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1.  CT scanning for diagnosing blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic junction injuries 
BMC Urology  2008;8:3.
Background
Blunt ureteral and ureteropelvic (UPJ) injuries are extremely rare and very difficult to diagnose. Many of these injuries are missed by the initial trauma evaluation.
Methods
Trauma registry data was used to identify all blunt trauma patients with ureteral or UPJ injuries, from 1 April 2001 to 30 November 2006. Demographics, injury information and outcomes were determined. Chart review was then performed to record initial clinical and all CT findings.
Results
Eight patients had ureteral or UPJ injuries. Subtle findings such as perinephric stranding and hematomas, and low density retroperitoneal fluid were evident on all initial scans, and prompted delayed excretory scans in 7/8 cases. As a result, ureteral and UPJ injuries were diagnosed immediately for these seven patients. These findings were initially missed in the eighth patient because significant associated visceral findings mandated emergency laparotomy. All ureteral and UPJ injuries have completely healed except for the case with the delay in diagnosis.
Conclusion
Most blunt ureteral and UPJ injuries can be identified if delayed excretory CT scans are performed based on initial CT findings of perinephric stranding and hematomas, or the finding of low density retroperitoneal fluid.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-3
PMCID: PMC2258295  PMID: 18257927
2.  Ureteral injuries from gunshots and shells of explosive devices 
Urology Annals  2010;2(1):17-20.
Context:
Penetrating rather than blunt trauma is the most common cause of ureteral injuries. The approach to management differs from the far more common iatrogenic injury.
Aims:
The purpose of this series is to report our experience in ureteral trauma management, with attention to the diagnosis, repair, and outcome of these injuries.
Materials and Methods:
From April 2003 to October 2009, all abdominal trauma cases received alive, reviewed for penetrating ureteric injuries
Results:
A total of twenty (fifteen male, five female) penetrating ureteral injuries were evaluated. All penetrating ureteric injuries were due to (9 gunshot and 11 shells from explosive devices). Since the patients had a clear indication for surgery, no IVU or CT scan was done preoperatively, major intra-abdominal injuries were often associated. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intraoperatively in 8 cases (40%) While, twelve cases (60%) were diagnosed postoperatively. Eight ureteric injuries (40%) were proximal 1/3, 4 (20%) to middle 1/3 and 8 (40%) to the distal 1/3. Management was with stenting in 2 patients, ureteroureterostomy in 8, ureteroneocystostomy in 6, and nephrectomy in 4.
Conclusions:
In this study, a delay in diagnosis was a contributory factor in morbidity related to ureteral injury, the need for second operation in already compromised patients from associated injuries, The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, and colon injuries were associated with a high complication rate. Ureteral injuries must be considered early during the evaluation of penetrating abdominal injuries.
doi:10.4103/0974-7796.62920
PMCID: PMC2934583  PMID: 20842252
Gunshot; penetrating injury; shells of explosive devices; ureter
3.  A review of ureteral injuries after external trauma 
Introduction
Ureteral trauma is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all urologic traumas. However, a missed ureteral injury can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature since 1961 with the primary objective to present the largest medical literature review, to date, regarding ureteral trauma. Several anatomic and physiologic considerations are paramount regarding ureteral injuries management.
Literature review
Eighty-one articles pertaining to traumatic ureteral injuries were reviewed. Data from these studies were compiled and analyzed. The majority of the study population was young males. The proximal ureter was the most frequently injured portion. Associated injuries were present in 90.4% of patients. Admission urinalysis demonstrated hematuria in only 44.4% patients. Intravenous ureterogram (IVU) failed to diagnose ureteral injuries either upon admission or in the operating room in 42.8% of cases. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, was the surgical procedure of choice for both trauma surgeons and urologists (59%). Complications occurred in 36.2% of cases. The mortality rate was 17%.
Conclusion
The mechanism for ureteral injuries in adults is more commonly penetrating than blunt. The upper third of the ureter is more often injured than the middle and lower thirds. Associated injuries are frequently present. CT scan and retrograde pyelography accurately identify ureteral injuries when performed together. Ureteroureterostomy, with or without indwelling stent, is the surgical procedure of choice of both trauma surgeons and urologists alike. Delay in diagnosis is correlated with a poor prognosis.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-18-6
PMCID: PMC2830948  PMID: 20128905
4.  Partial Ureteropelvic Junction Disruption after Blunt Trauma: Case Report 
Case Reports in Urology  2011;2011:541705.
