Novel incretin-based drugs, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), have been last introduced in the pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the last few years, the interest on the relationship of gut hormones with bone metabolism in diabetes has been increasing. The aim of present paper is to examine in vitro and in vivo evidence on the connections between incretin hormones and bone metabolism. We also discuss results of clinical trials and metaanalysis, explore the effects of incretin drugs in vitro on osteogenic cells and osteoclasts, and speculate on the possibility of different effects of GLP-1 RA and DPP-4i on the risk of bone fractures risk in humans. Although existing preliminary evidence suggests a protective effect on the bone, at least for DPP-4i, further controlled, long-term studies with measurement of bone markers, bone density, and clinical fractures rates are needed to substantiate and confirm those findings.
Recent studies have demonstrated an important physiologic link between bone and fat. Bone and fat cells arise from the same mesenchymal precursor cell within bone marrow, capable of differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Increased BMI appears to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have suggested detrimental effects of visceral fat on bone health. Increased visceral fat may also be associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels which are important for maintenance of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), abdominal fat depots, GH and IGF-1 in premenopausal women with obesity. We studied 47 premenopausal women of various BMI (range: 18–41 kg/m2, mean 30 ± 7 kg/m2) who underwent vertebral bone marrow fat measurement with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), body composition, and trabecular BMD measurement with computed tomography (CT), and GH and IGF-1 levels. Women with high visceral fat had higher bone marrow fat than women with low visceral fat. There was a positive correlation between bone marrow fat and visceral fat, independent of BMD. There was an inverse association between vertebral bone marrow fat and trabecular BMD. Vertebral bone marrow fat was also inversely associated with IGF-1, independent of visceral fat. Our study showed that vertebral bone marrow fat is positively associated with visceral fat and inversely associated with IGF-1 and BMD. This suggests that the detrimental effect of visceral fat on bone health may be mediated in part by IGF-1 as an important regulator of the fat and bone lineage.
Recent advances in understanding the role of bone in the systemic regulation of energy metabolism indicate that bone marrow cells, adipocytes and osteoblasts, are involved in this process. Marrow adipocytes store significant quantities of fat and produce adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, which are known for their role in the regulation of energy metabolism, whereas osteoblasts produce osteocalcin, a bone-specific hormone that has a potential to regulate insulin production in the pancreas and adiponectin production in fat tissue. Both osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes express insulin receptor and respond to insulin-sensitizing anti-diabetic TZDs in a manner, which tightly links bone with the energy metabolism system. Metabolic profile of marrow fat resembles that of both, white and brown fat, which is reflected by its plasticity in acquiring different functions including maintenance of bone micro-environment. Marrow fat responds to physiologic and pathologic changes in energy metabolism status by changing volume and metabolic activity. This review summarizes available information on the metabolic function of marrow fat and provides hypothesis that this fat depot may acquire multiple roles depending on the local and perhaps systemic demands. These functions may include a role in bone energy maintenance and endocrine activities to serve osteogenesis during bone remodeling and bone healing.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), an important regulator of calcium homeostasis, targets most of its complex actions in bone to cells of the osteoblast lineage. Furthermore, PTH is known to stimulate osteoclastogenesis indirectly through activation of osteoblastic cells. To assess the role of the PTH/PTH-related protein receptor (PPR) in mediating the diverse actions of PTH on bone in vivo, we generated mice that express, in cells of the osteoblastic lineage, one of the constitutively active receptors described in Jansen’s metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. In these transgenic mice, osteoblastic function was increased in the trabecular and endosteal compartments, whereas it was decreased in the periosteum. In trabecular bone of the transgenic mice, there was an increase in osteoblast precursors, as well as in mature osteoblasts. Osteoblastic expression of the constitutively active PPR induced a dramatic increase in osteoclast number in both trabecular and compact bone in transgenic animals. The net effect of these actions was a substantial increase in trabecular bone volume and a decrease in cortical bone thickness of the long bones. These findings, for the first time to our knowledge, identify the PPR as a crucial mediator of both bone-forming and bone-resorbing actions of PTH, and they underline the complexity and heterogeneity of the osteoblast population and/or their regulatory microenvironment.
