the presented novel approaches.
Acetabulum; Osteosynthesis; Hip; Geriatric trauma; Pararectus approach; Surgical hip dislocation
Articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint are an especially difficult clinical problem to manage, particularly in the younger, more active patient. Left untreated, these lesions may progress in the long-term, leading to further pain and disability. While shoulder arthroplasty remains a viable option in older patients with glenohumeral arthritis, concerns over component longevity and loosening in younger patients make it less attractive in that age group. Arthroscopic joint debridement with loose body removal, often with capsular release, has been successful in select, more sedentary patients. More recent techniques, including autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), osteochondral grafting (allograft versus autograft), interpositional arthroplasty, and microfracture surgery, have been evaluated for use in the shoulder. These procedures have experienced success in weight bearing joints, including the knee and ankle. Despite the good clinical results in the shoulder with short-term follow-up reported in some small series, the treatment of chondral injuries in the glenohumeral joint remains a challenging problem.
Glenohumeral arthritis; Microfracture; Autogenous chondrocyte transfer; Osteochondral graft; Interpositional arthroplasty; Sports non-ACL
It is accepted that a traumatic hip dislocation is a surgical emergency, this holds for the uncommon dislocation of the hip with femoral neck fracture however the surgical dilemma involves head salvage or replacement.
This case report describes the method and technique for stabilisation of the rare and challenging isolated posterior hip dislocation with an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture.
A 38-year-old gentleman was involved in a high-speed road traffic collision sustaining a posterior dislocation with ipsilateral femoral neck fracture. This was managed emergently with open reduction and osteosynthesis. The technique was by the modified placement of three cannulated screws through a posterior approach. The use of antegrade guide wires allowed accurate placement in a triangular configuration and temporary fixation to facilitate hip reduction prior to retrograde insertion of three 6.5mm cannulated screws.
The patient, although developing radiological avascular necrosis, continues to work and has returned to hobbies at 4.5 years.
Severe symptomatic and unstable osteochondral defects of the knee are difficult to treat. A variety of surgical techniques have been developed. However, the optimal surgical technique is still controversial. We present a novel technique in which autologous bone grafting is combined with gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation (GACI).
Isolated severe osteochondral defects of the medial or lateral femoral condyle were treated by a two-step procedure. Firstly, chondrocytes were harvested during arthroscopy and cultured for 6 weeks. Secondly, a full thickness corticospongious autologuos bone graft, harvested from the medial or lateral femur condyle, is impacted in the defect and covered by GACI. The fibrin gel fills up to the exact shape of the chondral lesion and polymerizes within 3 min after application.
From 2009 to 2011, 9 patients, median age 35 years (range 23–47), were treated by the combined autologous bone grafting and GACI technique. Median defect size was 7.1 cm2 (range 2.5–12.0), and median depth of the lesion was 0.9 cm (range 0.8–1.2). Median follow-up was 9 months (range 6–12 months). Six patients were available for 12-month follow-up. The mean IKDC score showed a 6-month improvement from 35 (SD ± 16) to 51 (SD ± 18) (n = 9; p = 0.01), and a 1-year improvement from 35 (SD ± 16) to 57 (SD ± 20) (n = 6; p = 0.03). The mean KOOS improved from 44 (SD ± 16) to 62 (SD ± 19) (n = 9; p = 0.07) at 6-month follow-up and from 44 (SD ± 16) to 65 (SD ± 24) (n = 6; p = 0.1) at 12-month follow-up. There was one failure that needed conversion to a unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.
Combined autologous bone grafting and GACI may offer an alternative surgical option for severe and unstable osteochondral defects of the knee.
Level of evidence
Osteochondral defect; Knee; Bone graft; Fibrin gel; ACI
Articular cartilage does not contain vascular, nervous and lymphatic tissue and chondrocytes hardly participate in the healing or repair process of chondral tissue because of being surrounded by plenty of extracellular matrix. Therefore, the injury to articular cartilage frequently requires an operative treatment. The goal of surgical repair of articular cartilage is to regenerate nearly normal chondral tissue and prevent degenerative arthritis caused by the articular cartilage defect. Microfracture is a kind of cartilage repair procedure that makes a fibrin clot containing mesenchymal stem cells in the chondral lesion. Microfracture is a simple procedure but it has a disadvantage that the repaired tissue is fibrocartilage. Autologous chondrocyte implantation has an advantage that it implants fully differentiated chondrocytes to the lesion, which theoretically produces hyaline cartilage. Its disadvantages are that it is a two stage and a costly procedure. Osteochondral autograft transplantation is a one stage procedure and repairs the lesion with hyaline cartilage. But its limitation is the lack of donor site availability. Surgeons who understand the theoretical background, indications, surgical methods, rehabilitation, complications, and clinical course of cartilage repair procedures can achieve the goal of preventing degenerative arthritis.