Partial ureteropelvic junction disruption as a result of blunt trauma is rare and frequently missed by the initial trauma evaluation. Delays in diagnosis have also been associated with significant morbidity. A high index of suspicion should lead to appropriate investigations, and the management will be determined by the severity of the disruption. We present herein a 24-year-old man who was admitted to the Emergency Room with multiple organ injuries caused by a severe blunt trauma. Emergency celiotomy was performed for massive hemoperitoneum and shattered spleen which led to splenectomy. The diagnosis of partial UPJ disruption was missed preoperatively and suspected in CT scan after appearance of flank tender mass. Confirmation was obtained in retrograde ureteropyelography and treated conservatively with indwelling ureteral stent. We present herein an extensive review of the literature to examine the current status of this entity and to determine if improvements could be made in the diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.1155/2011/541705
PMCID: PMC3350049  PMID: 22606618
5.  Prognostic factors in retroperitoneal fibrosis  
Journal of Medicine and Life  2010;3(1):19-25.
The aim of this study is to evaluate effective prognostic factors in the evolution of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis and to establish the validity of fractal analysis in determining the disease severity in these patients.
Material and Methods: This study included 19 patients (M/F: 5/14) treated for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and bilateral obstructive renal failure between Jan 2004–Dec 2008. Patients were identified retrospectively, searching for patients diagnosed with IRF, after retroperitoneal biopsy or, in most cases the diagnosis rested on radiological findings, especially CT, with identification of a retroperitoneal mass, the absence of other demonstrable renal or ureteric disease or any other pathology that could explain the findings. CT was very useful in describing the retroperitoneal mass around the aorta and inferior vena cava, the extent of the lesion and for monitoring the response to surgical treatment during the follow–up. The data were evaluated about medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory tests (serum urea and creatinine, blood sugar, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate levels, serum pH, uric acid, haematocrit, white blood cell count), imaging methods (renal ultrasound, abdominal CT–scan, MRI). At admission all patients had active disease with obstructive renal failure and underwent bilateral ureteric stenting in order to normalize the BUN levels. After normalizing of BUN levels, ureterolysis and omental wrapping was performed. Postoperatively, ureteric stents were removed after 1 month and remission of renal disfunction was obtained in approximately 5 months (range 2–10 months). All patients were followed for at least 1 year. Patients were regularly checked every 3 months.
Results: Of the 19 patients, there were 5 men and 14 women. The median age at diagnosis of RF was 50 years (range 42–64 years). The most frequent presenting symptoms were back or abdominal pain, weakness, weight loss, oligoanuria, arterial hypertension and mild fever. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 6 to 18 months. At presentation all patients had active disease, presenting renal dysfunction with a median serum creatinine of 5.18 mg/dl (range 1–15.4 mg/dl). Most of the patients had moderate bilateral hydronephrosis (2nd degree hydronephrosis). In our study, all patients had excellent prognosis, with full recovery of renal function in 78% of cases (15 patients). The fractal dimension of the fibrosis mass contour correlates with level of renal function impairment. Even more, the fractal dimension seems to slightly variate between CT evaluations (1.30±0.1), suggesting a non aggressive pattern of extension of the fibrotic mass characteristic for benign lesions.
Conclusions: The imaging parameters did not predict the disease severity, except the increase in fractal dimension of fibrosis surface area. Efficacy of bilateral ureteric stenting in improving renal function is limited in most of the cases. Dispite the level of renal function impairment at admission, full recovery can be achieved after bilateral ureteric stenting/nephrostomy and ureterolisis.
PMCID: PMC3019032  PMID: 20302193
idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis; ureterolysis; fractal; obstructive renal failure
6.  Hand-assisted laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy with renal mobilization for delayed recognition of a proximal ureteral injury after lumbar disk surgery 
We present hand-assisted laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy (HALUU) with renal mobilization as a novel approach to the management of proximal ureteral injury after lumbar disk surgery. A 63-year-old female underwent L4-L5 diskectomy and facetectomy with cage placement for back and leg pain. Postoperatively, she developed fever, nausea, abdominal pain, ileus and leukocytosis. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast and delayed imaging demonstrated a left proximal ureteral injury with contrast extravasation. Retrograde and antegrade ureteral stent placement was unsuccessful; a nephrostomy tube was placed. Antegrade and retrograde ureterograms revealed a 3-cm proximal ureteral defect. All treatment options were discussed, and the patient chose to undergo hand-assisted laparoscopic renal mobilization with ureteroureterostomy, which was completed successfully without complications. Operative time was 381 minutes; estimated blood loss was 50 mL. The patient was discharged after 2 days, her ureteral stent was removed in 8 weeks, and follow-up with furosemide-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) renal scan demonstrated 30% function without evidence of obstruction. Hand-assisted laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy with renal mobilization can be performed as definitive management of a medium-length proximal ureteral injury. This is the first case describing this management technique after lumbar disk surgery.
PMCID: PMC3499927  PMID: 23293695
7.  Imaging in renal trauma 
World Journal of Radiology  2013;5(8):275-284.
