MicroRNAs (miRs) have an important role in lung carcinogenesis and progression. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in miR biogenesis may affect miR expression in lung tissue and be associated with lung carcinogenesis and progression.
We analysed 12 SNPs in POLR2A, RNASEN and DICER1 genes in 1984 cases and 2073 controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study. We investigated miR expression profiles in 165 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and 125 squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples from the same population. We used logistic and Cox regression models to examine the association of individual genotypes and haplotypes with lung cancer risk and with lung cancer-specific survival, respectively. SNPs-miR expression associations in cases were assessed using two-sample t-tests and global permutation tests.
A haplotype in RNASEN (Drosha) was significantly associated with shorter lung cancer survival (hazard ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.19–2.92, P=0.007). In AD cases, a SNP within the same haplotype was associated with reduced RNASEN mRNA expression (P=0.013) and with miR expression changes (global P=0.007) of miRs known to be associated with cancer (e.g., let-7 family, miR-21, miR-25, miR-126 and miR15a).
Inherited variation in the miR-processing machinery can affect miR expression levels and lung cancer-specific survival.
microRNA biogenesis; polymorphism; lung cancer; survival
Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as differentially expressed in cancer, however the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. We report that two miRNAs located on chromosome 17p13, miR-132 and miR-212, are over expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. Both miRNAs are predicted to target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, Rb1. Validation of this interaction was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and western blot in a pancreatic cancer cell line transfected with pre-miR-212 and pre-miR-132 oligos. Cell proliferation was enhanced in Panc-1 cells transfected with pre-miR-132/-212 oligos. Conversely, antisense oligos to miR-132/-212 reduced cell proliferation and caused a G2/M cell cycle arrest. The mRNA of a number of E2F transcriptional targets were increased in cells over expressing miR-132/-212. Exposing Panc-1 cells to the β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, terbutaline, increased the miR-132 and miR-212 expression by 2 to 4 fold. We report that over expression of miR-132 and miR-212 result in reduced pRb protein in pancreatic cancer cells and that the increase in cell proliferation from over expression of these miRNAs is likely due to increased expression of several E2F target genes. The β2 adrenergic pathway may play an important role in this novel mechanism.
microRNA; retinoblastoma; β2 adrenergic receptor
Metastatic cancer is extremely difficult to treat, and the presence of metastases greatly reduces a cancer patient’s likelihood of long-term survival. The ZEB1 transcriptional repressor promotes metastasis through downregulation of microRNAs (miRs) that are strong inducers of epithelial differentiation and inhibitors of stem cell factors. Given that each miR can target multiple genes with diverse functions, we posited that the prometastatic network controlled by ZEB1 extends beyond these processes. We tested this hypothesis using a mouse model of human lung adenocarcinoma metastasis driven by ZEB1, human lung carcinoma cells, and human breast carcinoma cells. Transcriptional profiling studies revealed that ZEB1 controls the expression of numerous oncogenic and tumor-suppressive miRs, including miR-34a. Ectopic expression of miR-34a decreased tumor cell invasion and metastasis, inhibited the formation of promigratory cytoskeletal structures, suppressed activation of the RHO GTPase family, and regulated a gene expression signature enriched in cytoskeletal functions and predictive of outcome in human lung adenocarcinomas. We identified several miR-34a target genes, including Arhgap1, which encodes a RHO GTPase activating protein that was required for tumor cell invasion. These findings demonstrate that ZEB1 drives prometastatic actin cytoskeletal remodeling by downregulating miR-34a expression and provide a compelling rationale to develop miR-34a as a therapeutic agent in lung cancer patients.
There is increasing evidence that altered microRNA expression is associated with tumor progression and survival in cancer patients. We tested if the expression of specific microRNAs was associated with prognosis and disease progression in early stage lung adenocarcinoma.
The expression of miR-21, miR-17 and miR-155 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in tissues from 317 non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that originated from Maryland, Norway and Japan. Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis evaluated associations of microRNA expression with cancer-specific mortality and disease free survival.