Knee joint; Articular cartilage; Focal chondral lesion; Management
Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is identified with increasing frequency in the young adult patient. Left untreated, osteochondritis dissecans can lead to the development of osteoarthritis at an early age, resulting in progressive pain and disability. Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans may include nonoperative or operative intervention. Surgical treatment is indicated mainly by lesion stability, physeal closure, and clinical symptoms. Reestablishing the joint surface, maximizing the osteochondral biologic environment, achieving rigid fixation, and ensuring early motion are paramount to fragment preservation. In cases where the fragment is not amenable to preservation, the treatment may include complex reconstruction procedures, such as marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft, fresh osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Treatment goals include pain relief, restoration of function, and the prevention of secondary osteoarthritis.
osteochondritis dissecans; knee; cartilage; surgical treatment
The structure of an osteochondral biphasic scaffold is required to mimic native tissue, which owns a calcified layer associated with mechanical and separation function. The two phases of biphasic scaffold should possess efficient integration to provide chondrocytes and osteocytes with an independent living environment. In this study, a novel biphasic scaffold composed of a bony phase, chondral phase and compact layer was developed. The compact layer-free biphasic scaffold taken as control group was also fabricated. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the impact of the compact layer in the biphasic scaffold. Bony and chondral phases were seeded with autogeneic osteoblast- or chondrocyte-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), respectively. The biphasic scaffolds-cells constructs were then implanted into osteochondral defects of rabbits’ knees, and the regenerated osteochondral tissue was evaluated at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Anti-tensile and anti-shear properties of the compact layer-containing biphasic scaffold were significantly higher than those of the compact layer-free biphasic scaffold in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed superior macroscopic scores, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content, micro tomograph imaging results, and histological properties of regenerated tissue in the compact layer-containing biphasic scaffold compared to the control group. These results indicated that the compact layer could significantly enhance the biomechanical properties of biphasic scaffold in vitro and regeneration of osteochondral tissue in vivo, and thus represented a promising approach to osteochondral tissue engineering.
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis following an intra-articular fracture is determined to large extent by the success or failure of osteochondral repair. To measure the efficacy of osteochondral repair in a primate and determine if osteochondral repair differs in the patella (PA) and the medial femoral condyle (FC) and if passive motion treatment affects osteochondral repair, we created 3.2 mm diameter 4.0 mm deep osteochondral defects of the articular surfaces of the PA and FC in both knees of twelve skeletally mature cynomolgus monkeys. Defects were treated with intermittent passive motion (IPM) or castimmobilization (CI) for two weeks, followed by six weeks of ad libitum cage activity. We measured restoration of the articular surface, and the volume, composition, type II collagen concentration and in situ material properties of the repair tissue. The osteochondral repair response restored a mean of 56% of the FC and 34% of the PA articular surfaces and filled a mean of 68% of the chondral and 92% of the osseous defect volumes respectively. FC defect repair produced higher concentrations of hyaline cartilage (FC 83% vs. PA 52% in chondral defects and FC 26% vs. PA 14% in osseous defects) and type II collagen (FC 84% vs. PA 71% in chondral defects and FC 37% vs. PA 9% in osseous defects) than PA repair. IPM did not increase the volume of chondral or osseous repair tissue in PA or FC defects. In both PA and FC defects, IPM stimulated slightly greater expression of type II collagen in chondral repair tissue (IPM 81% vs. CI 74%); and, produced a higher concentration of hyaline repair tissue (IPM 62% vs. CI 42%), but IPM produced poorer restoration of PA articular surfaces (IPM 23% vs. CI 45%). Normal articular cartilage was stiffer, and had a larger Poisson's ratio and less permeability than repair cartilage. Overall CI treated repair tissue was stiffer and less permeable than IPM treated repair tissue. The stiffness, Poisson's ratio and permeability of femoral condyle cast immobilized (FC CI) treated repair tissue most closely approached the normal values. The differences in osteochondral repair between FC and PA articular surfaces suggest that the mechanical environment strongly influences the quality of articular surface repair. Decreasing the risk of posttraumatic osteoarthritis following intra-articular fractures will depend on finding methods of promoting the osteochondral repair response including modifying the intra-articular biological and mechanical environments.
We report on a 46-year-old athletic patient, previously treated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, with large degenerative chondral lesions of the medial femoral condyle, trochlea and patella, which was successfully treated with a closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy and the implant of a newly developed biomimetic nanostructured osteochondral bioactive scaffold. After 1 year of follow-up the patient was pain-free, had full knee range of motion, and had returned to his pre-operation level of athletic activity. MRI evaluation at 6 months showed that the implant gave a hyaline-like signal as well as a good restoration of the articular surface, with minimal subchondral bone oedema. Subchondral oedema was almost non-visible at 12 months.
Osteochondral defect; Degenerative lesions; Biomimetic scaffold; Cartilage regeneration
OBJECTIVE—To determine whether technetium bone scintigraphy (BS) is useful for screening of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the knee (ONK), which was a major affected site, secondary to the femoral head, among multiple osteonecrosis, in patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).
METHODS—A total of 214 knee joints in 107 patients with ONFH were evaluated by BS and a comparison made with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ONK was classified into five sites, including the femoral condyles (ONFC), distal femoral metaphysis (ONFM), tibial plateau (ONTP), proximal tibial metaphysis (ONTM), and patella (ONP).