Osteopontin (OP) or bone sialoprotein is a recently characterized extracellular matrix protein which is abundant in bone and is produced by osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent calcitropic hormone which regulates osteoblastic function including the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. This study examines the effect of human PTH (hPTH-[1-34]) on the expression of this novel protein in rat osteoblast-like cells. hPTH(1-34) significantly decreased the amount of OP in culture media of the rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, ROS 17/2.8, detected by Western immunoblot analysis. hPTH(1-34) also suppressed the steady-state level of OP mRNA two- to threefold with an ED50 of approximately 3 X 10(-10) M. This inhibition was detectable at 24 h, reached its nadir at 48 h, and lasted at least up to 96 h. The hPTH(1-34) effects were mimicked by isobutylmethylxanthine, cholera toxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, forskolin, and isoproterenol. hPTH(1-34) suppressed by two- to threefold the rate of OP gene transcription, estimated by nuclear run-on assays. The suppression of OP mRNA levels by hPTH(1-34) was also seen when basal levels were increased by transforming growth factor type beta, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or were decreased by dexamethasone. A similar decrease in the steady-state level of OP mRNA by hPTH(1-34) was also observed in primary cultures of osteoblast-enriched cells from fetal rat calvaria. These findings indicate that hPTH(1-34) suppresses the production of the novel extracellular matrix protein, OP, in osteoblasts at least in part through transcriptional control.
Global energy balance in mammals is controlled by the actions of circulating hormones that coordinate fuel production and utilization in metabolically active tissues. Bone-derived osteocalcin, in its undercarboxylated, hormonal form, regulates fat deposition and is a potent insulin secretagogue. Here, we show that insulin receptor (IR) signaling in osteoblasts controls osteoblast development and osteocalcin expression by suppressing the Runx2 inhibitor Twist2. Mice lacking IR in osteoblasts have low circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin and reduced bone acquisition due to decreased bone formation and deficient numbers of osteoblasts. With age, these mice develop marked peripheral adiposity and hyperglycemia accompanied by severe glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The metabolic abnormalities in these mice are improved by infusion of exogenous undercarboxylated osteocalcin. These results indicate the existence of a bone-pancreas endocrine loop through which insulin signaling in the osteoblast ensures osteoblast differentiation and stimulates osteocalcin production, which in turn regulates insulin sensitivity and pancreatic insulin secretion to control glucose homeostasis.
Osteoporotic bones have reduced spongy bone mass, altered bone architecture, and increased marrow fat. Bone marrow stem cells from osteoporotic patients are more likely to differentiate into adipocytes than control cells, suggesting that adipocyte differentiation may play a role in osteoporosis. VEGF is highly expressed in osteoblastic precursor cells and is known to stimulate bone formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that VEGF is also an important regulator of cell fate, determining whether differentiation gives rise to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Mice with conditional VEGF deficiency in osteoblastic precursor cells exhibited an osteoporosis-like phenotype characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone marrow fat. In addition, reduced VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells resulted in reduced osteoblast and increased adipocyte differentiation. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced when VEGF receptor 1 or 2 was knocked down but was unaffected by treatment with recombinant VEGF or neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Our results suggested that VEGF controls differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells by regulating the transcription factors RUNX2 and PPARγ2 as well as through a reciprocal interaction with nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C. Importantly, our data support a model whereby VEGF regulates differentiation through an intracrine mechanism that is distinct from the role of secreted VEGF and its receptors.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands regulate key processes of cell biology, such as proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and tumorigenesis. We previously showed that EGFR signaling pathway is an important bone regulator and it primarily plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism. In this study, we demonstrated that EGF-like ligands strongly inhibited osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in several lines of osteoblastic cells. Real-time RT-PCR and promoter reporter assays revealed that EGF-like ligands suppressed the expression of both early and late bone marker genes at the transcriptional level in the differentiating osteoblasts via an EGFR-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of EGFR signaling was not dependent on its mitogenic activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR signaling reduced the expression of two major osteoblastic transcription factors Runx2 (type II) and Osterix in osteoblast differentiating cells. EGFR-induced decrease in Runx2 transcriptional activity was confirmed by Runx2 reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. EGFR signaling increased the protein amounts of transcription corepressors HDAC4 and 6 and overexpression of HDAC4 decreased Runx2 amount in differentiating osteoblasts, implying that HDACs contribute to the down-regulation of Runx2 by EGFR. Moreover, activation of EGFR in undifferentiated osteoprogenitors attenuated the expression of early bone markers and Osterix and decreased Runx2 protein amounts. Together with our previous data that EGFR stimulates osteoprogenitor proliferation and that blocking EGFR activity in osteoblast lineage cells results in fewer osteoprogenitors and osteopenic phenotype, we conclude that EGFR signaling is important for maintaining osteoprogenitor population at an undifferentiated stage.
