Penetrating rather than blunt trauma is the most common cause of ureteral injuries. The approach to management differs from the far more common iatrogenic injury.
The purpose of this series is to report our experience in ureteral trauma management, with attention to the diagnosis, repair, and outcome of these injuries.
Materials and Methods:
From April 2003 to October 2009, all abdominal trauma cases received alive, reviewed for penetrating ureteric injuries
A total of twenty (fifteen male, five female) penetrating ureteral injuries were evaluated. All penetrating ureteric injuries were due to (9 gunshot and 11 shells from explosive devices). Since the patients had a clear indication for surgery, no IVU or CT scan was done preoperatively, major intra-abdominal injuries were often associated. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intraoperatively in 8 cases (40%) While, twelve cases (60%) were diagnosed postoperatively. Eight ureteric injuries (40%) were proximal 1/3, 4 (20%) to middle 1/3 and 8 (40%) to the distal 1/3. Management was with stenting in 2 patients, ureteroureterostomy in 8, ureteroneocystostomy in 6, and nephrectomy in 4.
In this study, a delay in diagnosis was a contributory factor in morbidity related to ureteral injury, the need for second operation in already compromised patients from associated injuries, The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, and colon injuries were associated with a high complication rate. Ureteral injuries must be considered early during the evaluation of penetrating abdominal injuries.
Gunshot; penetrating injury; shells of explosive devices; ureter
Blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic (UPJ) injuries are extremely rare and very difficult to diagnose. Many of these injuries are missed by the initial trauma evaluation.
Trauma registry data was used to identify all blunt trauma patients with ureteral or UPJ injuries, from 1 April 2001 to 30 November 2006. Demographics, injury information and outcomes were determined. Chart review was then performed to record initial clinical and all CT findings.
Eight patients had ureteral or UPJ injuries. Subtle findings such as perinephric stranding and hematomas, and low density retroperitoneal fluid were evident on all initial scans, and prompted delayed excretory scans in 7/8 cases. As a result, ureteral and UPJ injuries were diagnosed immediately for these seven patients. These findings were initially missed in the eighth patient because significant associated visceral findings mandated emergency laparotomy. All ureteral and UPJ injuries have completely healed except for the case with the delay in diagnosis.
Most blunt ureteral and UPJ injuries can be identified if delayed excretory CT scans are performed based on initial CT findings of perinephric stranding and hematomas, or the finding of low density retroperitoneal fluid.
Background and Objectives:
Ureteral injuries, while rare, do occur during gynecologic procedures. The expansion of laparoscopic and robotic pelvic surgical procedures increases the risk of ureteral injury from these procedures and suggests a role for minimally invasive approaches to the delayed repair of ureteral injuries. We present, to our knowledge, the first case of delayed robotic-assisted ureteral deligation and ureterolysis following iatrogenic ureteral injury occurring during a robotic abdominal hysterectomy.
We present a case report and review of the literature.
A 57-year-old female underwent a seemingly uncomplicated robotic-assisted laparoscopic total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for symptomatic fibroids. On postoperative day 8, she presented with persistent right flank pain. Imaging studies revealed high-grade ureteral obstruction consistent with suture ligation of the right ureter. She underwent successful robotic-assisted ureteral deligation and ureterolysis. Her postoperative course was unremarkable, and she was discharged home on postoperative day 1 from the deligation.
Robotic-assisted management of complications from urologic or gynecologic surgery is technically feasible. This can potentially preserve the advantages to the patient that are being seen from the initial less-invasive surgery.
Robotics; Ureter; Gynecologic surgical procedure
Seatbelt syndrome is defined as a seatbelt sign associated with a lumbar spine fracture and a bowel perforation. An isolated rectal perforation due to seatbelt syndrome is extremely rare. There is only one case reported in the Danish literature and non in the English literature. A 48-year old front seat restrained passenger was involved in a head-on collision. He had lower abdominal pain and back pain. Seatbelt mark was seen across the lower abdomen. Initial trauma CT scan was normal except for a burst fracture of L5 vertebra which was operated on by internal fixation on the same day. The patient continued to have abdominal pain. A repeated abdominal CT scan on the third day has shown free intraperitoneal air. Laparotomy has revealed a perforation of the proximal part of the rectum below the recto sigmoid junction. Hartmann's procedure was performed. The abdomen was left open. Gradual closure of the abdominal fascia over a period of two weeks was performed. Postoperatively, the patient had temporary urinary retention due to quada equina injury which resolved 10 months after surgery. The presence of a seatbelt sign and a lumbar fracture should raise the possibility of a bowel injury.