Renal injuries are classified, based on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification, in to five grades of injury. Several imaging modalities have been available for assessing the grade of renal injury, each with their usefulness and limitations. Currently, plain radiographs and intravenous urography have no role in the evaluation of patients with suspected renal injury. Ultrasonography (USG) has a limited role in evaluating patients with suspected retroperitoneal injury; however, it plays an important role during follow up in patients with urinoma formation. USG helps to monitor the size of a urinoma and also for the drainage procedure. The role of selective renal arteriography is mainly limited to an interventional purpose rather than for diagnostic utility. Retrograde pyelography is useful in assessing ureteral and renal pelvis integrity in suspected ureteropelvic junction injury and for an interventional purpose, like placing a stent across the site of ureteric injury. Magnetic resonance imaging has no role in acute renal injuries. Multidetector computed tomography is the modality of choice in the evaluation of renal injuries. It is also useful in evaluating traumatic injuries to kidneys with preexisting abnormalities and can help to define the extent of penetrating injuries in patients with stab wounds in the flank region. The combination of imaging findings along with clinical information is important in the management of the individual patient. This article will describe a spectrum of renal injuries encountered in a trauma setting.
doi:10.4329/wjr.v5.i8.275
PMCID: PMC3758495  PMID: 24003353
Trauma; Renal injury; Imaging; Focused abdominal sonography for trauma; Multidetector computed tomography; Contrast-enhanced computed tomography; Grading; American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification; Vascular injury; Revision of American Association for the Surgery of Trauma
8.  The Implications of Lighted Ureteral Stenting in Laparoscopic Colectomy 
Objective:
The placement of indwelling ureteral catheters during colorectal surgery has been recommended for prevention of ureteral injuries. With the advent of laparoscopic colectomy (LCo), the role of preoperative placement of lighted ureteral stents (LUS) has also become commonplace. We sought to evaluate the value of lighted ureteral stent placement in laparoscopic colectomy.
Methods:
Sixty-six patients underwent LCo with LUS inserted preoperatively. Stents were removed in the immediate postoperative period. Two surgeons performed all the colectomies; 32 patients were males and 34 were females. Fifty patients underwent sigmoid colectomy, 4 had abdominoperineal resection, 4 had right colectomy, and 1 each had transverse or subtotal colectomy. Eighteen patients had a diagnosis of cancer, 34 had diverticular disease, and 14 had neoplastic polyps. Forty patients had bilateral and 26 had unilateral stent placement. A review of the incidence of ureteral injuries, hematuria, and anuria as the cause of acute renal failure was accomplished, comparing the unilateral and bilateral stented groups.
Results:
One (1.5%) patient suffered a left ureteral laceration during sigmoid colectomy. This was managed successfully with stent reinsertion. Sixty-five (98.4%) patients had gross hematuria lasting 2.93 days (1 to 6 days). The cost of bilateral stent placement was $1504.32. A statistically significant difference occurred in the duration of hematuria (days) between patients who had unilateral (2.5 ± 0.82) and bilateral stent placement (3.37 ± 1.05), (P < 0.001). Four patients suffered from anuria, 2 required renal support needing hemodialysis for 3 to 6 days, 3 (75%) had bilateral stents, and 1 (25%) had a unilateral stent.
Conclusions:
We recommend the placement of lighted ureteral stents as a valuable adjunct to laparoscopic colectomy to safeguard ureteral integrity. Transient hematuria is common but requires no intervention. Reflux anuria occurs infrequently and is reversible.
PMCID: PMC3043401  PMID: 12002296
Laparoscopy; Colectomy; Lighted Ureteral Stent (LUS); Hematuria
9.  Percutaneous Management of Ureteral Injuries that are Diagnosed Late After Cesarean Section 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(4):348-353.
Objective
We wanted to present the results of percutaneous management of ureteral injuries that were diagnosed late after cesarean sections (CS).
Materials and Methods
Twenty-two cases with 24 ureteral injuries that were diagnosed late after CS underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PN), antegrade double J (DJ) catheter placement and balloon dilatation or a combination of these. The time for making the diagnosis was 21 ± 50.1 days. The injury site was the distal ureter in all cases (the left ureter: 13, the right ureter: 7 and bilateral: 2). Fifteen complete ureteral obstructions were detected in 13 cases. Ureteral leakage due to partial (n = 4) or complete (n = 3) rupture was noted in seven cases. Two cases had ureterovaginal fistula. All the cases were initially confirmed with antegrade pyelography and afterwards they underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. Balloon dilatation was needed in three cases. Antegrade DJ stents were placed in 10 cases, including the three cases with balloon dilatation. Repetititon of percutaneous nephrostomy with balloon dilatation and DJ stent placement was needed in one case with complete obstruction. All the cases were followed-up with US in their first week and then monthly thereafter for up to two years.