EGFR; osteoblast differentiation; Runx2; osterix; HDAC
Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone that is encoded in the proglucagon gene. It is mainly produced in enteroendocrine L cells of the gut and is secreted into the blood stream when food containing fat, protein hydrolysate and/or glucose enters the duodenum. Its particular effects on insulin and glucagon secretion have generated a flurry of research activity over the past twenty years culminating in a naturally occurring GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, now being used to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 engages a specific G-protein coupled receptor that is present in tissues other than the pancreas (brain, kidney, lung, heart, major blood vessels). The most widely studied cell activated by GLP-1 is the insulin-secreting beta cell where its defining action is augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Upon GLP-1 receptor activation, adenylyl cyclase is activated and cAMP generated, leading, in turn, to cAMP-dependent activation of second messenger pathways, such as the PKA and Epac pathways. As well as short-term effects of enhancing glucose-induced insulin secretion, continuous GLP-1 receptor activation also increases insulin synthesis, and beta cell proliferation and neogenesis. Although these latter effects cannot be currently monitored in humans, there are substantial improvements in glucose tolerance and increases in both first phase and plateau phase insulin secretory responses in type 2 diabetic patients treated with exendin-4. This review we will focus on the effects resulting from GLP-1 receptor activation in islets of Langerhans
GLP-1 receptor; exendin-4; insulin synthesis and secretion; exendin (9-39); beta cell; islet of Langerhans; proliferation; differentiation; cAMP; PKA; Epac; PI3 kinase; FoxO1; IRS2; PDX-1
To fully understand the significance of bone as a target tissue of lead toxicity, as well as a reservoir of systemic lead, it is necessary to define the effects of lead on the cellular components of bone. Skeletal development and the regulation of skeletal mass are ultimately determined by the four different types of cells: osteoblasts, lining cells, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. These cells, which line and penetrate the mineralized matrix, are responsible for matrix formation, mineralization, and bone resorption, under the control of both systemic and local factors. Systemic components of regulation include parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and calcitonin: local regulators include numerous cytokines and growth factors. Lead intoxication directly and indirectly alters many aspects of bone cell function. First, lead may indirectly alter bone cell function through changes in the circulating levels of those hormones, particularly 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which modulate bone cell function. These hormonal changes have been well established in clinical studies, although the functional significance remains to be established. Second, lead may directly alter bone cell function by perturbing the ability of bone cells to respond to hormonal regulation. For example, the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated synthesis of osteocalcin, a calcium-binding protein synthesized by osteoblastic bone cells, is inhibited by low levels of lead. Impaired osteocalcin production may inhibit new bone formation, as well as the functional coupling of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Third, lead may impair the ability of cells to synthesize or secrete other components of the bone matrix, such as collagen or bone sialoproteins (osteopontin). Finally, lead may directly effect or substitute for calcium in the active sites of the calcium messenger system, resulting in loss of physiological regulation. The effects of lead on the recruitment and differentiation of bone cells remains to be established. Compartmental analysis indicates that the kinetic distribution and behavior of intracellular lead in osteoblasts and osteoclasts is similar to several other cell types. Many of the toxic effects of lead on bone cell function may be produced by perturbation of the calcium and cAMP messenger systems in these cells.