We wanted to present the results of percutaneous management of ureteral injuries that were diagnosed late after cesarean sections (CS).
Materials and Methods
Twenty-two cases with 24 ureteral injuries that were diagnosed late after CS underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PN), antegrade double J (DJ) catheter placement and balloon dilatation or a combination of these. The time for making the diagnosis was 21 ± 50.1 days. The injury site was the distal ureter in all cases (the left ureter: 13, the right ureter: 7 and bilateral: 2). Fifteen complete ureteral obstructions were detected in 13 cases. Ureteral leakage due to partial (n = 4) or complete (n = 3) rupture was noted in seven cases. Two cases had ureterovaginal fistula. All the cases were initially confirmed with antegrade pyelography and afterwards they underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. Balloon dilatation was needed in three cases. Antegrade DJ stents were placed in 10 cases, including the three cases with balloon dilatation. Repetititon of percutaneous nephrostomy with balloon dilatation and DJ stent placement was needed in one case with complete obstruction. All the cases were followed-up with US in their first week and then monthly thereafter for up to two years.
Eighteen ureters (75%) were managed by percutaneous procedures alone. A total of six ureter injuries had to undergo surgery (25%).
Percutaneous management is a good alternative for the treatment of post-CS ureteral injuries that are diagnosed late after CS. Percutaneous management is at least preparatory for a quarter of the cases where surgery is unavoidable.
Ureter injury; Cesarean section; Percutaneous nephrostomy; Balloon dialatation; Ureteric stent
The use of seatbelts has increased significantly in the last twenty years, leading to a decrease in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA). However, this increase in seatbelt use has also led to a change in the spectrum of injuries from RTA; abdominal injuries, particularly intestinal injuries have dramatically increased with the routine use of seatbelts. Such intestinal injuries frequently result from improper placement of the “lap belt”. We present 3 cases in which passengers wearing a seatbelt sustained significant devascularisation injuries to the small bowel requiring emergency surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is crucial in such cases to prevent delays in diagnosis that can lead to severe complications and adverse outcomes. It is evident that while advocating seatbelt use, the importance of education in correct seatbelt placement should also be a focus of public health strategies to reduce RTA morbidity and mortality.
A 16-year-old female presented with dribbling of urine along with voluntary voiding since birth. Renal imaging revealed hydroureteronephrosis on the right side; the uterus and ovary were normal. A radionuclide scan showed a left nonfunctional kidney. On cystovaginoscopy, the urethra was shown to be normal and the urinary bladder was tubular with small capacity and an absent trigone. Although the vagina was capacious, no ureteric orifices were found. Computed tomography corroborated the diagnosis of bilateral, single ectopic ureters draining into a grossly dilated vagina. This case is unique because it is a bilateral single-system ureteral ectopia in a completely differentiated female genital tract that presented late in adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such ureteral abnormality reported in the literature so far. The patient underwent ileocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and nephroureterectomy for the left nonfunctional kidney, which histopathology showed to be tuberculosis. The patient is continent with cystometric capacity of more than 300 mL.
Partial ureteropelvic junction disruption as a result of blunt trauma is rare and frequently missed by the initial trauma evaluation. Delays in diagnosis have also been associated with significant morbidity. A high index of suspicion should lead to appropriate investigations, and the management will be determined by the severity of the disruption. We present herein a 24-year-old man who was admitted to the Emergency Room with multiple organ injuries caused by a severe blunt trauma. Emergency celiotomy was performed for massive hemoperitoneum and shattered spleen which led to splenectomy. The diagnosis of partial UPJ disruption was missed preoperatively and suspected in CT scan after appearance of flank tender mass. Confirmation was obtained in retrograde ureteropyelography and treated conservatively with indwelling ureteral stent. We present herein an extensive review of the literature to examine the current status of this entity and to determine if improvements could be made in the diagnosis and treatment.
Intra-abdominal vascular injury due to blunt trauma is unusual in children. Due to its rarity, detailed reports dealing with its management are scarce in paediatric literature. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging, and a high degree of awareness is necessary for rapid identification and treatment of these injuries. We report the case of a child with seatbelt sign and mesenteric vein injury due to blunt trauma to the abdomen during a motor vehicle accident where the seatbelt was incorrectly placed. She also sustained cervical vertebral injury. The pattern of injuries in children in these situations may differ from that found in adults. While seatbelts have undoubtedly saved many lives, awareness about correct placement of these restraints is extremely necessary.
