Literature supports the “response-to-retention” hypothesis—that during insulin resistance, impaired metabolism of remnant lipoproteins can contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease progression. We used the JCR:LA-cp rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine the extent of arterial accumulation of intestinal-derived remnants ex vivo and potential mechanisms that contribute to exacerbated cholesterol deposition in insulin resistance.
Methods and Results
Arteries from control and MetS (insulin-resistant) JCR:LA-cp rats were perfused ex vivo with Cy5-labeled remnant lipoproteins, and their arterial retention was quantified by confocal microscopy. Arterial proteoglycans were isolated from control and MetS rats at 6, 12, and 32 weeks of age. There was a significant increase in the arterial retention of remnants and in associated cholesterol accumulation in MetS rats as compared to control rats. Mechanistic studies reveal that increased cholesterol deposition is a result of greater arterial biglycan content; longer glycosaminoglycans and increased production of cholesterol-rich intestinal-derived remnants, as compared to controls. Additionally, perfusion of vessels treated with ezetimibe, alone or in combination with simvastatin, with remnants isolated from the respective treatment group reduced ex vivo arterial retention of remnant-derived cholesterol ex vivo as compared to untreated controls.
Increased progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus might be explained in part by an increase in the arterial retention of cholesterol-rich remnants. Furthermore, ezetimibe alone or in combination treatment with simvastatin could be beneficial in ameliorating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in insulin resistance and MetS.
arterial remodeling; biglycan; metabolic syndrome; triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins
The objectives of this study were to use magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging to 1) characterize the aortic neovascular development in a rat model of atherosclerosis and 2) monitor the effects of an appetite suppressant on vascular angiogenesis progression.
The James C. Russell:LA corpulent rat strain (JCR:LA-cp) is a model of metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and vasculopathy, although plaque neovascularity has not been reported in this strain. MR molecular imaging with ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles can serially map angiogenesis in the aortic wall and monitor the progression of atherosclerosis.
Six-week old JCR:LA-cp (+/?; lean, n = 5) and JCR:LA-cp (cp/cp; obese, n = 5) rats received standard chow, and 6 obese rats were fed the appetite suppressant benfluorex over 16 weeks. Body weight and food consumption were recorded at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. MR molecular imaging with ανβ3-targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles was performed at weeks 0, 8, and 16. Fasted plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose were measured immediately before MR scans. Plasma insulin and leptin levels were assayed at weeks 8 and 16.
Benfluorex reduced food consumption (p < 0.05) to the same rate as lean animals, but had no effect on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. MR (3-T) aortic signal enhancement with ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles was initially equivalent between groups, but increased (p < 0.05) in the untreated obese animals over 16 weeks. No signal change (p > 0.05) was observed in the benfluorex-treated or lean rat groups. MR differences paralleled adventitial microvessel counts, which increased (p < 0.05) among the obese rats and were equivalently low in the lean and benfluorex-treated animals (p > 0.05). Body weight, insulin, and leptin were decreased (p < 0.05) from the untreated obese animals by benfluorex, but not to the lean control levels (p < 0.05).
Neovascular expansion is a prominent feature of the JCR:LA-cp model. MR imaging with ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles provided a noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis in untreated obese rats, which was suppressed by benfluorex.
angiogenesis; atherosclerosis; metabolic syndrome; nanoparticle
This study assessed the long-term effects of dietary vaccenic acid (VA) and elaidic acid (EA) on plasma and splenocyte phospholipid (PL) composition and related changes in inflammation and splenocyte phenotypes and cytokine responses in obese/insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Relative to lean control (Ctl), obese Ctl rats had higher serum haptoglobin and impaired T-cell-stimulated cytokine responses. VA and EA diets improved T-cell-stimulated cytokine production; but, only VA normalized serum haptoglobin. However, EA- and VA-fed rats had enhanced LPS-stimulated cytokine responses. The changes elicited by VA were likely due changes in essential fatty acid composition in PL; whereas EA-induced changes may due to direct incorporation into membrane PL.
vaccenic acid; elaidic acid; phospholipid; obese; immune; inflammation; cytokines; trans fat
Studies in rodents and some studies in humans have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), especially its trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduces body fat content. However, some but not all studies in mice and humans (though none in rats) have found that CLA promotes insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear, and there are conflicting reports on the effects of CLA on peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activation and expression. We have conducted three experiments with CLA in obese mice over three weeks, and one over eleven weeks. We have also investigated the effects of CLA isomers in PPARγ and PPARα reporter gene assays.