Results
Eighteen ureters (75%) were managed by percutaneous procedures alone. A total of six ureter injuries had to undergo surgery (25%).
Conclusion
Percutaneous management is a good alternative for the treatment of post-CS ureteral injuries that are diagnosed late after CS. Percutaneous management is at least preparatory for a quarter of the cases where surgery is unavoidable.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.4.348
PMCID: PMC2627270  PMID: 18682673
Ureter injury; Cesarean section; Percutaneous nephrostomy; Balloon dialatation; Ureteric stent
10.  Traumatic avulsion of kidney and spleen into the chest through a ruptured diaphragm in a young worker: a case report 
Introduction
Rupture of the diaphragm is almost always due to major trauma. Diaphragmatic injuries are rare (5–7%), usually secondary to blunt, or more rarely to penetrating, thoracic or abdominal trauma. No single investigation provides a reliable diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture when a patient first arrives at hospital. Almost 33% are suspected on initial chest x-ray, but the percentage is lower in patients who are immediately intubated. Mortality in patients with diaphragmatic rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is generally associated with coexistent vascular and visceral injuries that could be rapidly fatal. It's mandatory that the right diagnosis is reached as soon as possible given that mortality is influenced by the time elapsing between trauma and diagnosis.
Case presentation
A 35-year-old worker was hit by a heavy object while working in the factory. He was transferred immediately to our emergency room. Chest x-ray showed massive left hemothorax without any additional signs to suggest diaphragmatic injury. It was decided to perform immediate surgical exploration before further radiological examination. During surgery, the right kidney and liver appeared normal, but the left kidney and spleen were not found in their anatomical position. The left hemidiaphragm had a10-cm oblique posterior tear. The left kidney was found lacerated in the left side of the chest, separated completely from its vascular pedicle and ureter, along with the entire spleen which was also separated from its vascular tree.
Conclusion
The avulsion of both kidney and spleen following abdominal trauma is uncommon and survival depends on prompt diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-178
PMCID: PMC2222677  PMID: 18076752
11.  Urologic Complications Following Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgery 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(11):795-799.
Purpose
Urologic injuries occur frequently during surgery in the pelvic cavity. Inadequate diagnosis and treatment may lead to severe complications and side effects. This investigation examined the clinical features of urologic complications following obstetric and gynecologic surgery.
Materials and Methods
We accumulated 47,318 obstetric and gynecologic surgery cases from 2007 to 2011. Ninety-seven patients with urological complications were enrolled. This study assessed the causative disease and surgical approach, type, and treatment method of the urologic injury.
Results
Of these 97 patients, 69 had bladder injury, 23 had ureteral injury, 2 had vesicovaginal fistula, 2 had ureterovaginal fistula, and 1 had renal injury. With respect to injury rate by specific surgery, laparoscopic-assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy was the highest with 3 of 98 cases, followed by radical abdominal hysterectomy with 15 of 539 cases. All 69 cases of bladder injury underwent primary suturing during surgery without complications. Of 14 cases with an early diagnosis of ureteral injury, 7 had a ureteral catheter inserted, 5 underwent ureteroureterostomy, and 2 underwent ureteroneocystostomy. Of nine cases with a delayed diagnosis of ureteral injury, ureteral catheter insertion was carried out in three cases, four cases underwent ureteroureterostomy, and two cases underwent ureteroneocystostomy.
Conclusions
Bladder injury was the most common urological injury during obstetric and gynecologic surgery, followed by ureteral injury. The variety of injured states, difficulty of diagnosis, and time to complete cure were much greater among patients with ureteral injuries. Early diagnosis and urologic intervention is important for better outcomes.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.11.795
PMCID: PMC3502740  PMID: 23185673
Gynecologic surgical procedures; Iatrogenic disease; Urinary tract; Wounds and injuries
12.  Robotic-Assisted Repair of Iatrogenic Ureteral Ligation Following Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy 
Background and Objectives:
Ureteral injuries, while rare, do occur during gynecologic procedures. The expansion of laparoscopic and robotic pelvic surgical procedures increases the risk of ureteral injury from these procedures and suggests a role for minimally invasive approaches to the delayed repair of ureteral injuries. We present, to our knowledge, the first case of delayed robotic-assisted ureteral deligation and ureterolysis following iatrogenic ureteral injury occurring during a robotic abdominal hysterectomy.
Methods:
We present a case report and review of the literature.
Results:
A 57-year-old female underwent a seemingly uncomplicated robotic-assisted laparoscopic total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for symptomatic fibroids. On postoperative day 8, she presented with persistent right flank pain. Imaging studies revealed high-grade ureteral obstruction consistent with suture ligation of the right ureter. She underwent successful robotic-assisted ureteral deligation and ureterolysis. Her postoperative course was unremarkable, and she was discharged home on postoperative day 1 from the deligation.