Insulin signaling in osteoblasts contributes to whole-body glucose homeostasis in the mouse and in humans by increasing the activity of osteocalcin. The osteoblast insulin signaling cascade is negatively regulated by ESP, a tyrosine phosphatase dephosphorylating the insulin receptor. Esp is one of many tyrosine phosphatases expressed in osteoblasts, and this observation suggests that other protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) may contribute to the attenuation of insulin receptor phosphorylation in this cell type. In this study, we sought to identify an additional PTP(s) that, like ESP, would function in the osteoblast to regulate insulin signaling and thus affect activity of the insulin-sensitizing hormone osteocalcin. For that purpose, we used as criteria expression in osteoblasts, regulation by isoproterenol, and ability to trap the insulin receptor in a substrate-trapping assay. Here we show that the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) regulates insulin receptor phosphorylation in the osteoblast, thus compromising bone resorption and bioactivity of osteocalcin. Accordingly, osteoblast-specific deletion of TC-PTP promotes insulin sensitivity in an osteocalcin-dependent manner. This study increases the number of genes involved in the bone regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most frequent of all secondary types of osteoporosis. The understanding of the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid (GC) induced bone loss is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment and prevention of debilitating fractures that occur predominantly in the spine. GIOP results from depressed bone formation due to lower activity and higher death rate of osteoblasts on the one hand, and from increased bone resorption due to prolonged lifespan of osteoclasts on the other. In addition, calcium/phosphate metabolism may be disturbed through GC effects on gut, kidney, parathyroid glands and gonads. Therefore, therapeutic agents aim at restoring balanced bone cell activity by directly decreasing apoptosis rate of osteoblasts (e.g., cyclical parathyroid hormone) or by increasing apoptosis rate of osteoclasts (e.g., bisphosphonates). Other therapeutical efforts aim at maintaining/restoring calcium/phosphate homeostasis: improving intestinal calcium absorption (using calcium supplementation, vitamin D and derivates) and avoiding increased urinary calcium loss (using thiazides) prevent or counteract a secondary hyperparathyroidism. Bisphosphonates, particularly the aminobisphosphonates risedronate and alendronate, have been shown to protect patients on GCs from (further) bone loss and to reduce vertebral fracture risk. Calcitonin may be of interest in situations where bisphosphonates are contraindicated or not applicable and in cases where acute pain due to vertebral fracture has to be managed. The intermittent administration of 1-34-parathormone may be an appealing treatment alternative, based on its documented anabolic effects on bone resulting from the reduction of osteoblastic apoptosis. Calcium and vitamin D should be a systematic adjunctive measure to any drug treatment for GIOP. Based on currently available evidence, fluoride, androgens, estrogens (opposed or unopposed) cannot be recommended for the prevention and treatment of GIOP. However, substitution of gonadal hormones may be indicated if GC-induced hypogonadism is present and leads to clinical symptoms. Data using the SERM raloxifene to treat or prevent GIOP are lacking, as are data using the promising bone anabolic agent strontium ranelate. Kyphoplasty performed in appropriately selected osteoporotic patients with painful vertebral fractures is a promising addition to current medical treatment.
Glucocorticosteroids; Osteoporosis; Pathophysiology; Bisphosphonates; Parathormone
Growth factors are in clinical use to stimulate bone growth and regeneration. BMP-2 is used in long bone and spinal surgery, PDGFbb for the treatment of periodontal defects and children with growth hormone receptor deficiency are treated with IGF-I.
Aim of the present study was the comparative analysis of the effect of these growth factors released from a local drug delivery system on cells of the osteogenic lineage at differing differentiation stages.