The kidney is the third most common abdominal organ to be injured in trauma, following the spleen and liver, respectively. Several classification systems convey the severity of injury to kidneys, ureter, bladder, and urethra. The most commonly used classification scheme is the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification of blunt renal injuries, which grades renal injury according the size of laceration and its proximity to the renal hilum. Ureteral injury is graded according to its extent relative to the circumference of the ureter and the extent of associated devascularization. Bladder injury is graded according to its location relative to the peritoneum. Urethral injury is graded according to the extent of damage to surrounding anatomic structures. Although these classification schema may not be always used in common parlance, they do help delineate most important features of urologic tract injury that impact patient management and interventions.
Kidney; trauma; embolization; interventional radiology; genitourinary
Iatrogenic ureteric injury is a well-recognised complication of radical hysterectomy. Bilateral ureteric injuries are rare, but do pose a considerable reconstructive challenge. We searched a prospectively acquired departmental database of ureteric injuries to identify patients with bilateral ureteric injury following radical hysterectomy. Five patients suffered bilateral ureteric injury over a 6-year period. Initial placement of ureteric stents was attempted in all patients. Stents were placed retrogradely into 6 ureters and antegradely into 2 ureters. In 1 patient ureteric stents could not be placed and they underwent primary ureteric reimplantation. In the 4 patients in which stents were placed, 2 were managed with stents alone, 1 required ureteric reimplantation for a persistent ureterovaginal fistula, and 1 developed a recurrent stricture. No patient managed by ureteric stenting suffered deterioration in serum creatinine. We feel that ureteric stenting, when possible, offers a safe primary management of bilateral ureteric injury at radical hysterectomy.
Blunt abdominal trauma is a common cause of admission to the typical trauma centre. Hollow viscus injury from blunt trauma, however, is unusual and rarely involves the stomach. A 15 year old boy sustained a bicycle handle bar injury to the abdomen and presented to the casualty department four days later with melaena. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed normal findings but endoscopy revealed two “kissing” areas of mucosal ulceration on the anterior and posterior wall of the gastric antrum. The patient received a blood transfusion for anaemia but was otherwise treated conservatively and made a full recovery. The authors believe this to be the first reported case of melaena as the primary presenting symptom of gastric ulceration secondary to blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis of hollow viscus injuries due to blunt abdominal trauma requires a high index of suspicion and thorough investigation, particularly if the presentation is delayed.
blunt abdominal trauma; gastric ulceration; melaena
The injuries sustained by 969 drivers and front-seat passengers in road-traffic accidents were studied. Altogether 196 (20-2%) of the drivers and passengers were wearing seat belts and 773 (79-8%) were not. The injuries among the two groups differed greatly in both severity and distribution. A total of 54 (27-6%) of the seatbelt wearers sustained one or more fractures compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers, and 18 (9-2%) of the seatbelt wearers were severely injured compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers. Soft-tissue injuries to the face were sustained by only 29 (14-8%) of the seatbelt wearers compared with 425 (55%) of the non-wearers. Since wearing seatbelts may become compulsory, the type and pattern of injuries to be expected in wearers should be appreciated.
Isolated gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is rare. In current literature gastric rupture from blunt abdominal trauma ranges between 0.02% and 1.7%. This document reports the first non-motor-vehicle case of an isolated gastric rapture after blunt abdominal injury, which repaired after early diagnosis and aggressive surgical treatment.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 14-year-old boy attended our emergency surgical department after sustained a blunt abdominal trauma following a fall from his bicycle. He presented with pain and left para-umbilical abdominal ecchymoses. Examination revealed subcutaneous emphysema and a palpable abdominal wall dimple.
Radiological examination with CT scan determined the need for exploratory laparotomy. Operation revealed, extensive rupture of the left lateral border of the rectus abdominus muscle, free intra-peritoneal position of the nasogastric tube with gross spillage of gastric contents and pneumo-peritoneum observed with 7-8cm full thickness rupture of anterior stomach wall, from the lesser towards the greater curvature. Primary, two-layer closure was performed. On the 5th post-operative day he developed gastrorrhagia. He was discharged on the 15th postoperative day.
We present this case report focusing on the paediatric patient to illustrate isolated gastric injury in terms of mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, and immediate surgical management.