Conclusion:
Robotic-assisted management of complications from urologic or gynecologic surgery is technically feasible. This can potentially preserve the advantages to the patient that are being seen from the initial less-invasive surgery.
PMCID: PMC3016006  PMID: 19275861
Robotics; Ureter; Gynecologic surgical procedure
13.  Injury to the diaphragm: Our experience in Union Head quarters Hospital 
Background:
Diaphragmatic injury is a global diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
Objectives:
The study was to identify the variations in the risk factors, diagnosis, management, and outcome between blunt and penetrating injuries of the diaphragm.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with injury to diaphragm during preoperative, intraoperative, or postmortem period. The risk correlates and the trail of events following injury, interventions, and outcomes were studied.
Results:
Of the 25 cases, blunt injury was experienced by 10. Road traffic injury was the most common cause in blunt trauma and assault with knife in penetrating trauma. Acute presentation was the most common mechanism. X-rays were positive in 52% cases. The most common reason for false negative X-rays was massive effusion/hemothorax. Computed tomography (CT) improved the positivity rate to 62.5%. A total of 25% of diaphragmatic injuries were diagnosed during surgery for hemodynamic instability irrespective of initial X-rays findings. Laprotomy alone was sufficient in majority of cases. The defects were largely in the left side; mean defect size was more in blunt trauma. Associated injuries were noted in 92%. Stomach was most affected in penetrating injuries and spleen in blunt trauma. Empeyma was the most common morbidity. Mortality rate of 13% in penetrating injury was far lower than 60% in blunt injury. Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was significantly related to the fatal outcomes irrespective of mechanism. Diagnostic laparoscopy for asymptomatic low velocity junctional penetrating wounds revealed diaphragmatic injury in 20%.
Conclusions:
The incidence of multisystem injuries at our trauma center is on the rise. A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury. The need for thorough exploratory laprotomy is essential. In resource stretched setting like ours, the need for routine diagnostic laparoscopy in asymptomatic junctional wounds has to be validated further.
doi:10.4103/2229-5151.124139
PMCID: PMC3891192  PMID: 24459623
Blunt trauma; diaphragmatic injury; penetrating trauma; viscerthorax
14.  A trial placement of a prophylactic ureteral catheter during the excision of a huge pelvic mass with incidental cystotomy 
Ureteral injuries are one of the major complications following gynecologic surgeries. They are serious, troublesome, often associated with significant morbidity, and are one of the most common causes for legal action against gynecologic surgeons. The reported rates of injury depend on the vigilance of diagnosis, type of surgery and other risk factors. We present a case of a 48 year old obese Caucasian female with no significant past medical history who came in with back pain and progressive abdominal swelling for the past three months and was found to have a very large pelvic mass. After preoperative evaluation, including: medical history, physical exam, and imaging studies showing a heterogenous mass 24.6 x 33.0 x 43.1, we predicted that the risk of urinary tract injuries was very high. We used preoperative prophylactic bilateral ureteral catheters to prevent injury. A surgical oncologist was consulted and an exploratory laparotomy was performed with removal of the large multi–lobulated pelvic mass + total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy, and appendectomy all performed at the same time. Patient had an incidental cystotomy during the procedure, which was repaired intra–operatively. The ureters remained intact with no injuries. The importance of thorough preoperative identification, evaluation and anticipation of ureteral injuries will be discussed in detail.
doi:10.5173/ceju.2013.03.art35
PMCID: PMC3974465  PMID: 24707391
ureter; catheter; injury; prophylactic
15.  Delayed Recognition of Bilateral Ureteral Injury after Gyneacological Surgery 
Ghana Medical Journal  2008;42(4):133-136.
Summary
Background
Iatrogenic bilateral ureteric injury is a rare complication of pelvic surgery, which if not recognised immediately results in significant morbidity and even mortality
Objective
To describe the presentation, aetiology and treatment of iatrogenic bilateral ureteric injuries recognised late following gynaecological surgery.
Methods
The case notes of 14 consecutive cases of bilateral ureteric injury managed between October 2000 and January 2007 were studied.
Results
Thirteen cases resulted from abdominal hysterectomy and one from vaginal repair of vesicovaginal fistula. Excessive bleeding with difficult haemostasis was the predominant predisposing factor. The indication for referral included oliguria, anuria, and urinary ascites or azotaemia. The time interval between the original surgery and the recognition of the injury ranged between 1 and 92 days. Patients in whom deterioration in renal function was ascribed to obstructive uropathy from bilateral ligation (postrenal renal failure) were referred much earlier than those in whom a diagnosis of prerenal renal failure was made (mean of 2 vs. 10 days). Five patients (36%) required dialyses before repair. All the repairs were done at open surgery. Thirteen survived with no loss of kidney. One patient died of overwhelming sepsis.