The experiments with the mesenchymal cell line C2C12 revealed a proliferating effect of all three growth factors and a differentiating effect of BMP-2 with a dramatic increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. None of the growth factors stimulated cell migration.
Human osteoblast like cells showed similar results with an increase in proliferation after stimulation with IGF-I or PDGFbb. The enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced only in the cells stimulated with BMP-2. This group showed also more mineralized matrix compared to the other groups.
In conclusion, the growth factors IGF-I and PDGFbb delivered with a local drug delivery system stimulated cell proliferation, whereas BMP-2 showed a dramatic effect on differentiation on osteoblast precursor cells and osteoblast like cells.
The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance.
Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation.
Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain–gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance.
The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain–gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity.
pancreatic polypeptide; peptide YY; ghrelin; glucagon-like peptide 1; oxyntomodulin; cholecystokinin
Cancellous bone decreases and bone marrow fat content increases with age. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from a common precursor, and growth hormone (GH), a key hormone in integration of energy metabolism, regulates the differentiation and function of both cell lineages. Since an age-related decline in GH is associated with bone loss, we investigated the relationship between GH and bone marrow adiposity in hypophysectomized (HYPOX) rats and in mice with defects in GH signaling. HYPOX dramatically reduced body weight gain, bone growth and mineralizing perimeter, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and mRNA levels for IGF-1 in liver and bone. Despite reduced body mass and adipocyte precursor pool size, HYPOX resulted in a dramatic increase in bone lipid levels, as reflected by increased bone marrow adiposity and bone triglyceride and cholesterol content. GH replacement normalized bone marrow adiposity and precursor pool size, as well as mineralizing perimeter in HYPOX rats. In contrast, 17β -estradiol, IGF-1, thyroxine, and cortisone were ineffective. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) reversed the inhibitory effects of HYPOX on mineralizing perimeter but had no effect on adiposity. Finally, bone marrow adiposity was increased in mice deficient in GH and IGF-1 but not in mice deficient in serum IGF-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that the reciprocal changes in bone and fat mass in GH signaling-deficient rodents are not directly coupled with one another. Rather, GH enhances adipocyte as well as osteoblast precursor pool size. However, GH increases osteoblast differentiation while suppressing bone marrow lipid accumulation. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
osteoblasts; adipocytes; IGF-1; estrogen; parathyroid hormone
Osteoblasts are bone forming cells that play an essential role in osteogenesis. The elucidation of the mechanisms that control osteoblast number is of major interest for the treatment of skeletal disorders characterized by abnormal bone formation. Canonical Wnt signalling plays an important role in the control of osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and survival. Recent studies indicate that the cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin interacts with the Wnt co-receptors LRP5/6 to regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone accrual. The role of N-cadherin in the control of osteoblast proliferation and survival remains unknown.
Methods and Principal Findings
Using murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and N-cadherin transgenic mice, we demonstrate that N-cadherin overexpression inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The negative effect of N-cadherin on cell proliferation results from decreased Wnt, ERK and PI3K/Akt signalling and is restored by N-cadherin neutralizing antibody that antagonizes N-cadherin-LRP5 interaction. Inhibition of Wnt signalling using DKK1 or Sfrp1 abolishes the ability of N-cadherin blockade to restore ERK and PI3K signalling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in N-cadherin overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signalling. Consistently, we found that N-cadherin overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt3a ligand and its downstream targets c-myc and cyclin D1, an effect that is partially reversed by N-cadherin blockade. We also show that N-cadherin overexpression decreases osteoblast survival in vitro and in vivo. This negative effect on cell survival results from inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling and increased Bax/Bcl-2, a mechanism that is rescued by Wnt3a.
The data show that N-cadherin negatively controls osteoblast proliferation and survival via inhibition of autocrine/paracrine Wnt3a ligand expression and attenuation of Wnt, ERK and PI3K/Akt signalling, which provides novel mechanisms by which N-cadherin regulates osteoblast number.