Gastric rupture; Children blunt abdominal trauma
Ureteric injury is a recognized complication of hysterectomy and may present with obstruction or fistula. Between 1987 and 1989 in Oxford nine patients with 10 injured ureters underwent attempted retrograde placement of double J stents. Three patients had successful outcomes and one patient with bilateral ureteric obstruction required reimplantation of the right ureter after successful stenting of the left ureter. One patient required removal of a stent due to irritation but her fistula eventually closed. In three patients placement was unsuccessful and in one patient injury to the bladder base prevented the ureteric orifices from being seen and hence stenting was not possible. Thus five of these 10 injured ureters were managed successfully with double J stents. We advocate the initial use of double J stents in gynaecological ureteric injury. This approach is simple and may cure the fistula. If it is unsuccessful, subsequent reimplantation is not hindered.
To the best of our knowledge this is the first case where a Silastic drain is used in ureteral surgery instead of a common urological stent. Patients coming from other institutions, especially in peripheral areas, can be treated with non conventional devices and if traditional imaging is inconclusive, computed tomography (CT) can provide valuable information to make the right diagnosis.
We present the unusual case of a 32F Silastic drain found inside the urinary tract in a female patient who had previously undergone ileal loop replacement of the left ureter for post-hysterectomy stricture at another Institution, and had subsequently repeated surgery due to persistent hydronephrosis. Radiological findings on plain abdominal X-ray were quite misleading, while CT allowed a correct assessment of the drain features.
While double J stents of different lengths, sizes and materials are used in ureteral surgery, the use of Silastic drains has not been previously reported. In light of the present experience we don’t suggest its routinely use.
Ureteral stent; Ileal loop substitution; Abdominal X-ray; Multidetector computed tomography; Image processing
Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury.
We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found.
Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion.
Blunt cardiac rupture; Pectus excavatum; Seatbelt injury
Ureteral trauma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all urologic traumas. However, a missed ureteral injury can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature since 1961 with the primary objective to present the largest medical literature review, to date, regarding ureteral trauma. Several anatomic and physiologic considerations are paramount regarding ureteral injuries management.
Eighty-one articles pertaining to traumatic ureteral injuries were reviewed. Data from these studies were compiled and analyzed. The majority of the study population was young males. The proximal ureter was the most frequently injured portion. Associated injuries were present in 90.4% of patients. Admission urinalysis demonstrated hematuria in only 44.4% patients. Intravenous ureterogram (IVU) failed to diagnose ureteral injuries either upon admission or in the operating room in 42.8% of cases. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, was the surgical procedure of choice for both trauma surgeons and urologists (59%). Complications occurred in 36.2% of cases. The mortality rate was 17%.
The mechanism for ureteral injuries in adults is more commonly penetrating than blunt. The upper third of the ureter is more often injured than the middle and lower thirds. Associated injuries are frequently present. CT scan and retrograde pyelography accurately identify ureteral injuries when performed together. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, is the surgical procedure of choice of both trauma surgeons and urologists alike. Delay in diagnosis is correlated with a poor prognosis.
A 49-year-old man was referred to our department with profuse serous fluid discharge from a Penrose drain after undergoing internal fixation with metal screws for multiple pelvic bone fractures. A definite ureteral penetration was identified that was orientated from the lateral to the medial aspect of the right distal ureter. The patient was surgically treated with excision of the 2-cm injured ureteral segment, end-to-end ureteroureterostomy, and double J ureteral stent placement. To our knowledge, a penetrating ureteral injury caused by bone drilling has not been reported previously in the published literature. This case shows that surgeons who do pelvic surgery, including orthopedic surgeons, should be familiar with the anatomical relationship of the ureter and its potential injuries.
Ureter; Drilling; Injury
Duodenal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma is an extremely rare and often overlooked injury leading to increased mortality and morbidity. We report two cases of isolated duodenal injury following blunt abdominal trauma and highlight the challenges associated with their management. In both these patients, the diagnosis of the duodenal injuries was delayed, leading to prolonged hospital stay. The first patient had two perforations, one on the anterior and the other on the posterior wall of the duodenum, of which the posterior perforation was missed at initial laparotomy. In the other patient, the duodenal injury was missed during the initial assessment in the emergency department. He returned to the emergency department 24 hours after discharge with abdominal pain and vomiting. During trauma related laparotomy, complete kocherization (mobilization) of the duodenum must be mandatory, even in the presence of obvious injury on its anterior wall. We emphasize on keeping the management protocol simple by a “triple tube decompression”, i.e. duodenorrhaphy (simple closure), tube gastrostomy, reverse tube duodenostomy and a feeding jejunostomy.