Elevated miR-21 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.06, 1.13–3.75), miR-17 (HR 2.00, 1.10–3.61), miR-155 (HR 2.37, 1.27–4.42) was associated with worse cancer-specific mortality in the Maryland cohort. These were evaluated in two additional cohorts and only miR-21 was associated with worse cancer-specific mortality in the Norwegian cohort (HR 2.78, 1.22–6.31) and worse relapse free survival in the Japanese cohort (HR 2.82, 1.57–5.07). More advanced stage tumors expressed significantly higher levels of miR-21 compared to TNM stage I tumors. TNM stage I patients were evaluated separately and high levels of miR-21 was associated with worse cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.16, 1.11–4.21) and relapse-free survival (3.40, 1.57–7.36) independent of other clinical factors.
Conclusions and Summary
This is the first study to report that increased miR-21 expression is associated with disease progression and survival in stage I lung cancer. This suggests that expression of miR-21 may contribute to lung carcinogenesis and serve as a therapeutic target or early stage prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma.
MicroRNA plays an important role in human diseases and cancer. We seek to investigate the expression status, clinical relevance, and functional role of microRNA in non-small cell lung cancer.
We performed miRNA expression profiling in matched lung adenocarcinoma and uninvolved lung using 56 pairs of fresh-frozen (FF) and 47 pairs of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from never smokers. The most differentially expressed miRNA genes were evaluated by Cox analysis and Log-Rank test. Among the best candidate, miR-708 was further examined for differential expression in two independent cohorts. Functional significance of miR-708 expression in lung cancer was examined by identifying its candidate mRNA target and through manipulating its expression levels in cultured cells.
Among the 20 miRNAs most differentially expressed between tested tumor and normal samples, high expression level of miR-708 in the tumors was most strongly associated with an increased risk of death after adjustments for all clinically significant factors including age, sex, and tumor stage (FF cohort: HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.35; P=.025 and FFPE cohort: HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.02-3.63; P=.042). The transcript for TMEM88 gene has a miR-708 binding site in its 3′ UTR and was significantly reduced in tumors high of miR-708. Forced miR-708 expression reduced TMEM88 transcript levels and increased the rate of cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in culture.
MicroRNA-708 acts as an oncogene contributing to tumor growth and disease progression by directly down regulating TMEM88, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in lung cancer.
NSCLC; adenocarcinoma; miR-708; never smoker; survival; TMEM88; Wnt signaling
MicroRNA-27a (miR-27a) is thought to be an onco-microRNA that promotes tumor growth and metastasis by downregulating ZBTB10. The potential predictive value of miR-27a was studied in breast cancer patients.
The expression of miR-27a and ZBTB10 was examined in 102 breast cancer cases using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry techniques and were evaluated semi-quantitatively by examining the staining index. The Correlation of miR-27a and ZBTB10 expression was analyed by Spearman Rank Correlation. The association of miR-27a and ZBTB10 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed using the χ2 test, and their effects on patient survival were analyzed by a log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic values of miR-27a and ZBTB10.
miR-27a was markedly up-regulated in invasive breast cancers that expressed low levels of ZBTB10 (P<0.001). A reverse correlation between miR-27a and ZBTB10 was also observed in breast cancer tissue samples (rs = −0.478, P<0.001). Furthermore, the expression of miR-27a and ZBTB10 was significantly correlated with clinicopathological parameters, including tumor size, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (P<0.05), but not with receptor status. Patients with high miR-27a or low ZBTB10 expression tended to have significantly shorter disease-free survival times (57 months and 53 months, respectively, P <0.001) and overall survival times (58 months and 55 months, respectively, P <0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that both miR-27a and ZBTB10 were independent prognostic factors of disease-free survival in breast cancer patients (P <0.001), while only miR-27a was an independent predictor of overall survival (P <0.001).
High miR-27a expression is associated with poor overall survival in patients with breast cancer, which suggests that miR-27a could be a valuable marker of breast cancer progression.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80% of cases. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression is increased and predicts poor survival in NSCLC. Although miR-21 function has been studied in vitro using cancer cell lines, the role of miR-21 in tumor development in vivo is unknown. We utilize transgenic mice with loss-of-function and gain-of-function miR-21 alleles combined with a model of NSCLC to determine the role of miR-21 in lung cancer. We show that over-expression of miR-21 enhances tumorigenesis and genetic deletion of miR-21 partially protects against tumor formation. MiR-21 drives tumorigenesis through inhibition of negative regulators of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and inhibition of apoptosis.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection is considered critical for lung cancer treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have shown promise as diagnostic and prognostic indicators. This study was to identify specific miRNAs with diagnostic and prognostic value for patients with lung cancer, and to explore the correlation between expression profiles of miRNAs and patient survival.