Bone never forms without vascular interactions. This simple statement of fact does not adequately reflect the physiological and pharmacological implications of the relationship. The vasculature is the conduit for nutrient exchange between bone and the rest of the body. The vasculature provides the sustentacular niche for development of osteoblast progenitors, and is the conduit for egress of bone marrow cell products arising, in turn, from the osteoblast-dependent hematopoietic niche. Importantly, the second most calcified structure in humans after the skeleton is the vasculature. Once considered a passive process of dead and dying cells, vascular calcification has emerged as an actively regulated form of tissue biomineralization. Skeletal morphogens and osteochondrogenic transcription factors are elaborated by cells within the vessel wall, regulating the deposition of vascular calcium. Osteotropic hormones including parathyroid hormone regulate both vascular and skeletal mineralization. Cellular, endocrine, and metabolic signals flow bidirectionally between the vasculature and bone that are necessary for both bone health and vascular health. Dysmetabolic states including diabetes, uremia, and hyperlipidemia perturb the bone-vascular axis, giving rise to devastating vascular and skeletal disease. A detailed understanding of bone-vascular interactions is needed to address the unmet clinical needs of our increasingly aged and dysmetabolic population.
Cellular mechanotransduction, the process of converting mechanical signals into biochemical responses within cells, is a critical aspect of bone health. While the effects of mechanical loading on bone are well recognized, elucidating the specific molecular pathways involved in the processing of mechanical signals by bone cells represents a challenge and an opportunity to identify therapeutic strategies to combat bone loss. In this study we have for the first time examined the relationship between the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling transcription factor nuclear matrix protein-4/cas interacting zinc finger protein (Nmp4/CIZ) and β-catenin signaling in response to a physiologic mechanical stimulation (oscillatory fluid shear stress, OFSS) in osteoblasts. Using calvaria-derived osteoblasts from Nmp4-deficient and wild-type mice, we found that the normal translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus in osteoblasts that is induced by OFSS is enhanced when Nmp4/CIZ is absent. Furthermore, we found that other aspects of OFSS-induced mechanotransduction generally associated with the β-catenin signaling pathway, including ERK, Akt and GSK3β activity, as well as expression of the β-catenin-responsive protein cyclin D1 are also enhanced in cells lacking Nmp4/CIZ. Finally, we found that in the absence of Nmp4/CIZ, OFSS-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and the formation of focal adhesions between osteoblasts and the extracellular substrate is qualitatively enhanced, suggesting that Nmp4/CIZ may reduce the sensitivity of bone cells to mechanical stimuli. Together these results provide experimental support for the concept that Nmp4/CIZ plays an inhibitory role in the response of bone cells to mechanical stimulation induced by OFSS.
Akt; bone; ERK; fluid shear mechanosome; mechanotransduction
Canonical BMP and Wnt signaling pathways play critical roles in regulation of osteoblast function and bone formation. Recent studies demonstrate that BMP-2 acts synergistically with β-catenin to promote osteoblast differentiation. To determine the molecular mechanisms of the signaling cross-talk between canonical BMP and Wnt signaling pathways, we have used primary osteoblasts and osteoblast precursor cell lines 2T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells to investigate the effect of BMP-2 on β-catenin signaling. We found that BMP-2 stimulates Lrp5 expression and inhibits the expression of β-TrCP, the F-box E3 ligase responsible for β-catenin degradation and subsequently increases β-catenin protein levels in osteoblasts. In vitro deletion of the β-catenin gene inhibits osteoblast proliferation and alters osteoblast differentiation and reduces the responsiveness of osteoblasts to the BMP-2 treatment. These findings suggest that BMP-2 may regulate osteoblast function in part through modulation of the β-catenin signaling.