Blunt trauma abdomen; isolated duodenal injury; triple tube decompression
Distal ureteric stricture is a common complication of urinary schistosomiasis which is a disease more prevalent in the tropics and subtropics. The surgical management of this complication is more challenging when it affects more than half of both ureters. We report the case of a 17-year-old Nigerian with a long standing recurrent painless terminal hematuria associated with bilateral colicky loin pains. Ultrasound scan showed bilateral hydro ureters and hydro nephrosis with deranged biochemical renal function. The patient had bilateral tube nephrostomy and antibiotic therapy. Definitive bilateral ureteric substitution was done using Mitrofanoff technique for the right ureter and Yang-Montie technique for the left ureter. The patient′s renal function became normal and he was discharged home without complication. The related literatures were reviewed. Surgical nonurothelial ureteral substitution is necessary for long, extensive, severe bilateral ureteric strictures so as to prevent progressive renal damage and end stage renal failure.
Appendix; intestine; schistosomiasis; stricture; ureter; ureteric substitution
Giant ureteric calculi are extremely rare in children. We present a case of a child who was originally admitted for observation following non-accidental injury and had an episode of painless haematuria as an inpatient. Ultrasonography demonstrated left hydronephrosis and a 2cm echogenic area in the proximal ureter. A plain abdominal radiograph surprisingly revealed two left ureteric calculi, one 7cm and the other 4cm in length. Stone extraction was achieved using an open left ureterolithotomy and pyelolithotomy.
Abdominal trauma is a major public health problem for all nations and all socioeconomic strata.
This study was designed to determine the incidence and patterns of abdominal injuries in trauma patients.
Materials and Methods:
We classified and identified the incidence and subtype of abdominal injuries and associated trauma, and identified variables related to morbidity and mortality.
Abdominal trauma was present in 248 of 300 cases; 172 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and 76 with penetrating. The most frequent type of abdominal trauma was blunt trauma; its most common cause was motor vehicle accident. Among patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, the most common cause was stabbing. Most abdominal trauma patients presented with other injuries, especially patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Mortality was higher among penetrating abdominal trauma patients.
Type of abdominal trauma, associated injuries, and Revised Trauma Score are independent risk factors for mortality in abdominal trauma patients.
Abdominal injuries; Incidence; Mortality; Patterns; Trauma
Injury of the gallbladder after blunt abdominal trauma is an unusual finding; the reported incidence is less than 2%. Three groups of injuries are described: simple contusion, laceration, and avulsion, the last of which can be partial, complete, or total traumatic cholecystectomy.
A case of isolated complete avulsion of the gallbladder (near traumatic cholecystectomy) from its hepatic bed in a 46-year-old Caucasian man without any other sign of injury is presented. The avulsion was due to blunt abdominal trauma after a car accident. The rarity of this injury and the stable condition of our patient at the initial presentation warrant a description. The diagnosis was made incidentally after a computed tomography scan, and our patient was treated successfully with ligation of the cystic duct and artery, removal of the gallbladder, coagulation of the bleeding points, and placement of a drain.
Early diagnosis of such injuries is quite difficult because abdominal signs are poor, non-specific, or even absent. Therefore, a computed tomography scan should be performed when the mechanism of injury is indicated.
The use and indications for laparoscopy have been increasing. As part of this trend, a new algorithm may emerge for pediatric trauma in which laparoscopic techniques are used in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected hollow viscus perforation.
We present a case in which laparoscopy was successfully used in a pediatric trauma patient as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality. A 4-year-old boy was a back-seat passenger in a head-on collision motor vehicle accident. He was restrained by a lap seat belt. He sustained a concussion, a large forehead laceration and a seat belt abdominal injury. On admission, he complained of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed a soft, nondistended abdomen with moderate diffuse tenderness. He was hemodynamically stable. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed free fluid in the pelvis. No abnormalities were detected in the liver or spleen. Because of clinical deterioration and suspected intestinal perforation, diagnostic laparoscopy was utilized instead of proceeding directly to celiotomy. At laparoscopy a jejunal perforation was found and successfully repaired laparoscopically. Large hematomas were seen in the mesentery, as well as an unsuspected splenic laceration. No active bleeding was found. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 5 days following the surgical procedure.
This case illustrates the efficacy of using early laparoscopy in children with abdominal trauma when diagnosis is difficult and hollow viscus injury is suspected.
Abdomen; Child; Laparoscopy; Trauma