Gene expression of members of the miR-183 family (miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183) were examined in 70 paired samples from lung cancer patients (primary cancer and non-cancerous tissues and sera), as well as 44 serum samples from normal volunteers and lung cancer cell lines by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The correlation between the expression of miRNAs in tissues, sera, and patient overall survival were also examined by log-rank and Cox regression analysis.
Expression levels of members of the miR-183 family in lung cancer tumor and sera were higher than that of their normal counterparts. The miR-96 expression in tumors was positively associated with its expression in sera. Log-rank and Cox regression analyses demonstrated that high expression of tumor and serum miRNAs of the miR-183 family were associated with overall poor survival in patients with lung cancer.
Our results suggest that the expressions of miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183 in tumor and sera may be considered potential novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.
miRNA; diagnosis; prognosis; sera; RT-quantitative PCR; human lung cancer
The microRNA-200 (miR-200) family is part of a gene expression signature that predicts poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. In a mouse model of K-ras/p53-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, miR-200 levels are suppressed in metastasis-prone tumor cells, and forced miR-200 expression inhibits tumor growth and metastasis, but the miR-200 target genes that drive lung tumorigenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we scanned the genome for putative miR-200 binding sites and found them in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of 35 genes that are amplified in human cancer. Mining of a database of resected human lung adenocarcinomas revealed that the levels of one of these genes, Flt1/VEGFR1, correlate inversely with duration of survival. Forced miR-200 expression suppressed Flt1 levels in metastasis-prone lung adenocarcinoma cells derived from K-ras/p53-mutant mice, and negatively regulated the Flt1 3′-UTR in reporter assays. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) isolated from murine lung adenocarcinomas secreted abundant VEGF and enhanced tumor cell invasion in coculture studies. CAF-induced tumor cell invasion was abrogated by VEGF neutralization or Flt1 knockdown in tumor cells. Flt1 knockdown decreased the growth and metastasis of tumor cells in syngeneic mice. We conclude that miR-200 suppresses lung tumorigenesis by targeting Flt1.
We conducted the first analysis of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung cancer, with a focus on Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
We evaluated viral miRs with a two-channel oligo-array targeting mature, anti-sense miRNAs in 290 cases. In 48 cases, we compared microarray and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) expression for three EBV miRNAs. We tested for EBV DNA, RNA, and protein in tumour tissue from six cases with and six cases without strong qPCR-based evidence of EBV miRNAs.
The EBV miRNAs strongly differentiated between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma using the microarray (P<0.01 for 9 out of 16 EBV miRNAs). However, microarray and qPCR measurements of BART1, BART2, and BHRF1–3 expression were not significantly correlated (P=0.53, 0.94, and 0.47, respectively). Although qPCR provided substantial evidence of EBV miRNAs in 7 out of 48 cases, only 1 of these 7 cases had detectable EBV DNA in tumour tissue. None had detectable EBV RNA or protein by histochemical stains.
In a comprehensive evaluation of EBV miRNA, DNA, RNA, and protein in lung cancer, we found little evidence of EBV in lung tumour tissue. Discrepancies between microarray- and qPCR-based strategies highlight the difficulty of validating molecular markers of disease. Our results do not support a role of EBV in lung cancer.
Epstein–Barr virus; lung cancer; microRNA; microarray; qPCR
miR-155 is a prominent microRNA (miRNA) that regulates genes involved in immunity and cancer-related pathways. miR-155 is overexpressed in lung cancer, which correlates with poor patient prognosis. It is unclear how miR-155 becomes increased in lung cancers and how this increase contributes to reduced patient survival. Here, we show that hypoxic conditions induce miR-155 expression in lung cancer cells and trigger a corresponding decrease in a validated target, FOXO3A. Furthermore, we find that increased levels of miR-155 radioprotects lung cancer cells, while inhibition of miR-155 radiosensitizes these cells. Moreover, we reveal a therapeutically important link between miR-155 expression, hypoxia, and irradiation by demonstrating that anti-miR-155 molecules also sensitize hypoxic lung cancer cells to irradiation. Our study helps explain how miR-155 becomes elevated in lung cancers, which contain extensive hypoxic microenvironments, and demonstrates that inhibition of miR-155 may have important therapeutic potential as a means to radiosensitize hypoxic lung cancer cells.