Conclusions
Late recognition and referral of bilateral ureteric injury was associated with serious complications. Post operative deterioration in a patient's renal function following pelvic surgery should be assumed to be due to ureteric obstruction until proven otherwise. Such patients should be promptly referred to centres with the facility for further investigation and management. Early open repair for these injuries is advocated.
PMCID: PMC2673835  PMID: 19452019
ureteral injury; renal failure; gynaecological surgery; anuria; hydronephrosis
16.  Delayed Presentation of Isolated Complete Pancreatic Transection as a Result of Sport-Related Blunt Trauma to the Abdomen 
Introduction
Blunt abdominal trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of pancreatic transection. A delayed presentation of pancreatic fracture following sport-related blunt trauma with the coexisting diagnostic pitfalls is presented.
Case Report
A 17-year-old rugby player was referred to our specialist unit after having been diagnosed with traumatic pancreatic transection, having presented 24 h after a sporting injury. Despite haemodynamic stability, at laparotomy he was found to have a diffuse mesenteric hematoma involving the large and small bowel mesentery, extending down to the sigmoid colon from the splenic flexure, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma arising from the pancreas. The pancreas was completely severed with the superior border of the distal segment remaining attached to the splenic vein that was intact. A distal pancreatectomy with spleen preservation and evacuation of the retroperitoneal hematoma was performed.
Discussion/Conclusion
Blunt pancreatic trauma is a serious condition. Diagnosis and treatment may often be delayed, which in turn may drastically increase morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic difficulties apply to both paraclinical and radiological diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in such cases, with a multi-modality diagnostic approach and prompt surgical intervention as required.
doi:10.1159/000112919
PMCID: PMC3075161  PMID: 21490833
Pancreatectomy; Pancreatic transection; Mesenteric hematoma
17.  Ureteral Injury in Gynecologic Surgery: A 5-Year Review in A Community Hospital 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(2):120-125.
Purpose
We reviewed the cases of ureteral injury during gynecologic surgeries in a community hospital and attempted to find possible options for alleviating these distressing situations.
Materials and Methods
A total of 2,927 patients underwent gynecologic surgeries in the last 5 years at our hospital. We retrospectively analyzed the cases, particularly the possible risk factors and management according to the time of detection of the injury. Thirty-five cases (1.2%) were identified with ureteral injury in a total of 2,927 gynecologic surgeries. Risk factors included endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, previous pelvic surgery, history of pelvic radiation, and congenital anomalies. Among 2,927 patients, 522 had predisposing factors for ureteral injuries.
Results
The incidence of ureteral injury in laparoscopic cases was 1.1%, similar to the cases of laparotomy (1.2%). The rate of ureteral injury was significantly higher in the group with risk factors (2.7%) than in the group without risk factors (0.9%; p=0.002). Prophylactic ureteral stenting was performed in 101 of 522 patients with risk factors according to the gynecologic surgeon's preference. The injury rate (1.0%) in the stenting group was lower than that in the non-stenting group (3.1%; p=0.324). Management of ureteral injuries was successful in all cases. Of the patients with postoperatively diagnosed injuries, two patients were managed with secondary procedures, such as retrograde balloon dilatation or ureteroneocystostomy.
Conclusions
The incidence of ureteral injury was significantly higher in cases having risk factors than in cases without risk factors. Surgeons should be cautious to avoid ureteral injury during gynecologic surgery, especially in patients with risk factors.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.2.120
PMCID: PMC3285707  PMID: 22379592
Gynecologic surgical procedures; Laparotomy; Stents; Ureter; Wounds and injuries
18.  Extensive Retroperitoneal Fibrosis with Duodenal and Ureteral Obstruction Associated with Giant Inflammatory Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2003;30(4):311-313.