RESULTS—Based on the diagnosis by MRI, ONK was detected in 103 knees of 62 patients (48%). ONFC was most common (86 knees, 40%), ONFM (15%), followed by ONTM (10%), ONP (3%), and ONTP (0.9%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of BS for ONFC detection were 63%, 71%, and 68%, respectively. When the ONFC lesions on the coronal views of MRI were large or medium sized and occupied two thirds, or the entire anteroposterior joint surface on the sagittal views, the sensitivity of BS for ONFC detection increased to 89% (34/38 knees). The sensitivity of BS for ONFM, ONTM, and ONP detection was 3%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, but these lesions showed a low likelihood of collapse.
CONCLUSION—BS is useful for screening large ONK in patients with ONFH given that 89% of patients with ONFC who had a high risk of collapse of the knee were identified.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of autologous osteochondral transfer (OATS) for femoral head osteonecrosis.
Twenty-one hips in 20 patients (one woman and 19 men), average patients' age at the time of surgery of 35.4 (range 20–56) years, were treated with OATS for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Seven patients at pre-collapse ARCO stages IIA and IIB were treated with OATS alone. Thirteen patients with large pre-collapse ARCO IIC and post-collapse ARCO III and IV were treated with OATS and morselised bone allografts (OATS/allograft). Harris hip score (HHS) was used for clinical evaluation of outcomes; X-rays were performed to examine the evolution of the disease. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to determine the failure of the procedures with conversion to THR defined as endpoint.
Follow-up of patients treated with OATS alone was 46.14 (range 18–75) months with HHS improvement from a preoperative mean of 42 to 87.85 points at the latest follow-up examination. Only one patient in this group needed a revision operation with THR. The survival for this group of patients was 85.71 % at four years. Follow-up of patients treated with AOTS/allograft was 32.7 (range 7–84) months with HHS improvement from a preoperative mean of 35.2 to 65.7 points at the latest follow-up examination. One patient died six months after the surgery. There were five conversions to THR because of femoral head collapse in this group of patients with survival of 61.54 % at three years.
The use of osteochondral grafts offers the possibility of successful treatment for ONFH at small and medium pre-collapse stages. The outcomes of large pre-collapse and post-collapse stages were below our expectations. OATS is a time buying procedure for young patients as it may defer total hip replacement.
During knee movement, femoral cartilage articulates against cartilage from the tibial plateau, and the resulting mechanical behavior has yet to be fully characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) the overall and depth-varying axial and shear strains, and 2) the associated moduli, of femoral and tibial cartilage during the compression and shearing of apposing tibial and femoral samples. Osteochondral blocks from human femoral condyles (FC) characterized as normal and donor-matched lateral tibial plateau (TP) were apposed, compressed 13%, and subjected to relative lateral motion. When surfaces began to slide, axial (−Ezz) and shear (Exz) strains and compressive (E) and shear (G) modulus, overall and as a function of depth, were determined for femoral and tibial cartilage. Tibial −Ezz was ~2-fold greater than FC −Ezz near the surface (0.38 versus 0.22) and overall (0.16 versus 0.07). Near the surface, Exz of TP was 8-fold higher than that of FC (0.41 versus 0.05), while overall Exz was 4-fold higher (0.09 versus 0.02). For TP and FC, −Ezz and Exz were greatest near the surface and decreased monotonically with depth. E for FC was 1.7-fold greater than TP, both near the surface (0.40 versus 0.24MPa) and overall (0.76 versus 0.47MPa). Similarly, G was 7-fold greater for FC (0.22MPa) than TP near the surface (0.03MPa) and 3-fold higher for FC (0.38MPa) than TP (0.13MPa) overall. These results indicate that tibial cartilage deforms and strains more axially and in shear than the apposing femoral cartilage during tibio-femoral articulation, reflecting their respective moduli.
Cartilage; Biomechanics; Compression; Shear; Tibio-Femoral Articulation
Osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) aims at restoring normal articular cartilage surface geometry and articular contact mechanics. To date, no studies have evaluated the contact mechanics of the canine stifle following OAT. Additionally, there are no studies that evaluated the role of the meniscus in contact mechanics following OAT in human or canine femorotibial joints. The objective of this study was to measure the changes in femorotibial contact areas (CA), mean contact pressure (MCP) and peak contact pressure (PCP) before and after osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) of a simulated lateral femoral condylar cartilage defect with an intact lateral meniscus and following lateral meniscectomy.
With an intact lateral meniscus, creation of an osteochondral defect caused a decrease in MCP and PCP by 11% and 30%, respectively, compared to the intact stifle (p < 0.01). With an intact meniscus, implanting an osteochondral graft restored MCP and PCP to 96% (p = 0.56) and 92% (p = 0.41) of the control values. Lateral meniscectomy with grafting decreased CA by 54% and increased PCP by 79% compared to the intact stifle (p < 0.01).
OAT restored contact pressures in stifles with a simulated lateral condylar defect when the meniscus was intact. The lateral meniscus has a significant role in maintaining normal contact pressures in both stifles with a defect or following OAT. Meniscectomy should be avoided when a femoral condylar defect is present and when performing OAT.
Osteochondral autograft transfer; Contact mechanics; Pressure; Meniscus; Meniscectomy