microRNAs; miR-155; hypoxia; radiosensitizer; lung cancer
Following the identification of a set of hypoxia-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs), recent studies have highlighted the importance of miR-210 and of its transcriptional regulation by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We report here that miR-210 is overexpressed at late stages of non-small cell lung cancer. Expression of miR-210 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells caused an alteration of cell viability associated with induction of caspase-3/7 activity. miR-210 induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the apparition of an aberrant mitochondrial phenotype. The expression profiling of cells overexpressing miR-210 revealed a specific signature characterized by enrichment for transcripts related to ‘cell death' and ‘mitochondrial dysfunction', including several subunits of the electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I and II. The transcript coding for one of these ETC components, SDHD, subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDH), was validated as a bona fide miR-210 target. Moreover, SDHD knockdown mimicked miR-210-mediated mitochondrial alterations. Finally, miR-210-dependent targeting of SDHD was able to activate HIF-1, in line with previous studies linking loss-of-function SDH mutations to HIF-1 activation. miR-210 can thus regulate mitochondrial function by targeting key ETC component genes with important consequences on cell metabolism, survival and modulation of HIF-1 activity. These observations help explain contradictory data regarding miR-210 expression and its putative function in solid tumors.
microRNA; non-small cell lung cancer; electron transport chain complex; hypoxia; apoptosis
This study determined whether expression levels of a panel of biologically relevant microRNAs can be used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers in patients who participated in the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT), the largest randomized study conducted to date of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with radically resected non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Expression of miR-21, miR-29b, miR-34a/b/c, miR-155 and let-7a was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in paraffin embedded formalin fixed tumor specimens from 639 IALT patients. Prognostic and predictive value of microRNA expression for survival were studied using a Cox model, which included every factor used in the stratified randomization, clinicopathological prognostic factors and other factors statistically related to microRNA expression. Investigation of the expression pattern of microRNAs in situ was performed. We also analyzed association of TP53 mutation status and miR-34a/b/c expression, EGFR and KRAS mutation status and miR-21 and Let-7a expression, respectively. Finally, association of p16 and miR-29b expression was assessed. Overall, no significant association was found between any of the tested microRNAs and survival, with the exception of miR-21 where a deleterious prognostic effect of lowered expression was suggested. Otherwise, no single or combinatorial microRNA expression profile predicted response to adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Together, our results indicate that the miRNA expression patterns examined were neither predictive nor prognostic in a large patient cohort of radically resected NSCLC randomized to receive adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy versus follow-up only.
non–small cell lung cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy; randomized trial; biomarker; drug resistance; microRNA
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that different miRNA profiles are related to RET status and prognosis in patients with hereditary MTC (hMTC) and sporadic MTC (sMTC).
We analyzed the expression of nine miRNAs (miR-21, miR-127, miR-154, miR-224, miR-323, miR-370, miR-9*, miR-183, and miR-375) by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction in 34 cases of sMTC, 6 cases of hMTC, and 2 cases of C-cell hyperplasia (CCH). We also analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of PDCD4, an miR-21 gene target. sMTC (n=34) was genotyped for somatic RET and RAS mutations. Disease status was defined on the basis of the concentration of serum calcitonin at the latest follow-up and other parameters as indicated in the results.
MTC and CCH were both characterized by a significant overexpression of the whole set of miRNAs (the increase being 4.2-fold for miR-21, 6.7-fold for miR-127, 8.8-fold for miR-154, 6.6-fold for miR-224, 5.8-fold for miR-323, 6.1-fold for miR-370, 13-fold for miR-9*, 6.7-fold for miR-183, and 10.1 for miR-375, p<0.0001). PDCD4 expression was significantly downregulated in MTC samples, consistent with miR-21 upregulation. Significantly lower miR-127 levels were observed in sMTC carrying somatic RET mutations in comparison to sMTC carrying a wild-type RET. In sMTC and familial MTC, the miR-224 upregulation correlated with the absence of node metastases, lower stages at diagnosis, and with biochemical cure during follow-up.
miRNAs are significantly dysregulated in MTC, and this dysregulation is probably an early event in C-cell carcinogenesis. miR-224 upregulation could represent a prognostic biomarker associated with a better outcome in MTC patients.