Inclusion of CLA or CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer in the diet of female genetically obese (lepob/lepob) mice for up to eleven weeks reduced body weight gain and white fat pad weight. After two weeks, in contrast to beneficial effects obtained with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, CLA or CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer raised fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, and exacerbated glucose tolerance. After 10 weeks, however, CLA had beneficial effects on glucose and insulin concentrations. At this time, CLA had no effect on the plasma TNFα concentration, but it markedly reduced the plasma adiponectin concentration. CLA and CLA enriched with either isomer raised the plasma triglyceride concentration during the first three weeks, but not subsequently. CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer, but not with its cis-9, trans-11 isomer, stimulated PPARγ-mediated reporter gene activity; both isomers stimulated PPARα-mediated reporter gene activity.
CLA initially decreased but subsequently increased insulin sensitivity in lepob/lepob mice. Activation of both PPARγ and PPARα may contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity. In the short term, however, another mechanism, activated primarily by trans-10, cis-12-CLA, which probably leads to reduced adipocyte number and consequently reduced plasma adiponectin concentration, may decrease insulin sensitivity.
Leptin signaling deficient rodents have emerged as models of obesity/insulin resistance syndrome. Altered leptin signaling, however, can affect axial and appendicular bone geometrical properties differently, and, thus, we hypothesized that leptin-deficiency would differentially influence mechanical properties of vertebrae and tibiae compared to lean rats. Mature (9 mo) leptin receptor deficient obese (cp/cp; n = 8) and lean (+/?; n = 7) male JCR:LA-corpulent rats were used to test that hypothesis. Tibiae and the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were scanned with micro-CT and were broken in three point-bending (tibiae) or axial loading (L6). Supporting the hypothesis, vertebrae and tibiae were differentially affected by leptin signaling deficiency. Tibiae, but not vertebrae, were significantly shorter in obese rats and achieved a significantly greater load (>18%), displacement (>15%), and stress (>18%) at the proportional limit, relative to the lean rats. Conversely, L6 in obese rats had significantly reduced displacement (>25%) and strain (>32%) at proportional limit, relative to the lean rats. Those combined results suggest that the etiology and duration of obesity may be important determinants of bone mechanical properties, and axial and appendicular bones may be affected differently.
Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adiopcytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA’s effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and several of its downstream target genes when compared with vehicle controls. Transient transfections demonstrated that both CLA isomers antagonized ligand-dependent activation of PPARγ. Collectively, trans-10,cis-12, but not cis-9, trans-11, CLA decreased glucose and lipid uptake and oxidation and preadipocyte differentiation by altering preadipocyte gene transcription in a manner that appeared to be due, in part, to decreased PPARγ expression.
conjugated linoleic acid; fatty acids; lipid metabolism; glucose metabolism; triglycerides; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; ACBP, acyl-CoA binding protein; ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; aP2/FABP, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein; BCA, bicinchoninic acid; BMI, body mass index; BSA, bovine serum albumin; CD-36, fatty acid translocase; C/EBPα, CAAT/enhancer binding protein α; CLA, conjugated linoleic acid; GC, gas chromatography; GLUT4, insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4; GPDH, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HSL, hormone-sensitive lipase; IBMX, isobutylmethylxanthine; LA, linoleic acid; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; ORO, oil red O; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; PPRE, peroxisome proliferator response element; SCD-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1; SFA, saturated fatty acid; SV, stromal vascular; TG, triglyceride
There are 2 predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid (VA) and the naturally occurring isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA). The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence base from epidemiological and clinical studies to determine whether intake of rTFA isomers, specifically VA and c9,t11-CLA, differentially affects risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer compared with iTFA. In addition, animal and cell culture studies are reviewed to explore potential pro- and antiatherogenic mechanisms of VA and c9,t11-CLA. Some epidemiological studies suggest that a positive association with coronary heart disease risk exists between only iTFA isomers and not rTFA isomers. Small clinical studies have been conducted to establish cause-and-effect relationships between these different sources of TFA and biomarkers or risk factors of CVD with inconclusive results. The lack of detection of treatment effects reported in some studies may be due to insufficient statistical power. Many studies have used doses of rTFA that are not realistically attainable via diet; thus, further clinical studies are warranted. Associations between iTFA intake and cancer have been inconsistent, and associations between rTFA intake and cancer have not been well studied. Clinical studies have not been conducted investigating the cause-and-effect relationship between iTFA and rTFA intake and risk for cancers. Further research is needed to determine the health effects of VA and c9,t11-CLA in humans.
Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.
Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), have been reported to have a number of isomer-dependent effects on lipid metabolism including reduction in adipose tissue deposition, changes in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and hepatic lipid accumulation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of individual CLA isomers against lipogenic and high “Western” fat background diets. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-carbohydrate rodent chow or chow supplemented with 17.25% fat formulated to represent the type and amount of fatty acids found in a typical “Western” diet (including 0.2% cholesterol). Diets were further supplemented with 0.25% (w/w) rapeseed oil, cis9, trans11 (c9,t11)-CLA or trans10, cis12 (t10,c12)-CLA. Neither isomer had a significant impact on plasma lipid or lipoprotein concentrations. The t10,c12-CLA isomer significantly reduced perirenal adipose tissue depot mass. While adipose tissue acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthase mRNA concentrations (as measured by quantitative PCR) were unaffected by CLA, lipoprotein lipase mRNA was specifically reduced by t10,c12-CLA, on both background diets (p<0.001). This was associated with a specific reduction of SREBP1c expression in perirenal adipose tissue (p=0.018). The isomers appear to have divergent effects on liver triacylglycerol content with c9,t11-CLA producing lower concentrations than t10,c12-CLA. We conclude that t10,c12-CLA modestly reduces adipose tissue deposition in the Golden Syrian hamster independently of background diet and this may possibly result from reduced uptake of lipoprotein fatty acids, as a consequence of reduced LPL gene expression.
Conjugated linoleic acid; lipoprotein lipase; SREBP; hamster
Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed.
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA.
The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups.
Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring anticarcinogen found in dairy products, is an intermediary product of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Few data exist on the CLA content of the human blood plasma. The determination of a "normal" content could help in estimating if a person consumes satisfactory amounts of CLA with the diet and thus takes advantage of its potential beneficial effects on health. The purpose of this study was to compare the plasma CLA content of individuals not consuming dairy products (group 1, n = 12), individuals consuming normal amounts of dairy products (group 2, n = 77) and individuals consuming CLA supplement (group 3, n = 12). The only CLA isomer that presented higher percentage than the detection limit (0.03% of total fatty acids) was rumenic acid (cis9, trans11-octadecadienoic acid). An interesting finding is that compared to the other two groups, group 3 members show the highest average plasma content in rumenic acid, i.e. 0.20% of total fatty acids. The present study could be characterized as the first step in the direction of establishing a normal CLA content of human plasma. Based on these results, it could be suggested that the lower limit of the plasma CLA content is approximately 0.1% of total fatty acids.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double-bond system. Thus, it was the objective to investigate whether milk composition and metabolic key parameters are affected by adding CLA to the diet of dairy cows in the first four weeks of lactation.
A study was carried out with five primiparous cows fed a CLA supplemented diet compared to five primiparous cows without CLA supplementation. CLA supplemented cows received 7.5 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% cis(c)9,trans(t)11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA) starting two weeks before expected calving and 20 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% c9,t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA) throughout day 1 to 28 of lactation.
The CLA supplement was insufficiently accepted by the animals: only 61.5% of the intended amount was ingested. Fed CLA were detectable in milk fat, whereas contents of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA in milk fat were higher for CLA supplemented cows compared to the control group. On average over the entire treatment period, there was a decrease of saturated fatty acids (FA) in milk fat of CLA supplemented cows, combined with a higher content of monounsaturated and trans FA.
Our study revealed no significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA supplementation either on milk yield and composition or on metabolic key parameters in blood. Furthermore the experiment did not indicate significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA-supplementation on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), PPARγ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver tissue.
Feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA during the first weeks after calving did not affect metabolic key parameters of blood serum or milk composition of fresh cows. Milk fatty acid composition was changed by feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA resulting in higher contents of these isomers in milk fat. High contents of long chain FA in milk fat indicate that CLA supplementation during the first four weeks of lactation did not affect massive peripheral lipomobilization.
Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadienoic acid. Preceding the production of CLA, hydroxy fatty acids identified as 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecaenoic acid and 10-hydroxy-trans-12-octadecaenoic acid had accumulated. The isolated 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecaenoic acid was transformed into CLA during incubation with washed cells of L. acidophilus, suggesting that this hydroxy fatty acid is one of the intermediates of CLA production from linoleic acid. The washed cells of L. acidophilus producing high levels of CLA were obtained by cultivation in a medium containing linoleic acid, indicating that the enzyme system for CLA production is induced by linoleic acid. After 4 days of reaction with these washed cells, more than 95% of the added linoleic acid (5 mg/ml) was transformed into CLA, and the CLA content in total fatty acids recovered exceeded 80% (wt/wt). Almost all of the CLA produced was in the cells or was associated with the cells as free fatty acid.
We conducted an in-depth investigation of the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the expression of key metabolic genes and genes of known importance in intestinal lipid metabolism using the Caco-2 cell model. Cells were treated with 80 μmol/L of linoleic acid (control), trans-10, cis-12 CLA or cis-9, trans-11 CLA. RNA was isolated from the cells, labelled and hybridized to the Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus arrays (n = 3). Data and functional analysis were preformed using Bioconductor. Gene ontology analysis (GO) revealed a significant enrichment (P < 0.0001) for the GO term lipid metabolism with genes up-regulated by trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, altered the expression of a number of genes involved in lipid transport, fatty acid metabolism, lipolysis, β-oxidation, steroid metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, membrane lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and the citrate cycle. These observations warrant further investigation to understand their potential role in the metabolic syndrome.
Conjugated linoleic acid; Gene expression; Caco-2 cells
In obesity, increased activity of the local renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and enlarged adipocytes with altered adipokine production are linked to the development of obesity-related health problems and cardiovascular disease. Mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been shown to reduce adipocyte size and alter the production of adipokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding individual CLA isomers on adipocyte size and adipokines associated with the local adipose RAS. Male fa/fa Zucker rats received either (a) control, (b) cis(c)9,trans(t)11-CLA, or (c) t10,c12-CLA diet for 8 weeks. The t10,c12-CLA isomer reduced adipocyte size and increased cell number in epididymal adipose tissue. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that neither CLA isomer altered mRNA or protein levels of angiotensinogen or AngII receptors in adipose tissue. Likewise, levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were unchanged in adipose tissue. Similarly, neither CLA isomer had any effect on phosphorylation nor DNA binding of NF-κB. Our results suggest that although the t10,c12-CLA isomer had beneficial effects on reducing adipocyte size in obese rats, this did not translate into changes in the local adipose RAS or associated adipokines.
Angiotensinogen; Adipokines; Adipocyte; Conjugated linoleic acid; Adipose; Obesity
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)], have been studied extensively due to their ability to modulate cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, immune function and diabetes in a variety of experimental models. The purpose of this review was to examine CLA’s isomer-specific regulation of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in humans and in cultures of human adipocytes. It has been clearly demonstrated that specific CLA isomers or a crude mixture of CLA isomers prevent the development of obesity in certain rodent and pig models. This has been attributed mainly to trans-10, cis-12 CLA, both in vivo and in vitro. However, CLA’s ability to modulate human obesity remains controversial because data from clinical trials using mixed isomers are conflicting. In support of some studies in humans, our group demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 CLA prevents triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary cultures of differentiating human preadipocytes. In contrast, cis-9, trans-11 CLA increases TG content. Closer examination has revealed that CLA’s antiadipogenic actions are due, at least in part, to regulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake and metabolism. This review presents our current understanding of potential isomer-specific mechanisms by which CLA reduces human adiposity and insulin sensitivity.
conjugated linoleic acid; human adipocytes; obesity; insulin sensitivity; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ
The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has low water solubility, using nanoemulsion technology and to evaluate the effects of its improved bioavailability as an antiobesity agent.
The antiobesity effect of nanoemulsified water-soluble conjugated linoleic acid (N-CLA) was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo studies. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with CLA and N-CLA to assess their lipolytic effect. Further, to confirm the antiobesity effect of N-CLA, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into four groups, ie, a group fed a normal diet, a group fed a high-fat diet (obesity rat model), a CLA-treated group, and an N-CLA-treated group.