We report a case of abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by retroperitoneal fibrosis with both duodenal and bilateral ureteral obstruction. The patient underwent successful bilateral transurethral ureteral stenting, and then he was referred for surgical treatment of the aneurysm. Massive retroperitoneal fibrosis was found at surgery, and the mass was removed along with the diseased aorta, which was replaced by a bifurcated Dacron prosthesis; duodenolysis and ureterolysis were concomitantly performed. Ureteral stents were removed on the 8th postoperative day. Follow-up assessment at 1 year showed normalization of the urinary tract structure at echography and good hemodynamic performance of the vascular prosthesis at Doppler examination. To our knowledge, no other case of duodenal and bilateral ureteral stenosis secondary to massive retroperitoneal reactive fibrosis in association with abdominal aortic aneurysm has been reported. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:311–3)
PMCID: PMC307718  PMID: 14677743
Anuria/etiology; aortic aneurysm, abdominal/complications; blood vessel prosthesis; case report; duodenal obstruction/etiology; retroperitoneal fibrosis/complications; tomography, x-ray computed; ultrasonography; ureteral obstruction/etiology
19.  Diaphragmatic Hernia: An Uncommon Cause of Dyspepsia 
Adult onset diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition with variable clinical manifestations. The majority of adult-onset diaphragmatic hernia is associated with trauma. Blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma associated with a 5% to 7% incidence of diaphragmatic injury, and in 3% to 15% for those with penetrating injury. These injuries may be left unrecognized when they occur but often are uncovered months later during work up for related symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and surgical repair is recommended by most authorities. Traditionally, diaphragmatic hernia is repaired by laparotomy or thoracotomy, or both. Herein, we report a case of adult onset diaphragmatic hernia presented with dyspepsia that was successfully repaired via laparoscopy. Operative approach and technique of diaphragmatic defect closure is elucidated.
PMCID: PMC3015605  PMID: 16121887
Hernia; Diaphragmatic hernia; Laparoscopy
20.  Management of Patients with Traumatic Rupture of the Diaphragm 
Background
Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm is an unusual type of trauma. In addition, it is difficult to diagnose because it can be accompanied by injuries to other organs. If it is not detected early, the mortality rate can increase due to serious complications. Diaphragmatic rupture is an important indicator of the severity of the trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the incidence of complications and mortality in patients who had surgery to treat traumatic rupture of the diaphragm.
Materials and Methods
The subjects were patients who had undergone a diaphragmatic rupture by blunt trauma or stab wounds except patients who were transferred to other hospitals within 3 days of hospitalization, from January 2000 to December 2007. This study was a retrospective study. 43 patients were hospitalized, and 40 patients were included during the study period. Among them, 28 were male, 12 were female, and the average age was 42 (from 18 to 80). Outcome predictive factors including hypoxia, ventilator application days, revised trauma score (RTS), injury severity score (ISS), age, herniated organs, complications, and the mortality rate were investigated.
Results
Causes of trauma included motor vehicle crashes for 20 patients (50%), falls for 10 (25%), stab wounds for 8 (20%), and agricultural machinery accidents for 2 (5%). Most of the patients (36 patients; 90%) had wound sites on the left. Diagnosis was performed within 12 hours for most patients. The diaphragmatic rupture was diagnosed preoperatively in 27 patients (70%) and in 12 patients (30%) during other surgeries. For surgical treatment, thoracotomy was performed in 14 patients (35%), laparotomy in 11 (27.5%), and a surgery combining thoracotomy and laparotomy in 15 patients (37.5%). Herniated organs in the thoracic cavity included the stomach for 23 patients (57.5%), the omentum for 15 patients (37.5%), the colon for 10 patients (25%), and the spleen for 6 patients (15%). Accompanying surgeries included splenectomy for 13 patients (32.5%), lung suture for 6 patients (15%), and liver suture for 5 patients (12.5%). The average hospital stay was 47.80±56.72 days, and the period of ventilation was 3.90±5.8 days. The average ISS was 35.90±16.81 (11~75), and the average RTS was 6.46±1.88 (1.02~7.84). The mortality rate was 17.5% (7 patients). Factors affecting complications were stomach hernia and age. Factors affecting the mortality rate were ISS and RTS.
Conclusion
There are no typical symptoms of the traumatic rupture of the diaphragm by blunt trauma. Nor are there any special methods of diagnosis; in fact, it is difficult to diagnose because it accompanies injuries to other organs. Stab wounds are also not easy to diagnose, though they are relatively easy to diagnose compared to blunt trauma because the accompanying injuries are more limited. Suture of the diaphragm can be performed through the chest, the abdomen, or the thoracoabdomen. These surgical methods are chosen based on accompanying organ injuries. When there are many organ injuries, there are a great number of complications. Significant factors affecting the complication rate were stomach hernia and age. ISS and RTS were significant as factors affecting the mortality rate. In the case of severe trauma such as pelvic fractures, frequent physical examinations and chest X-rays are necessary to confirm traumatic rupture of the diaphragm because it does not have specific symptoms, and there are no clear diagnosis methods. Complications and the mortality rate should be reduced with early diagnosis and with treatment by confirming diaphragmatic rupture in the thoracic cavity and the abdomen during surgery.
doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2011.44.5.348
PMCID: PMC3249338  PMID: 22263186
Diaphragm; Trauma; Thoracotomy; Rupture
21.  Combined Y-shaped common channel transureteroureterostomy with Boari flap to treat bilateral long-segment ureteral strictures 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7(1):550.