microRNAs (miRNAs) play a significant role in cancer development and progression by regulating the expression of proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Our previous study using microarrays demonstrated that miR-99b was downregulated in patients with lung cancer. To assess whether or not miR-99b has a functional role in lung cancer, we determined the expression of miR-99b and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which is a predicted target of miR-99b in public algorithms in human lung cancer tissues. miR-99b was downregulated and FGFR3 was upregulated in lung cancer patients. We demonstrated that the overexpression of miR-99b induced a reduction in FGFR3 expression and confirmed the target specificity between miR-99b and the FGFR3 3′-untranslated region by luciferase reporter assay. In addition, the growth rate in miR-99b precursor-treated cells was lower compared to the negative controls. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-99b may be a tumor suppressor through the downregulation of FGFR3. miR-99b may be a potent tumor suppressor and may be a potential therapeutic tool for patients with lung cancer.
microRNA; lung cancer; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3; tumor-suppressor
A limited number of reports have investigated the role of microRNAs in osteosarcoma. In this study, we performed miRNA expression profiling of osteosarcoma cell lines, tumor samples, and normal human osteoblasts. Twenty-two differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using high throughput real-time PCR analysis, and 4 (miR-135b, miR-150, miR-542-5p, and miR-652) were confirmed and validated in a different group of tumors. Both miR-135b and miR-150 have been previously shown to be important in cancer. We hypothesize that dysregulation of differentially expressed microRNAs may contribute to tumorigenesis. They might also represent molecular biomarkers or targets for drug development in osteosarcoma.
MicroRNA (miR) expression signatures are proposed to be able to differentiate thyroid cancer from benign thyroid lesions. We selected eight miRs (miR-146b, -221, -187, -197, -346, -30d, -138, and -302c) to examine the potential use of miRs to supplement diagnostic cytology in cases designated as “atypia of undetermined significance.”
: miR expression was measured in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression analyses and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were performed in a training sample set (n=60) to obtain a classification rule to predict FNA cases as benign or malignant. The predictions were cross-validated by comparing with the corresponding histological diagnoses. A validation sample set (n=68) was further tested with the established four-miR LDA classification rule.
A set of four miRs (miR-146b, -221, -187, and -30d) was identified that could differentiate malignant from benign lesions. A four-miR LDA classification rule was obtained and used to predict FNA cases as benign or malignant. For the training sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 93.3%, sensitivity of 93.2%, specificity of 93.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.98, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.83. For the validation sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 85.3%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 78.3%, PPV of 0.89, and NPV of 0.78. For the 30 atypia cases in the validation sample set, we obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 73.3%, sensitivity of 63.6%, specificity of 78.9%, PPV of 0.64, and NPV of 0.79. Based on the miR predictions, we classified the atypia cases predicted as “malignant” into “high risk” and those predicted as “benign” into “low risk” categories. While thyroid carcinomas, particularly papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), were relatively enriched in the high-risk category, this particular miR panel is subject to inaccurate results in follicular neoplasias in atypia cases.
We demonstrate that miR amplification from FNA samples is feasible and that the particular four miR profile in this study can identify PTCs. However, further refinement is required for application to FNA cytology of “atypia of undetermined significance” cases due to low accuracy in classifying follicular neoplasias.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators that could play a profound role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies indicate that miR-145 is a tumor suppressor capable of inhibiting tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that miR-145 exerts its function in a cell-specific manner. Although miR-145 inhibits cell growth in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells, it has no significant effect on cell growth in metastatic breast cancer cell lines. However, miR-145 significantly suppresses cell invasion in these cells; in contrast, the antisense oligo against miR-145 increases cell invasion. miR-145 is also able to suppress lung metastasis in an experimental metastasis animal model. This miR-145-mediated suppression of cell invasion is in part due to the silencing of the metastasis gene mucin 1 (MUC1). Using luciferase reporters carrying the 3'-untranslated region of MUC1 combined with western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we identify MUC1 as a direct target of miR-145. Moreover, ectopic expression of MUC1 enhances cell invasion, which can be blocked by miR-145. Of interest, suppression of MUC1 by miR-145 causes a reduction of β-catenin as well as the oncogenic cadherin 11. Finally, suppression of MUC1 by RNAi mimics the miR-145 action in suppression of invasion, which is associated with downregulation of β-catenin and cadherin 11. Taken together, these results suggest that as a tumor suppressor, miR-145 inhibits not only tumor growth, but also cell invasion and metastasis.
