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1.  Genome-Wide Analysis of Germline Signaling Genes Regulating Longevity and Innate Immunity in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(8):e1002864.
Removal of the reproductive system of many animals including fish, flies, nematodes, mice and humans can increase lifespan through mechanisms largely unknown. The abrogation of the germline in Caenorhabditis elegans increases longevity by 60% due to a signal emitted from the somatic gonad. Apart from increased longevity, germline-less C. elegans is also resistant to other environmental stressors such as feeding on bacterial pathogens. However, the evolutionary conservation of this pathogen resistance, its genetic basis and an understanding of genes involved in producing this extraordinary survival phenotype are currently unknown. To study these evolutionary aspects we used the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus, which is a genetic model system used in comparison to C. elegans. By ablation of germline precursor cells and subsequent feeding on the pathogen Serratia marcescens we discovered that P. pacificus shows remarkable resistance to bacterial pathogens and that this response is evolutionarily conserved across the Genus Pristionchus. To gain a mechanistic understanding of the increased resistance to bacterial pathogens and longevity in germline-ablated P. pacificus we used whole genome microarrays to profile the transcriptional response comparing germline ablated versus un-ablated animals when fed S. marcescens. We show that lipid metabolism, maintenance of the proteasome, insulin signaling and nuclear pore complexes are essential for germline deficient phenotypes with more than 3,300 genes being differentially expressed. In contrast, gene expression of germline-less P. pacificus on E. coli (longevity) and S. marcescens (immunity) is very similar with only 244 genes differentially expressed indicating that longevity is due to abundant gene expression also involved in immunity. By testing existing mutants of Ppa-DAF-16/FOXO and the nuclear hormone receptor Ppa-DAF-12 we show a conserved function of both genes in resistance to bacterial pathogens and longevity. This is the first study to show that the influence of the reproductive system on extending lifespan and innate immunity is conserved in evolution.
Author Summary
Removal of the germline in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can increase lifespan and resistance to bacterial pathogens. Currently there is no information on what genes are regulated to produce this resistance phenotype in other nematodes and whether they are the same as genes involved in lifespan regulation. We used the necromenic nematode, Pristionchus pacificus, a species that diverged from C. elegans 250–400 MYA, ablated its germline and found increased resistance to the pathogens Serratia marcescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila. In a novel manner we performed cell ablation of the germline, exposure to bacterial pathogens and used whole genome microarrays of the same animals to find that this resistance is due to expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, nuclear pore complexes, ribosomal translation and lipid production. Furthermore, we see little difference between germline ablated lifespan and immunity leading us to believe that living longer is due to an abundance of genes also being involved with immunity. We could also show that, similar to C. elegans, the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO and nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, are integral for this response. Our study is the first to understand how the reproductive system regulates both lifespan and innate immunity transcriptionally and offers insights into the signaling cascades involved with resisting pathogen attack.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002864
PMCID: PMC3415453  PMID: 22912581
2.  The Somatic Reproductive Tissues of C. elegans Promote Longevity through Steroid Hormone Signaling 
PLoS Biology  2010;8(8):e1000468.
Removal of the germ cells of C. elegans extends lifespan in part because signals from the somatic reproductive tissues activate the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12.
In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12.
Author Summary
Reproductive tissues are known to generate important intercellular signals. For example, in mammals, the reproductive tissues produce steroid hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that have profound effects on development and physiology. Studies of the nematode C. elegans and other organisms have shown that the reproductive system can also affect the rate at which an animal ages. Removal of C. elegans' germ cells extends lifespan but this effect is not simply due to sterility, as removal of both the somatic reproductive tissues and the germ cells does not extend lifespan. Instead, loss of the germ cells extends lifespan by activating a pathway that requires input from the somatic gonad. In this study, we demonstrate that the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity by controlling the activity of a steroid signaling pathway that regulates the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000468
PMCID: PMC2930862  PMID: 20824162
3.  A Transcription Elongation Factor That Links Signals from the Reproductive System to Lifespan Extension in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(9):e1000639.
In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, the aging of the soma is influenced by the germline. When germline-stem cells are removed, aging slows and lifespan is increased. The mechanism by which somatic tissues respond to loss of the germline is not well-understood. Surprisingly, we have found that a predicted transcription elongation factor, TCER-1, plays a key role in this process. TCER-1 is required for loss of the germ cells to increase C. elegans' lifespan, and it acts as a regulatory switch in the pathway. When the germ cells are removed, the levels of TCER-1 rise in somatic tissues. This increase is sufficient to trigger key downstream events, as overexpression of tcer-1 extends the lifespan of normal animals that have an intact reproductive system. Our findings suggest that TCER-1 extends lifespan by promoting the expression of a set of genes regulated by the conserved, life-extending transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO. Interestingly, TCER-1 is not required for DAF-16/FOXO to extend lifespan in animals with reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Thus, TCER-1 specifically links the activity of a broadly deployed transcription factor, DAF-16/FOXO, to longevity signals from reproductive tissues.