BMP-2; β-CATENIN; LRP5; β-TrCP; OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION
Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease. The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestinal venous outflow, the liver represents the first line of defense against gut-derived antigens and is equipped with a broad array of immune cells (i.e., macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells) to accomplish this function. In the setting of tissue injury, whereby the liver is otherwise damaged (e.g., viral infection, toxin exposure, ischemic tissue damage, etc.), these same immune cell populations and their interactions with the infiltrating gut bacteria likely contribute to and promote these pathologies. The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology. Defining these connections will likely provide new targets for therapy or prevention of a wide variety of acute and chronic liver pathologies.
Prolongation of cell survival through prevention of apoptosis is considered to be a significant factor leading to anabolic responses in bone. The current studies were carried out to determine the role of the small GTPase, RhoA, in osteoblast apoptosis, since RhoA has been found to be critical for cell survival in other tissues. We investigated the effects of inhibitors and activators of RhoA signaling on osteoblast apoptosis. In addition, we assessed the relationship of this pathway to parathyroid hormone (PTH) effects on apoptotic signaling and cell survival. Rho A is activated by geranylgeranylation, which promotes its membrane anchoring. In serum-starved MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, inhibition of geranylgeranylation with geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitors increased activity of caspase-3, a component step in the apoptosis cascade, and increased cell death. Dominant negative RhoA and Y27632, an inhibitor of the RhoA effector Rho kinase, also increased caspase-3 activity. A geranylgeranyl group donor, geranylgeraniol, antagonized the effect of the geranylgeranyl tranferase I inhibitor GGTI-2166, but could not overcome the effect of the Rho kinase inhibitor. PTH 1–34, a potent antiapoptotic agent, completely antagonized the stimulatory effects of GGTI-2166, dominant negative RhoA, and Y27632, on caspase-3 activity. The results suggest that RhoA signaling is essential for osteoblastic cell survival but that the survival effects of PTH 1–34 are independent of this pathway.
osteoblast; RhoA; apoptosis; parathyroid hormone
Daily injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a clinically approved treatment for osteoporosis. It suppresses apoptosis of bone forming osteoblasts although its exact anti-apoptotic mechanism(s) is incompletely understood. In this study, PTH treatment of cultured osteoblasts blocked the pro-apoptotic effects of serum withdrawal and nutrient deprivation; hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress, and UV irradiation. We hypothesized that PTH might suppress osteoblast apoptosis by enhancing DNA repair. Evidence is provided showing that post-confluent, non-proliferating osteoblasts treated with PTH exhibited a protein kinase A-mediated activation of two proteins that regulate DNA repair processes (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and forkhead box transcription factor 3a) as well as a suppression of the pro-apoptotic growth arrest and DNA damage protein 153. Additional proof of a connection between DNA damage and osteoblast apoptosis came from an unexpected finding whereby a majority of fixed PTH-treated osteoblasts scored weakly positive for Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL), even though similar cultures were determined to be viable via a trypsin replating strategy. TUNEL identifies DNA excision repair, not just apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and the most likely explanation of these TUNEL results is that PTH's activation of DNA repair processes would permit nucleotide incorporation as a result of enhanced excision repair. This explanation was confirmed by an enhanced incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine in PTH-treated cells even though a majority of the cell population was determined to be non-replicating. An augmentation of DNA repair by PTH is an unreported finding, and provides an additional explanation for its anti-apoptotic mechanism(s).