breast cancer; invasion; metastasis; miRNA; miR-145; posttranscriptional regulation
MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional and/or translational level by interacting with their target mRNAs. miRs are down-regulated or up-regulated in various cancer types, triggering abnormal cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. miR-124a and miR-34b/c have been reported to be expressed at lower levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) due to methylation of these genes. The present study aimed to determine the methylation status of miR-124a and miR-34b/c in CRCs and polyps of various histological types, adjacent normal mucosa and ulcerative colitis. The colon cancer cell line study showed an association of the lower expression of miR-124a and miR-34b/c with the methylation of these genes and induction of the expression of these genes with the treatment by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Among nine different cancer types examined, CRC showed the highest frequency of methylation of miR-124a (cell lines 88% and tissues 99%) and miR-34b/c (cell lines 89% and tissues 93%). Mucinous and non-mucinous CRCs and all the histological types of colorectal polyps showed a high frequency of methylation of miR-124a and miR-34b/c. Notably, methylation of miR-124a (59%) and miR-34b/c (26%) was observed in the adjacent normal mucosa of CRC patients, but not in colonic mucosa from patients without cancer or with ulcerative colitis. The methylation of miR-124a in the adjacent normal mucosa was associated with the microsatellite instability of CRC, while the methylation of miR-34b/c was associated with an older age at diagnosis of CRC. The results showed that the methylation of miR-124a and miR-34b/c occured early in colorectal carcinogenesis and certain CRCs may arise from a field defect defined by the epigenetic inactivation of miRs.
microRNA; epigenetic regulation; colorectal cancer
PKCα (protein kinase C alpha, PRKCA) is an important protein involved in several steps of signaling pathways in lung cancer, and microRNAs (miRNAs) have also been shown to participate in lung carcinogenesis. However, it is not clear how PKCα and miRNAs are correlated in the disease. In this report, we aimed to identify novel miRNAs that target PKCα and to study their biological function. Using bioinformatics analysis, we predicted one novel candidate, miR-203, and found differential expression patterns of miR-203 and PKCα in human lung cancer tissues. Moreover, we experimentally validated miR-203 as a direct regulator of PKCα. Finally, we demonstrated that the targeting of PKCα by miR-203 played a critical role in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration in lung cancer cells. In summary, this study identifies a novel miRNA that targets PKCα and illustrates that the downregulation of PKCα by miR-203 modulates biological processes in lung cancer cells.
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of miR-21, miR-31, miR-96 and miR-135b in 52 paired colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and to analyze the correlation between microRNAs (miRNAs) and clinicopathological features. We developed a quantification method that relies on a standard plot, constructed from known concentrations of standards, in order to measure the number of miRNAs. In addition to this, we analyzed the expression levels of miR-21, miR-31, miR-96 and miR-135b in 52 cases of primary CRC and corresponding normal mucosal tissue using real-time PCR with SYBR-Green I. An independent sample t-test was used to compare the differential expression between tumor tissues and normal mucosal tissues. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to compare the correlation between miRNA expression levels and clinicopathological features. The expression of miR-21, miR-31, miR-96 and miR-135b was upregulated in the CRC tissues compared to normal mucosal tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, miR-21 and miR-135b were positively correlated with the clinical stage (P=0.048 and P=0.029, respectively), while miR-96 and miR-135b were correlated with liver metastasis (P=0.006 and P=0.013, respectively). Our results suggest that miR-21, miR-31, miR-96 and miR-135b may function in the process of CRC development and progression. miR-135b levels in particular may correlate with the degree of malignancy.
microRNA; colorectal cancer; real-time RT-PCR
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers. In this study, we determined the genome-wide miRNA profiles in bladder urothelial carcinoma by deep sequencing.
We detected 656 differentially expressed known human miRNAs and miRNA antisense sequences (miRNA*s) in nine bladder urothelial carcinoma patients by deep sequencing. Many miRNAs and miRNA*s were significantly upregulated or downregulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to matched histologically normal urothelium. hsa-miR-96 was the most significantly upregulated miRNA and hsa-miR-490-5p was the most significantly downregulated one. Upregulated miRNAs were more common than downregulated ones. The hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-200b∼429, hsa-miR-200c∼141 and hsa-miR-17∼92 clusters were significantly upregulated. The hsa-miR-143∼145 cluster was significantly downregulated. hsa-miR-182, hsa-miR-183, hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-143 and hsa-miR-195 were evaluated by Real-Time qPCR in a total of fifty-one bladder urothelial carcinoma patients. They were aberrantly expressed in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to matched histologically normal urothelium (p<0.001 for each miRNA).