Author Summary
The reproductive status and longevity of animals are strongly interlinked. Increasing age influences the reproductive capacities of most animals. However, little is known about how reproductive status might affect lifespan. Experiments in worms and flies have shown that removing cells that give rise to gametes, the “germ cells”, makes them live longer. We know very little about the genes and molecules that are involved in this process. In this study, we have identified a gene called tcer-1 that promotes the longevity of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans when its germ cells are removed. The gene tcer-1 codes for a protein, TCER-1, that is predicted to function as a “transcription elongation factor” (it allows the completion of RNA synthesis during the process of gene expression). Our experiments imply that when the germ cells of worms are removed, TCER-1 collaborates with a transcription factor called DAF-16/FOXO to express genes that contribute to increased longevity. DAF-16/FOXO can extend lifespan in response to other physiological cues besides loss of germ cells. However, TCER-1 specifically helps this widely used longevity protein to respond to signals that reflect the reproductive status. Counterparts of DAF-16/FOXO are known to control aging in other organisms, including humans, so the identification of TCER-1 may lead to a better understanding of the relationship between reproduction and aging in other species, too.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000639
PMCID: PMC2729384  PMID: 19749979
4.  Revealing genes associated with vitellogenesis in the liver of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) by transcriptome profiling 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:141.
Background
In oviparous vertebrates, including fish, vitellogenesis consists of highly regulated pathways involving 17β-estradiol (E2). Previous studies focused on a relatively small number of hepatic expressed genes during vitellogenesis. This study aims to identify hepatic genes involved in vitellogenesis and regulated by E2, by using zebrafish microarray gene expression profiling, and to provide information on functional distinctive genes expressed in the liver of a vitellogenic female, using zebrafish as a model fish.
Results
Genes associated with vitellogenesis were revealed by the following paired t-tests (SAM) comparisons: a) two-month old vitellogenic (Vit2) females were compared with non-vitellogenic (NV) females, showing 825 differentially expressed transcripts during early stages of vitellogenesis, b) four-month old vitellogenic (Vit4) females were compared with NV females, showing 1,046 differentially expressed transcripts during vitellogenesis and c) E2-treated males were compared with control males, showing 1,828 differentially expressed transcripts regulated by E2. A Venn diagram revealed 822 common transcripts in the three groups, indicating that these transcripts were involved in vitellogenesis and putatively regulated by E2. In addition, 431 transcripts were differentially expressed in Vit2 and Vit4 females but not in E2-treated males, indicating that they were putatively not up-regulated by E2. Correspondence analysis showed high similarity in expression profiles of Vit2 with Vit4 and of NV females with control males. The E2-treated males differed from the other groups. The repertoire of genes putatively regulated by E2 in vitellogenic females included genes associated with protein synthesis and reproduction. Genes associated with the immune system processes and biological adhesion, were among the genes that were putatively not regulated by E2. E2-treated males expressed a large array of transcripts that were not associated with vitellogenesis.
The study revealed several genes that were not reported before as being regulated by E2. Also, the hepatic expression of several genes was reported here for the first time.
Conclusion
Gene expression profiling of liver samples revealed 1,046 differentially expressed transcripts during vitellogenesis of which at least ~64% were regulated by E2. The results raise the question on the regulation pattern and temporal pleiotropic expression of hepatic genes in vitellogenic females.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-141
PMCID: PMC2678157  PMID: 19335895
5.  Fatty Acid Desaturation Links Germ Cell Loss to Longevity Through NHR-80/HNF4 in C. elegans 
PLoS Biology  2011;9(3):e1000599.
Lifespan extension induced by germline ablation in C. elegans is regulated by the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-80 in a process that requires the production of oleic acid by activation of the lipid desaturase FAT-6/SCD1.
Background
Preventing germline stem cell proliferation extends lifespan in nematodes and flies. So far, studies on germline-longevity signaling have focused on daf-16/FOXO and daf-12/VDR. Here, we report on NHR-80/HNF4, a nuclear receptor that specifically mediates longevity induced by depletion of the germ line through a mechanism that implicates fatty acid monodesaturation.
Methods and Findings
nhr-80/HNF4 is induced in animals lacking a germ line and is specifically required for their extended longevity. Overexpressing nhr-80/HNF4 increases the lifespan of germline-less animals. This lifespan extension can occur in the absence of daf-16/FOXO but requires the presence of the nuclear receptor DAF-12/VDR. We show that the fatty acid desaturase, FAT-6/SCD1, is a key target of NHR-80/HNF4 and promotes germline-longevity by desaturating stearic acid to oleic acid (OA). We find that NHR-80/HNF4 and OA must work in concert to promote longevity.
Conclusions
Taken together, our data indicate that the NHR-80 pathway participates in the mechanism of longevity extension through depletion of the germ line. We identify fat-6 and OA as essential downstream elements although other targets must also be present. Thus, NHR-80 links fatty acid desaturation to lifespan extension through germline ablation in a daf-16/FOXO independent manner.
Author Summary
Reproduction and aging are two processes that seem to be closely intertwined. Experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila have shown that depletion of the germ line increases lifespan and that this process depends on insulin and lipophilic-hormone signaling. Recently, it was demonstrated that when germline stem cells (GSCs) cease to proliferate, fat metabolism is altered and this affects longevity. In this study, we have identified a nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-80, that mediates longevity through depletion of the germ line by promoting fatty acid desaturation. The nhr-80 gene is up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels in germline-less animals, leading to the transcription of the gene, fat-6, and the production of oleic acid (OA). Our experiments also show that the NHR-80/FAT-6/OA pathway does not require the presence of DAF-16 but instead, depends fully on the presence of DAF-12, a steroid receptor that affects lifespan. We provide evidence that other NHR-80 targets must be present concomitantly. Our results reinforce the notion that fat metabolism is profoundly altered in response to GSC proliferation, and the data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular relationship between reproduction, fat metabolism, and aging.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000599
PMCID: PMC3057950  PMID: 21423649
6.  Insulin/IGF-1-mediated longevity is marked by reduced protein metabolism 
Quantitative proteomics, lifespan analysis, and biochemical assays were utilized to show that Insulin/IGF-1-mediated longevity in C. elegans is strongly associated with a daf-16 dependent global reduction in protein metabolism.