osteoblast; parathyroid hormone; apoptosis; DNA repair; DNA damage
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring sulfur compound with well-known anti-oxidant properties and anti-inflammatory activities. But, its effects on bone are unknown. Growth hormone (GH) is regulator of bone growth and bone metabolism. GH activates several signaling pathways such as the Janus kinase (Jak)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway, thereby regulating expression of genes including insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. GH exerts effects both directly and via IGF-1, which signals by activating the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). In this study, we investigated the effects of MSM on the GH signaling via the Jak/STAT pathway in osteoblasts and the differentiation of primary bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSM was not toxic to osteoblastic cells and MSCs. MSM increased the expression of GH-related proteins including IGF-1R, p-IGF-1R, STAT5b, p-STAT5b, and Jak2 in osteoblastic cells and MSCs. MSM increased IGF-1R and GHR mRNA expression in osteoblastic cells. The expression of MSM-induced IGF-1R and GHR was inhibited by AG490, a Jak2 kinase inhibitor. MSM induced binding of STAT5 to the IGF-1R and increased IGF-1 and IGF-1R promoter activities. Analysis of cell extracts by immunoprecipitation and Western blot showed that MSM enhanced GH-induced activation of Jak2/STAT5b. We found that MSM and GH, separately or in combination, activated GH signaling via the Jak2/STAT5b pathway in UMR-106 cells. Using siRNA analysis, we found that STAT5b plays an essential role in GH signaling activation in C3H10T1/2 cells. Osteogenic marker genes (ALP, ON, OCN, BSP, OSX, and Runx2) were activated by MSM, and siRNA-mediated STAT5b knockdown inhibited MSM-induced expression of osteogenic markers. Furthermore, MSM increased ALP activity and the mineralization of MSCs. Taken together, these results indicated that MSM can promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through activation of STAT5b.
Background: A RANKL-binding peptide WP9QY (W9) is known to inhibit osteoclastogenesis.
Results: W9 showed an anabolic effect on cortical bone in mice. W9 bound RANKL and differentiated osteoblasts with production of autocrine factors like BMP-4.
Conclusion: Signaling through RANKL is involved in part in the W9-induced osteoblast differentiation.
Significance: The RANKL pathway could be a novel mechanism in osteoblast differentiation.
To date, parathyroid hormone is the only clinically available bone anabolic drug. The major difficulty in the development of such drugs is the lack of clarification of the mechanisms regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here, we report a peptide (W9) known to abrogate osteoclast differentiation in vivo via blocking receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling that we surprisingly found exhibits a bone anabolic effect in vivo. Subcutaneous administration of W9 three times/day for 5 days significantly augmented bone mineral density in mouse cortical bone. Histomorphometric analysis showed a decrease in osteoclastogenesis in the distal femoral metaphysis and a significant increase in bone formation in the femoral diaphysis. Our findings suggest that W9 exerts bone anabolic activity. To clarify the mechanisms involved in this activity, we investigated the effects of W9 on osteoblast differentiation/mineralization in MC3T3-E1 (E1) cells. W9 markedly increased alkaline phosphatase (a marker enzyme of osteoblasts) activity and mineralization as shown by alizarin red staining. Gene expression of several osteogenesis-related factors was increased in W9-treated E1 cells. Addition of W9 activated p38 MAPK and Smad1/5/8 in E1 cells, and W9 showed osteogenesis stimulatory activity synergistically with BMP-2 in vitro and ectopic bone formation. Knockdown of RANKL expression in E1 cells reduced the effect of W9. Furthermore, W9 showed a weak effect on RANKL-deficient osteoblasts in alkaline phosphatase assay. Taken together, our findings suggest that this peptide may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases, and W9 achieves its bone anabolic activity through RANKL on osteoblasts accompanied by production of several autocrine factors.
Bone; Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP); Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Osteoblasts; Peptides; Bidirectional Signaling; Coupling; Osteoclasts; RANK; RANKL
Patients with HIV infection have decreased numbers of osteoblasts, decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture compared to uninfected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. We questioned whether Gp120, a component of the envelope protein of HIV capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types, is able to induce cell death in bone-forming osteoblasts. We show that treatment of immortalized osteoblast-like cells and primary human osteoblasts with exogenous Gp120 in vitro at physiologic concentrations does not result in apoptosis. Instead, in the osteoblast-like U2OS cell line, cells expressing CXCR4, a receptor for Gp120, had increased proliferation when treated with Gp120 compared to control (P<0.05), which was inhibited by pretreatment with a CXCR4 inhibitor and a G-protein inhibitor. This suggests that Gp120 is not an inducer of apoptosis in human osteoblasts and likely does not directly contribute to osteoporosis in infected patients by this mechanism.