To date, this is the first study to determine genome-wide miRNA expression patterns in human bladder urothelial carcinoma by deep sequencing. We found that a collection of miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to matched histologically normal urothelium, suggesting that they might play roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in the development and/or progression of this cancer. Our data provide novel insights into cancer biology.
The high mortality rate of lung cancer patients is mainly due to the late stage at which lung cancer is diagnosed. For effective cancer prevention programs and early diagnosis, better blood-based markers are needed. Hence, blood-based microarray profiling of microRNA (miR) expression was performed in preoperative serum of 21 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 11 healthy individuals by microfluid biochips containing 1158 different miRs. Two out of the 30 most dysregulated miRs were further validated in serum of 97 NSCLC patients, 20 patients with benign lung diseases and 30 healthy individuals by TaqMan MicroRNA Assays. Microarray profiling showed that miR-361-3p and miR-625* were significantly down-regulated in serum of lung cancer patients. Their further evaluation by quantitative RT-PCR showed that the levels of miR-361-3p and miR-625* were lower in NSCLC than in benign disease (p = 0.0001) and healthy individuals (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0005, respectively). Moreover, the levels of miR-625* were significantly lower in patients with large cell lung cancer (LCLC, p = 0.014) and smoking patients (p = 0.030) than in patients with adenocarcinoma and non-smoking patients, respectively. A rise in the levels of both miRs was observed in the postoperative samples compared with the preoperative levels (p = 0.0001). Functional analyses showed that Smad2 and TGFß1 are not dysregulated by miR-361-3p and miR-625* in the lung cell line A549, respectively. Our present pilot study suggests that miR-361-3p and miR-625* might have a protective influence on the development of NSCLC, and the quantitative assessment of these miRs in blood serum might have diagnostic potential to detect NSCLC, in particular in smokers.
Differentiation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line HL-60 can be induced by all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA); however, the mechanism regulating this process has not been fully characterized.
Using bioinformatics and in vitro experiments, we identified the microRNA gene expression profile of HL-60 cells during ATRA induced granulocytic differentiation.
Six microRNAs were upregulated by ATRA treatment, miR-663, miR-494, miR-145, miR-22, miR-363* and miR-223; and three microRNAs were downregulated, miR-10a, miR-181 and miR-612. Additionally, miR-663 expression was regulated by ATRA. We used a lentivirus (LV) backbone incorporating the spleen focus forming virus (SFFV-F) promoter to drive miR-663 expression, as the CMV (Cytomegalovirus) promoter is ineffective in some lymphocyte cells. Transfection of LV-miR-663 induced significant HL-60 cell differentiation in vitro.
Our results show miR-663 may play an important role in ATRA induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Lentivirus delivery of miR-663 could potentially be used directly as an anticancer treatment in hematological malignancies
MicroRNAs 125a and 125b are predicted to be able to bind to the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1) and IFN regulatory protein-4 (IRF-4) transcription factors, which are essential for plasma cell differentiation. A computational survey of the human and mouse genomes revealed that miR-125a and miR-125b are members of a multigene family located in paralogous clusters. The miR-125a cluster on chromosome 19 in humans includes miR-99b and let-7e, whereas the miR-125b cluster on chromosome 21 includes miR-99a and miR-let-7c. Our analysis of the expression profiles for these six miRs during B lineage differentiation indicated that mature miR-125a, miR-125b, miR-99b and let-7e transcripts are preferentially expressed by the actively dividing centroblasts in germinal centers (GC). However, miR-99b and let-7e are not predicted to bind BLIMP-1 or IRF-4 transcripts, and binding to the untranslated region of BLIMP-1 and IRF-4 messenger RNAs could be confirmed only for miR-125b. When the effect of miR-125b over-expression on terminal B cell differentiation was evaluated in an LPS-responsive B cell line, the induction of BLIMP-1 expression and IgM secretion was inhibited in this model system. Furthermore, miR-125b over-expression inhibited the differentiation of primary B cells and compromised the survival of cultured myeloma cells. These findings suggest that miR-125b promotes B lymphocyte diversification in GC by inhibiting premature utilization of essential transcription factors for plasma cell differentiation.
BLIMP-1; centroblasts; gene regulation; IRF-4; MicroRNA; plasma cell differentiation