A daf-16 dependent global reduction in protein translation is observed in daf-2 long-lived mutant.The reduction in active translation is independent of germline activityA role for protein metabolism is identified in the Insulin/IGF-1-mediated extension of life.
Mutations in the daf-2 gene of the conserved Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1) pathway double the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This phenotype is completely suppressed by deletion of Forkhead transcription factor daf-16. To uncover regulatory mechanisms coordinating this extension of life, we employed a quantitative proteomics strategy with daf-2 mutants in comparison with N2 and daf-16; daf-2 double mutants. This revealed a remarkable longevity-specific decrease in proteins involved in mRNA processing and transport, the translational machinery, and protein metabolism. Correspondingly, the daf-2 mutants display lower amounts of mRNA and 20S proteasome activity, despite maintaining total protein levels equal to that observed in wild types. Polyribosome profiling in the daf-2 and daf-16;daf-2 double mutants confirmed a daf-16-dependent reduction in overall translation, a phenotype reminiscent of Dietary Restriction-mediated longevity, which was independent of germline activity. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of proteins identified by our approach resulted in modified C. elegans lifespan confirming the importance of these processes in Insulin/IGF-1-mediated longevity. Together, the results demonstrate a role for the metabolism of proteins in the Insulin/IGF-1-mediated extension of life.
doi:10.1038/msb.2013.35
PMCID: PMC3734508  PMID: 23820781
ageing; high-throughput analysis; metabolism; protein metabolism; translation
7.  CAMKII and Calcineurin regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 
eLife  2013;2:e00518.
The insulin-like signaling pathway maintains a relatively short wild-type lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by phosphorylating and inactivating DAF-16, the ortholog of the FOXO transcription factors of mammalian cells. DAF-16 is phosphorylated by the AKT kinases, preventing its nuclear translocation. Calcineurin (PP2B phosphatase) also limits the lifespan of C. elegans, but the mechanism through which it does so is unknown. Herein, we show that TAX-6•CNB-1 and UNC-43, the C. elegans Calcineurin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CAMKII) orthologs, respectively, also regulate lifespan through DAF-16. Moreover, UNC-43 regulates DAF-16 in response to various stress conditions, including starvation, heat or oxidative stress, and cooperatively contributes to lifespan regulation by insulin signaling. However, unlike insulin signaling, UNC-43 phosphorylates and activates DAF-16, thus promoting its nuclear localization. The phosphorylation of DAF-16 at S286 by UNC-43 is removed by TAX-6•CNB-1, leading to DAF-16 inactivation. Mammalian FOXO3 is also regulated by CAMKIIA and Calcineurin.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00518.001
eLife digest
Although aging might seem to be a passive process—resulting simply from wear and tear over a lifetime—it can actually be accelerated or slowed down by genetic mutations. This phenomenon has been most thoroughly studied in the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. Normally, this worm lives for just two or three weeks, but genetic mutations that reduce the activity of certain enzymes in a series of biochemical reactions known as the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway can extend its lifespan by up to a factor of ten, and similar effects have been seen in flies and mice. Lifespans can also be increased by blocking other signalling pathways or restricting the intake of calories.
This increase in lifespan associated with the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway is known to involve a protein called DAF-16 and two kinases called AKT-1 and AKT-2. Under normal conditions the AKT kinases add several phosphate groups to the DAF-16, which prevents it from travelling to the nucleus of the cell. However, when genetic techniques are used to block the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, the AKT kinases are unable to add the phosphate groups; this leaves the DAF-16 free to enter the nucleus, where it activates a network of genes that promotes longevity.
In addition to kinases, the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway also involves enzymes called phosphatases that remove the phosphate groups from other proteins. In particular, a phosphatase called calcineurin is known to be involved in the regulation of lifespan, but the details of this process are not fully understood.
Now, Tao et al. have carried out a series of genetic and biochemical experiments to determine how phosphatases exert their influence on aging. The results show that calcineurin targets DAF-16, the same protein that is targeted by the AKT kinases. Moreover, another kinase also targets DAF-16 when the worm is exposed to heat, starvation or some other form of stress: this kinase, which is not involved in the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, is called CAMKII.
Tao et al. show that these kinases act on DAF-16 in different ways: CAMKII activates it by adding the phosphate group at a specific site known as S286, whereas the AKT kinases deactivate DAF-16 because they add phosphate groups at different sites, thereby preventing it from entering the nucleus. Calcineurin neutralizes the effect of CAMKII by removing the phosphate group at S286 to deactivate the DAF-16.
In addition to shedding new light on the regulation of lifespan in C. elegans, the new results could improve our understanding of aging in humans, and also the development of diabetes and other age-related diseases, because the equivalent molecules in mammalian cells are regulated in similar ways.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00518.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.00518
PMCID: PMC3691573  PMID: 23805378
aging; lifespan; FOXO; CAMKII; calcineurin; DAF-16; C. elegans
8.  Cell-Nonautonomous Signaling of FOXO/DAF-16 to the Stem Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(8):e1002836.