Background
Ureteral stricture is a complication of several etiologies including idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, infection, radiotherapy, instrumentation, and surgical procedures. A variety of techniques have been reported for management. The transureteroureterostomy and bladder flap have been the standard procedures for repairing distal ureteral defects of unilateral ureter. Bilateral ureteral stricture is an uncommon condition that challenges usual reconstructive procedures. It is a difficult task to reconstruct the complex situation of bilateral ureteral strictures.
Case presentation
A 54-year-old female underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IVB squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. Subsequently, she had stricture of bilateral distal ureters with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis which was found by computed tomography. The renal function deteriorated during the follow-up period. She had periodic change of double-J stents and percutaneous nephrostomy. However, the renal function still deteriorated. We performed a combined Y-shaped common channel transureteroureterostomy with Boari flap to reconstruct bilateral long-segment ureteral strictures. The patient recovered uneventfully.
Conclusion
Reconstruction of bilateral ureteral strictures is a difficult treatment. We developed a modified technique for the complex situation of bilateral ureteral strictures. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in the scientific literature and it is a feasible procedure to treat bilateral long-segment ureteral strictures.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-550
PMCID: PMC4150947  PMID: 25138268
Boari flap; Double-J catheter; Radiation; Transureteroureterostomy; Ureteral stricture
22.  A Rare Presentation of AKI: Gastric Infiltration of the Bladder Wall 
Case reports in nephrology  2011;2011:387649.
We describe the case of a man who presented with back pain and acute kidney injury and was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction, which initially corrected with ureteral stents. Imaging studies showed thickening of the bladder. Shortly thereafter, he developed obstructive jaundice, pancreatitis, recurrence of renal failure, and was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer after a laparotomy revealed peritoneal carcinomatosis. The patient deteriorated rapidly after diagnosis. While peritoneal carcinomatosis, ureteral metastases, and extrinsic ureteral compression have been recognized in gastric cancer, obstructive renal failure due to tumor infiltration of the bladder wall is seldom described. We present this case as an unusual cause of acute renal failure and presentation of gastric cancer.
doi:10.1155/2011/387649
PMCID: PMC3914133  PMID: 24533190
23.  The Management of Bilateral Ureteric Injury following Radical Hysterectomy 
Advances in Urology  2008;2008:524919.
Iatrogenic ureteric injury is a well-recognised complication of radical hysterectomy. Bilateral ureteric injuries are rare, but do pose a considerable reconstructive challenge. We searched a prospectively acquired departmental database of ureteric injuries to identify patients with bilateral ureteric injury following radical hysterectomy. Five patients suffered bilateral ureteric injury over a 6-year period. Initial placement of ureteric stents was attempted in all patients. Stents were placed retrogradely into 6 ureters and antegradely into 2 ureters. In 1 patient ureteric stents could not be placed and they underwent primary ureteric reimplantation. In the 4 patients in which stents were placed, 2 were managed with stents alone, 1 required ureteric reimplantation for a persistent ureterovaginal fistula, and 1 developed a recurrent stricture. No patient managed by ureteric stenting suffered deterioration in serum creatinine. We feel that ureteric stenting, when possible, offers a safe primary management of bilateral ureteric injury at radical hysterectomy.
doi:10.1155/2008/524919
PMCID: PMC2441890  PMID: 18604294
24.  Management of Ruptured Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report 
Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic shock and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with rupture of the renal pelvis. The ruptured hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8975.4970
PMCID: PMC4253216  PMID: 25478398
Abdominal trauma; Nephrostomy; PUJ obstruction
25.  Diaphragmatic rupture with right colon and small intestine herniation after blunt trauma: a case report 
Introduction
Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are an unusual presentation of trauma, and are observed in about 10% of diaphragmatic injuries. The diagnosis is often missed because of non-specific clinical signs, and the absence of additional intra-abdominal and thoracic injuries.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 59-year-old Italian man hospitalized for abdominal pain and vomiting. His medical history included a blunt trauma seven years previously. A chest X-ray showed right diaphragm elevation, and computed tomography revealed that the greater omentum, a portion of the colon and the small intestine had been transposed in the hemithorax through a diaphragm rupture. The patient underwent laparotomy, at which time the colon and small intestine were reduced back into the abdomen and the diaphragm was repaired.
Conclusions
This was a unusual case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic ruptures may be revealed many years after the initial trauma. The suspicion of diaphragmatic rupture in a patient with multiple traumas contributes to early diagnosis. Surgical repair remains the only curative treatment for diaphragmatic hernias. Prosthetic patches may be a good solution when the diaphragmatic defect is severe and too large for primary closure, whereas primary repair remains the gold standard for the closure of small to moderate sized diaphragmatic defects.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-289
PMCID: PMC2936927  PMID: 20735836

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