N-CLA showed a greater lipolytic effect on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with normal CLA. N-CLA enhanced the release of glycerol from triglycerides, which accumulated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Further, N-CLA enhanced leptin secretion to an extent similar to that of orlistat, an antiobesity agent. In an animal obesity model fed a high-fat diet, N-CLA attenuated accumulation of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum, and also significantly decreased the volume of triglycerides and cholesterol in liver tissue.
These results indicate that N-CLA has a greater antiobesity effect than CLA as a result of its improved bioavailability.
conjugated linoleic acid; nanoemulsion; water-soluble; improved bioavailability; antiobesity
Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.
This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.
There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03).
Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure.
conjugated linoleic acid; metabolic syndrome; body composition; cardiovascular disease
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid) being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies.
Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark) given intragastrically) and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene). Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted.
Results and conclusions
The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma) occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil) and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018). There were no differences in body and organs weight.
The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33%) and cis-9, trans-11 (31%). Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes.
Although the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have several isomer-specific biological effects including anti-carcinogenic and anti-adipogenic effects, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. To determine their potential effects on membrane structure and function, we studied the incorporation profiles of four CLA isomers (trans-10 cis-12 (A), trans-9 trans-11 (B), cis-9 trans-11 (C), and cis-9 cis-11 (D)) in CHO and HepG2 cells. All four isomers were incorporated into cellular lipids as efficiently as linoleic acid (LA), with the majority of the incorporated CLA present in membrane rafts. Of the four isomers, only CLA-A increased the cholesterol content of the raft fraction. Over 50% of the incorporated CLAs were recovered in phosphatidylcholine of CHO cells, but in HepG2 the neutral lipids contained the majority of CLA. The desaturation index (18:1/18:0 and 16:1/16:0) was reduced by CLA-A, but increased by CLA-B, the effects being apparent mostly in raft lipids. The Δ9 desaturase activity was inhibited by CLAs A and C. Unlike LA, which was mostly found in the sn-2 position of phospholipids, most CLAs were also incorporated significantly into the sn-1 position in both cell types. These studies show that the incorporation profiles of CLA isomers differ significantly from that of LA, and this could lead to alterations in membrane function, especially in the raft-associated proteins.
Conjugated linoleic acid; membrane raft; desaturation index; positional distribution; stearoyl CoA desaturase; raft cholesterol
Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA) from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.
Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids from ruminant animals are less clear. We reviewed the literature, estimated the effects trans fatty acids from ruminant sources and of conjugated trans linoleic acid (CLA) on blood lipoproteins, and compared these with industrial trans fatty acids.
We searched Medline and scanned reference lists for intervention trials that reported effects of industrial trans fatty acids, ruminant trans fatty acids or conjugated linoleic acid on LDL and HDL cholesterol in humans. The 39 studies that met our criteria provided results of 29 treatments with industrial trans fatty acids, 6 with ruminant trans fatty acids and 17 with CLA. Control treatments differed between studies; to enable comparison between studies we recalculated for each study what the effect of trans fatty acids on lipoprotein would be if they isocalorically replaced cis mono unsaturated fatty acids. In linear regression analysis the plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio increased by 0.055 (95%CI 0.044–0.066) for each % of dietary energy from industrial trans fatty acids replacing cis monounsaturated fatty acids The increase in the LDL to HDL ratio for each % of energy was 0.038 (95%CI 0.012–0.065) for ruminant trans fatty acids, and 0.043 (95% CI 0.012–0.074) for conjugated linoleic acid (p = 0.99 for difference between CLA and industrial trans fatty acids; p = 0.37 for ruminant versus industrial trans fatty acids).
Published data suggest that all fatty acids with a double bond in the trans configuration raise the ratio of plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol.
Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (trans-10, cis-12-CLA) fed to obese and nonobese rodents reduces body fat but leads to greater liver mass due to steatosis. The molecular mechanisms accompanying such responses remain largely unknown. Our study investigated the effects of chronic low trans-10, cis-12-CLA supplementation on hepatic expression of 39 genes related to metabolism, inflammation, and stress in growing mice. Feeding a diet supplemented with 0.3% trans-10, cis-12-CLA (wt/wt basis) for 6 weeks increased liver mass and concentration of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in liver, while adipose tissue mass decreased markedly. These changes were accompanied by greater expression of genes involved in LCFA uptake (Cd36), lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol synthesis (Acaca, Gpam, Scd, Pck1, Plin2). Expression of these genes was in line with upregulation of the lipogenic transcription factor Srebf1. Unlike previous studies where higher >0.50% of the diet) doses of trans-10, cis-12-CLA were fed, we found greater expression of genes associated with VLDL assembly/secretion (Mttp, Cideb), ketogenesis (Hmgcs2, Bdh1), and LCFA oxidation (Acox1, Pdk4) in response to trans-10, cis-12-CLA. Dietary CLA, however, did not affect inflammation- and stress-related genes. Results suggested that a chronic low dose of dietary CLA increases liver mass and lipid accumulation due to activation of lipogenesis and insufficient induction of LCFA oxidation and VLDL assembly/secretion.
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), and principally c9t11 CLA, are suspected to have numerous preventive properties regarding non-infectious pathologies such as inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and several types of cancer. C9t11 CLA is produced in the rumen during biohydrogenation of linoleic acid, but can also be synthesized in mammalian tissues from trans-vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) through the action of delta-9 desaturase (D9D). For several years, it is also known that c9t11 CLA can be synthesized from conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA), i.e. c9t11c13 CLnA and c9t11t13 CLnA. This study aimed at investigating to which extent and by which route c9t11 CLA can be produced from another isomer of CLA, the t11t13 CLA that is structurally very similar to c9t11t13 CLnA, in Caco-2 cells.
Caco-2 cells were incubated for 24 h with 20 µmol/l of t11t13 CLA in the absence or presence of sterculic oil used as an inhibitor of D9D. Caco-2 cells were able to convert t11t13 CLA into c9t11 CLA, and c9t11t13 CLnA was formed as an intermediate compound. In the presence of sterculic oil, the production of this intermediate was decreased by 46% and the formation of c9t11 CLA was decreased by 26%. No other metabolite was detected.
These results not only highlight the conversion of t11t13 CLA into c9t11 CLA but demonstrate also that this conversion involves first a desaturation step catalysed by D9D to produce c9t11t13 CLnA and then the action of another enzyme reducing the double bond on the Δ13 position.
The purpose of this study was to examine the induction profiles (as judged by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) in HepG2 cell model upon feeding with cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (9-CLA) or trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (10-CLA) or their precursor fatty acids (FAs). HepG2 cells were treated with 100 μmol/L 9-CLA or 10-CLA or their precursor FAs, viz., oleic, linoleic, and trans-11-vaccenic acids against bezafibrate control to evaluate the induction/expression profiles of PPAR α, β, γ subtypes and major PPAR-target genes bearing a functional PPRE, i.e., fatty acid transporter (FAT), glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), liver-type FA binding protein (L-FABP), acyl CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX-1), and peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (PBE) with reference to β-actin as house keeping gene. Of the three housekeeping genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin, and ubiquitin), β-actin was found to be stable. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the common solubilizer of agonists, showed a significantly higher induction of genes analyzed. qRT-PCR profiles of CLAs and their precursor FAs clearly showed upregulation of FAT, GLUT-2, and L-FABP (~0.5–2.0-fold). Compared to 10-CLA, 9-CLA decreased the induction of the FA metabolizing gene ACOX-1 less than did PBE, while 10-CLA decreased the induction of PBE less than did ACOX-1. Both CLAs and precursor FAs upregulated PPRE-bearing genes, but with comparatively less or marginal activation of PPAR subtypes. This indicates that the binding of CLAs and their precursor FAs to PPAR subtypes results in PPAR activation, thereby induction of the target transporter genes coupled with downstream lipid metabolising genes such as ACOX-1 and PBE. To sum up, the expression profiles of these candidate genes showed that CLAs and their precursor FAs are involved in lipid signalling by modulating the PPAR α, β, or γ subtype for the indirect activation of the PPAR-target genes, which may in turn be responsible for the supposed health effects of CLA, and that care should be taken while calculating the actual fold induction values of candidate genes with reference to housekeeping gene and DMSO as they may impart false positive results.
Conjugated linoleic acid; HepG2 cell model; qRT-PCR; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Peroxisome proliferator responsive element-bearing genes; Lipid agonists