In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), the promotion of longevity by the transcription factor DAF-16 requires reduced insulin/IGF receptor (IIR) signaling or the ablation of the germline, although the reason for the negative impact of germ cells is unknown. FOXO/DAF-16 activity inhibits germline proliferation in both daf-2 mutants and gld-1 tumors. In contrast to its function as a germline tumor suppressor, we now provide evidence that somatic DAF-16 in the presence of IIR signaling can also result in tumorigenic activity, which counteracts robust lifespan extension. In contrast to the cell-autonomous IIR signaling, which is required for larval germline proliferation, activation of DAF-16 in the hypodermis results in hyperplasia of the germline and disruption of the surrounding basement membrane. SHC-1 adaptor protein and AKT-1 kinase antagonize, whereas AKT-2 and SGK-1 kinases promote, this cell-nonautonomous DAF-16 function. Our data suggest that a functional balance of DAF-16 activities in different tissues determines longevity and reveals a novel, cell-nonautonomous role of FOXO/DAF-16 to affect stem cells.
Author Summary
Previous studies have shown that DAF–16/FOXO transcription factor promotes longevity and stress resistance and inhibits tumor progression in the absence of insulin signaling. Here we show that active DAF-16 in the epidermis can shorten lifespan by promoting a tumorous germline phenotype. In contrast to the known inhibitory effect of insulin signaling upon DAF-16, an active insulin and PI3K signaling are required for DAF-16–mediated signaling to the germline. In addition, AKT-1– and SHC-1–mediated JNK signaling antagonize AKT-2 and SGK-1 to affect the reproductive system. This is to our knowledge the first report about a detrimental effect of DAF-16 on lifespan. Furthermore it emphasizes that DAF-16 activity is highly dependent on the cellular context and communication between different tissues.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002836
PMCID: PMC3420913  PMID: 22916022
9.  Positive Feedback between Transcriptional and Kinase Suppression in Nematodes with Extraordinary Longevity and Stress Resistance 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(4):e1000452.
Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) regulates development and metabolism, and modulates aging, of Caenorhabditis elegans. In nematodes, as in mammals, IIS is understood to operate through a kinase-phosphorylation cascade that inactivates the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Situated at the center of this pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates PIP2 to form PIP3, a phospholipid required for membrane tethering and activation of many signaling molecules. Nonsense mutants of age-1, the nematode gene encoding the class-I catalytic subunit of PI3K, produce only a truncated protein lacking the kinase domain, and yet confer 10-fold greater longevity on second-generation (F2) homozygotes, and comparable gains in stress resistance. Their F1 parents, like weaker age-1 mutants, are far less robust—implying that maternally contributed trace amounts of PI3K activity or of PIP3 block the extreme age-1 phenotypes. We find that F2-mutant adults have <10% of wild-type kinase activity in vitro and <60% of normal phosphoprotein levels in vivo. Inactivation of PI3K not only disrupts PIP3-dependent kinase signaling, but surprisingly also attenuates transcripts of numerous IIS components, even upstream of PI3K, and those of signaling molecules that cross-talk with IIS. The age-1(mg44) nonsense mutation results, in F2 adults, in changes to kinase profiles and to expression levels of multiple transcripts that distinguish this mutant from F1 age-1 homozygotes, a weaker age-1 mutant, or wild-type adults. Most but not all of those changes are reversed by a second mutation to daf-16, implicating both DAF-16/ FOXO–dependent and –independent mechanisms. RNAi, silencing genes that are downregulated in long-lived worms, improves oxidative-stress resistance of wild-type adults. It is therefore plausible that attenuation of those genes in age-1(mg44)-F2 adults contributes to their exceptional survival. IIS in nematodes (and presumably in other species) thus involves transcriptional as well as kinase regulation in a positive-feedback circuit, favoring either survival or reproduction. Hyperlongevity of strong age-1(mg44) mutants may result from their inability to reset this molecular switch to the reproductive mode.
Author Summary
Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) impacts development, metabolism, and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. It has been viewed as a cascade of kinase reactions, chiefly phosphorylation of other kinases, leading to inactivation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. PI3K, a phosphatidylinositol kinase at the center of this pathway, converts PIP2 to PIP3, instrumental to kinase docking and activation. Here we show that PI3K deficiency elicits transcriptional inhibition of many kinases, including those of IIS itself. This creates a positive-feedback loop, wherein DAF-16/FOXO silences expression of the very kinases that would have inactivated it. In the resulting “flip-flop” genetic switch, either kinase signaling or transcriptional silencing may predominate. We discovered the transcriptional arm of this switch in infertile age-1(mg44) mutants, defective for PI3K activity. The absence of PIP3 and PIP3-dependent kinase activity gives free rein to gene silencing by DAF-16/FOXO. This two-tiered response could scarcely have evolved for the benefit of a sterile mutant; some components presumably serve regulatory functions in normal animals, reinforcing a switch responsive to environmental and internal signals. In age-1(mg44) mutants, complete inactivation of PI3K “fuses” the switch, locking worms into longevity mode. With signaling profoundly silenced, they cannot resume reproduction, but instead acquire a remarkable capacity for individual survival.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000452
PMCID: PMC2661368  PMID: 19360094
10.  DAF-2/Insulin-Like Signaling in C. elegans Modifies Effects of Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Stress on Aging, Stress and Growth 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(11):e1240.
Background
Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS) are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan.
Principal Findings
We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants.
Conclusions
These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001240
PMCID: PMC2080776  PMID: 18043747
11.  DAF-16/FoxO Directly Regulates an Atypical AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Gamma Isoform to Mediate the Effects of Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling on Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(2):e1004109.
The DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor controls growth, metabolism and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. The large number of genes that it regulates has been an obstacle to understanding its function. However, recent analysis of transcript and chromatin profiling implies that DAF-16 regulates relatively few genes directly, and that many of these encode other regulatory proteins. We have investigated the regulation by DAF-16 of genes encoding the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which has α, β and γ subunits. C. elegans has 5 genes encoding putative AMP-binding regulatory γ subunits, aakg-1-5. aakg-4 and aakg-5 are closely related, atypical isoforms, with orthologs throughout the Chromadorea class of nematodes. We report that ∼75% of total γ subunit mRNA encodes these 2 divergent isoforms, which lack consensus AMP-binding residues, suggesting AMP-independent kinase activity. DAF-16 directly activates expression of aakg-4, reduction of which suppresses longevity in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants. This implies that an increase in the activity of AMPK containing the AAKG-4 γ subunit caused by direct activation by DAF-16 slows aging in daf-2 mutants. Knock down of aakg-4 expression caused a transient decrease in activation of expression in multiple DAF-16 target genes. This, taken together with previous evidence that AMPK promotes DAF-16 activity, implies the action of these two metabolic regulators in a positive feedback loop that accelerates the induction of DAF-16 target gene expression. The AMPK β subunit, aakb-1, also proved to be up-regulated by DAF-16, but had no effect on lifespan. These findings reveal key features of the architecture of the gene-regulatory network centered on DAF-16, and raise the possibility that activation of AMP-independent AMPK in nutritionally replete daf-2 mutant adults slows aging in C. elegans. Evidence of activation of AMPK subunits in mammals suggests that such FoxO-AMPK interactions may be evolutionarily conserved.
Author Summary
Aging is an important problem for human health and is regulated by complex gene regulatory networks. In a simple nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) mutation of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor daf-2 dramatically extends lifespan. This is due to the increased activity of DAF-16, a FoxO transcription factor, leading to altered expression of genes, many encoding other regulatory proteins. We have focused on one such protein, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), that is important for regulating cellular homeostasis under conditions of low energy availability (e.g. starvation). We find that DAF-16 binds to the promoter of aakg-4 (a gene encoding an atypical γ subunit of AMPK) and increases its expression. Inhibition of aakg-4 leads to down-regulation of multiple DAF-16 target genes and shortens the life of daf-2 mutants. Taken together with a previous report showing that AMPK activates DAF-16, this suggests that AAKG-4 and DAF-16 are involved in a positive feedback loop which accelerates effects of DAF-16 on gene expression, and could contribute to longevity. This study defines a new part of the complex gene regulatory network in which DAF-16 acts to control aging. FoxO-AMPK interactions are present in higher animals, where they could potentially also influence aging.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004109
PMCID: PMC3916255  PMID: 24516399
12.  Long-term starvation and ageing induce AGE-1/PI 3-kinase-dependent translocation of DAF-16/FOXO to the cytoplasm 
BMC Biology  2006;4:1.
Background
The provision of stress resistance diverts resources from development and reproduction and must therefore be tightly regulated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the switch to increased stress resistance to promote survival through periods of starvation is regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduction-of-function mutations in AGE-1, the C. elegans Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), increase lifespan and stress resistance in a daf-16 dependent manner. Class IA PI3Ks downregulate FOXOs by inducing their translocation to the cytoplasm. However, the circumstances under which AGE-1 is normally activated are unclear. To address this question we used C. elegans first stage larvae (L1s), which when starved enter a developmentally-arrested diapause stage until food is encountered.
Results
We find that in L1s both starvation and daf-16 are necessary to confer resistance to oxidative stress in the form of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, DAF-16 is localised to cell nuclei after short-term starvation. However, after long-term starvation, DAF-16 unexpectedly translocates to the cytoplasm. This translocation requires functional age-1. H2O2 treatment can replicate the translocation and induce generation of the AGE-1 product PIP3. Because feeding reduces to zero in ageing adult C. elegans, these animals may also undergo long-term starvation. Consistent with our observation in L1s, DAF-16 also translocates to the cytoplasm in old adult worms in an age-1-dependent manner.
Conclusion
DAF-16 is activated in the starved L1 diapause. The translocation of DAF-16 to the cytoplasm after long-term starvation may be a feedback mechanism that prevents excessive expenditure on stress resistance. H2O2 is a candidate second messenger in this feedback mechanism. The lack of this response in age-1(hx546) mutants suggests a novel mechanism by which this mutation increases longevity.
doi:10.1186/1741-7007-4-1
PMCID: PMC1403811  PMID: 16457721
13.  p38 MAPK Regulates Expression of Immune Response Genes and Contributes to Longevity in C. elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2006;2(11):e183.
The PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the DAF-2–DAF-16 insulin signaling pathway control Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal innate immunity. pmk-1 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced sensitivity to pathogens, while daf-2 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced resistance to pathogens that requires upregulation of the DAF-16 transcription factor. We used genetic analysis to show that the pathogen resistance of daf-2 mutants also requires PMK-1. However, genome-wide microarray analysis indicated that there was essentially no overlap between genes positively regulated by PMK-1 and DAF-16, suggesting that they form parallel pathways to promote immunity. We found that PMK-1 controls expression of candidate secreted antimicrobials, including C-type lectins, ShK toxins, and CUB-like genes. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 25% of PMK-1 positively regulated genes are induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that PMK-1 regulates both basal and infection-induced expression of pathogen response genes, while DAF-16 does not. Finally, we used genetic analysis to show that PMK-1 contributes to the enhanced longevity of daf-2 mutants. We propose that the PMK-1 pathway is a specific, indispensable immunity pathway that mediates expression of secreted immune response genes, while the DAF-2–DAF-16 pathway appears to regulate immunity as part of a more general stress response. The contribution of the PMK-1 pathway to the enhanced lifespan of daf-2 mutants suggests that innate immunity is an important determinant of longevity.
Synopsis
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogen infection and relies upon pathways conserved across mammals, insects, and nematodes. Here, the authors have analyzed the transcriptional response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to infection by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They investigated this transcriptional response in the context of two conserved pathways involved in pathogen defense: the PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway and the DAF-2–DAF-16 insulin-signaling pathway. Specifically, the authors found that the p38 MAPK pathway plays a critical role in the infection-induced expression of secreted immune response genes. These genes include C-type lectins, lysozymes, and antimicrobial peptides that fight off infection in many species. In contrast, they found that the DAF-16 pathway is not required for immune response gene expression and may regulate immunity as part of a general stress response that functions in parallel to p38 MAPK. In addition, the authors observed that p38 MAPK contributes to the enhanced longevity of daf-2 mutants, implicating p38 MAPK signaling in the regulation of longevity, possibly through its role in immunity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020183
PMCID: PMC1635533  PMID: 17096597
14.  Genes That Act Downstream of Sensory Neurons to Influence Longevity, Dauer Formation, and Pathogen Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(12):e1003133.
The sensory systems of multicellular organisms are designed to provide information about the environment and thus elicit appropriate changes in physiology and behavior. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sensory neurons affect the decision to arrest during development in a diapause state, the dauer larva, and modulate the lifespan of the animals in adulthood. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we identified transcripts whose levels are altered by mutations in the intraflagellar transport protein daf-10, which result in impaired development and function of many sensory neurons in C. elegans. In agreement with existing genetic data, the expression of genes regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was affected by daf-10 mutations. In addition, we found altered expression of transcriptional targets of the DAF-12/nuclear hormone receptor in the daf-10 mutants and showed that this pathway influences specifically the dauer formation phenotype of these animals. Unexpectedly, pathogen-responsive genes were repressed in daf-10 mutant animals, and these sensory mutants exhibited altered susceptibility to and behavioral avoidance of bacterial pathogens. Moreover, we found that a solute transporter gene mct-1/2, which was induced by daf-10 mutations, was necessary and sufficient for longevity. Thus, sensory input seems to influence an extensive transcriptional network that modulates basic biological processes in C. elegans. This situation is reminiscent of the complex regulation of physiology by the mammalian hypothalamus, which also receives innervations from sensory systems, most notably the visual and olfactory systems.
Author Summary
The senses provide animals with information about their environment, which affects not only their behavior but also their internal state and physiological outputs. How this information is processed is still unclear. In this study, we used mutant C. elegans roundworms that had defective sensory neurons to investigate how changes in sensation alter the expression of genes and regulate physiology, specifically the worms' choice to hibernate during growth and their longevity as fully-grown adults. We showed that defects in sensory neurons change the pattern of gene expression and regulate these outputs through known hormonal pathways, including insulin/IGF-1 and steroid pathways. We also identified a new regulator of longevity, MCT-1, that is predicted to transport small metabolites and hormones in the body. Unexpectedly, we found that sensory impairment altered yet another physiological output, the response to infectious agents. It prevented the worms from avoiding infectious bacteria and reduced the expression of potentially protective factors, but also increased the worms' resistance to infection, suggesting a complex network of responses to environmental stimuli. Understanding how sensory information is relayed in this relatively simple organism may inform our understanding of sensory processing in higher organisms like mammals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003133
PMCID: PMC3527274  PMID: 23284299
15.  Insulin/IGF-1 and Hypoxia Signaling Act in Concert to Regulate Iron Homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(3):e1002498.
Iron plays an essential role in many biological processes, but also catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause molecular damage. Iron homeostasis is therefore a critical determinant of fitness. In Caenorhabditis elegans, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) promotes growth and reproduction but limits stress resistance and lifespan through inactivation of the DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor (TF). We report that long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants show a daf-16–dependent increase in expression of ftn-1, which encodes the iron storage protein H-ferritin. To better understand the regulation of iron homeostasis, we performed a TF–limited genetic screen for factors influencing ftn-1 gene expression. The screen identified the heat-shock TF hsf-1, the MAD bHLH TF mdl-1, and the putative histone acetyl transferase ada-2 as activators of ftn-1 expression. It also revealed that the HIFα homolog hif-1 and its binding partner aha-1 (HIFβ) are potent repressors of ftn-1 expression. ftn-1 expression is induced by exposure to iron, and we found that hif-1 was required for this induction. In addition, we found that the prolyl hydroxylase EGL-9, which represses HIF-1 via the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor VHL-1, can also act antagonistically to VHL-1 in regulating ftn-1. This suggests a novel mechanism for HIF target gene regulation by these evolutionarily conserved and clinically important hydroxylases. Our findings imply that the IIS and HIF pathways act together to regulate iron homeostasis in C. elegans. We suggest that IIS/DAF-16 regulation of ftn-1 modulates a trade-off between growth and stress resistance, as elevated iron availability supports growth but also increases ROS production.
Author Summary
Iron plays a role in many biological processes, including energy generation and DNA replication. But to maintain health, levels of cellular iron must be just right: too much or too little iron can cause illnesses, such as anemia and hemochromatosis, respectively. Animals therefore carefully control their iron levels by regulating of iron uptake, transport, and storage within protein capsules called ferritins. But how do they coordinate this? Using the model organism C. elegans, we have discovered a network of genes and pathways that control iron homeostasis. We find that ferritin is regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling, which also controls growth and resistance to oxidative stress in response to harsh environmental conditions. Ferritin is also regulated by the hypoxia signaling pathway, which responds to oxygen and iron levels as well as to metabolic cues. We find that the hypoxia pathway acts as an iron sensor, a role it may also play in humans. Our work defines a network of signaling pathways that can adjust iron availability in response to a range of environmental cues. Understanding this network in C. elegans can help us to understand the causes of iron dyshomeostasis in humans, which can profoundly affect health.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002498
PMCID: PMC3291539  PMID: 22396654
16.  C. elegans SIRT6/7 Homolog SIR-2.4 Promotes DAF-16 Relocalization and Function during Stress 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(9):e1002948.
FoxO transcription factors and sirtuin family deacetylases regulate diverse biological processes, including stress responses and longevity. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans sirtuin SIR-2.4—homolog of mammalian SIRT6 and SIRT7 proteins—promotes DAF-16–dependent transcription and stress-induced DAF-16 nuclear localization. SIR-2.4 is required for resistance to multiple stressors: heat shock, oxidative insult, and proteotoxicity. By contrast, SIR-2.4 is largely dispensable for DAF-16 nuclear localization and function in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Although acetylation is known to regulate localization and activity of mammalian FoxO proteins, this modification has not been previously described on DAF-16. We find that DAF-16 is hyperacetylated in sir-2.4 mutants. Conversely, DAF-16 is acetylated by the acetyltransferase CBP-1, and DAF-16 is hypoacetylated and constitutively nuclear in response to cbp-1 inhibition. Surprisingly, a SIR-2.4 catalytic mutant efficiently rescues the DAF-16 localization defect in sir-2.4 null animals. Acetylation of DAF-16 by CBP-1 in vitro is inhibited by either wild-type or mutant SIR-2.4, suggesting that SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 acetylation indirectly, by preventing CBP-1-mediated acetylation under stress conditions. Taken together, our results identify SIR-2.4 as a critical regulator of DAF-16 specifically in the context of stress responses. Furthermore, they reveal a novel role for acetylation, modulated by the antagonistic activities of CBP-1 and SIR-2.4, in modulating DAF-16 localization and function.
Author Summary
Sensing and responding appropriately to environmental insults is a challenge facing all organisms. In the roundworm C. elegans, the FoxO protein DAF-16 moves to the nucleus in response to stress, where it regulates gene expression and plays a key role in ensuring organismal survival. In this manuscript, we characterize SIR-2.4 as a novel factor that promotes DAF-16 function during stress. SIR-2.4 is a member of a family of proteins called sirtuins, some of which promote increased lifespan in model organisms. Worms lacking SIR-2.4 show impaired DAF-16 nuclear recruitment, DAF-16–dependent gene expression, and survival in response to a variety of stressors. SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 by indirectly affecting levels of a modification called acetylation on DAF-16. Overall, our work has revealed SIR-2.4 to be a key new factor in stress resistance and DAF-16 regulation in C. elegans. Future studies will address whether mammalian SIR-2.4 homologs SIRT6 and SIRT7 act similarly towards mammalian FoxO proteins.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002948
PMCID: PMC3441721  PMID: 23028355
17.  DamID in C. elegans reveals longevity-associated targets of DAF-16/FoxO 
Insulin/IGF-1 signaling controls metabolism, stress resistance and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans by regulating the activity of the DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor (TF). However, the function of DAF-16 and the topology of the transcriptional network that it crowns remain unclear. Using chromatin profiling by DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID), we identified 907 genes that are bound by DAF-16. These were enriched for genes showing DAF-16-dependent upregulation in long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants (P=1.4e−11). Cross-referencing DAF-16 targets with these upregulated genes (daf-2 versus daf-16; daf-2) identified 65 genes that were DAF-16 regulatory targets. These 65 were enriched for signaling genes, including known determinants of longevity, but not for genes specifying somatic maintenance functions (e.g. detoxification, repair). This suggests that DAF-16 acts within a relatively small transcriptional subnetwork activating (but not suppressing) other regulators of stress resistance and aging, rather than directly regulating terminal effectors of longevity. For most genes bound by DAF-16∷DAM, transcriptional regulation by DAF-16 was not detected, perhaps reflecting transcriptionally non-functional TF ‘parking sites'. This study demonstrates the efficacy of DamID for chromatin profiling in C. elegans.
doi:10.1038/msb.2010.54
PMCID: PMC2950082  PMID: 20706209
aging; C. elegans; DAF-16/FoxO; DamID chromatin profiling; transcriptional networks
18.  Roles of the Developmental Regulator unc-62/Homothorax in Limiting Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(2):e1003325.
The normal aging process is associated with stereotyped changes in gene expression, but the regulators responsible for these age-dependent changes are poorly understood. Using a novel genomics approach, we identified HOX co-factor unc-62 (Homothorax) as a developmental regulator that binds proximal to age-regulated genes and modulates lifespan. Although unc-62 is expressed in diverse tissues, its functions in the intestine play a particularly important role in modulating lifespan, as intestine-specific knockdown of unc-62 by RNAi increases lifespan. An alternatively-spliced, tissue-specific isoform of unc-62 is expressed exclusively in the intestine and declines with age. Through analysis of the downstream consequences of unc-62 knockdown, we identify multiple effects linked to aging. First, unc-62 RNAi decreases the expression of yolk proteins (vitellogenins) that aggregate in the body cavity in old age. Second, unc-62 RNAi results in a broad increase in expression of intestinal genes that typically decrease expression with age, suggesting that unc-62 activity balances intestinal resource allocation between yolk protein expression and fertility on the one hand and somatic functions on the other. Finally, in old age, the intestine shows increased expression of several aberrant genes; these UNC-62 targets are expressed predominantly in neuronal cells in developing animals, but surprisingly show increased expression in the intestine of old animals. Intestinal expression of some of these genes during aging is detrimental for longevity; notably, increased expression of insulin ins-7 limits lifespan by repressing activity of insulin pathway response factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged animals. These results illustrate how unc-62 regulation of intestinal gene expression is responsible for limiting lifespan during the normal aging process.
Author Summary
The normal aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans involves coordinated changes in expression of about a thousand genes. In order to find upstream regulators responsible for these aging genes, we used a genomics approach to screen for transcription factors that bind to them. We focused on one such regulator, unc-62/Homothorax, that encodes a co-factor for a Hox transcription factor. Although essential for development, expression of unc-62 in adults limits lifespan. We find that unc-62 is a transcriptional activator of yolk protein genes, which are synthesized in the intestine and encode essential nutrients for progeny but accumulate to toxic levels with age. Additionally, analysis of unc-62 knockdown indicates that when vitellogenin transcription is decreased, transcription of intestinal genes with somatic functions increases. Thus, activation of yolk protein gene expression by unc-62 is both a burden on maternal health and a necessary resource for embryonic growth. Surprisingly, we also found that the intestine of old worms has novel expression of non-intestinal proteins that are toxic when expressed in the intestine and are activated by unc-62 in old age. Our work on transcriptional regulation of intrinsic gene expression differences during normal aging has revealed insights into the mechanisms that limit lifespan.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003325
PMCID: PMC3585033  PMID: 23468654
19.  TATN-1 Mutations Reveal a Novel Role for Tyrosine as a Metabolic Signal That Influences Developmental Decisions and Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(12):e1004020.
Recent work has identified changes in the metabolism of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine as a risk factor for diabetes and a contributor to the development of liver cancer. While these findings could suggest a role for tyrosine as a direct regulator of the behavior of cells and tissues, evidence for this model is currently lacking. Through the use of RNAi and genetic mutants, we identify tatn-1, which is the worm ortholog of tyrosine aminotransferase and catalyzes the first step of the conserved tyrosine degradation pathway, as a novel regulator of the dauer decision and modulator of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like (IGFR) signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations affecting tatn-1 elevate tyrosine levels in the animal, and enhance the effects of mutations in genes that lie within the daf-2/insulin signaling pathway or are otherwise upstream of daf-16/FOXO on both dauer formation and worm longevity. These effects are mediated by elevated tyrosine levels as supplemental dietary tyrosine mimics the phenotypes produced by a tatn-1 mutation, and the effects still occur when the enzymes needed to convert tyrosine into catecholamine neurotransmitters are missing. The effects on dauer formation and lifespan require the aak-2/AMPK gene, and tatn-1 mutations increase phospho-AAK-2 levels. In contrast, the daf-16/FOXO transcription factor is only partially required for the effects on dauer formation and not required for increased longevity. We also find that the controlled metabolism of tyrosine by tatn-1 may function normally in dauer formation because the expression of the TATN-1 protein is regulated both by daf-2/IGFR signaling and also by the same dietary and environmental cues which influence dauer formation. Our findings point to a novel role for tyrosine as a developmental regulator and modulator of longevity, and support a model where elevated tyrosine levels play a causal role in the development of diabetes and cancer in people.
Author Summary
In people, elevated blood levels of the amino acid tyrosine are seen in obese individuals, and these elevations represent a novel risk factor for the development of diabetes. The enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase, which removes tyrosine from the body, has also been identified as a tumor suppressor gene, and this enzyme normally acts to prevent the development of liver cancer. In our work, we identify tyrosine aminotransferase as a regulator of larval development and adult longevity in the non-parasitic worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms with mutations impairing tyrosine aminotransferase activity show elevated levels of tyrosine, are prone to arresting development in a larval stage called a dauer, and show increased longevity. Part of the effect of tyrosine aminotransferase is due to inhibitory effects on an insulin-like signaling pathway in the worms. Our work suggests that levels of the amino acid tyrosine are sensed and can lead to changes in cell signaling. These results may provide insights into how tyrosine could be involved in obesity, diabetes, and cancer in people.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004020
PMCID: PMC3868569  PMID: 24385923
20.  Unexpected Role for Dosage Compensation in the Control of Dauer Arrest, Insulin-Like Signaling, and FoxO Transcription Factor Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans 
Genetics  2013;194(3):619-629.
During embryogenesis, an essential process known as dosage compensation is initiated to equalize gene expression from sex chromosomes. Although much is known about how dosage compensation is established, the consequences of modulating the stability of dosage compensation postembryonically are not known. Here we define a role for the Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC) in the regulation of DAF-2 insulin-like signaling. In a screen for dauer regulatory genes that control the activity of the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16, we isolated three mutant alleles of dpy-21, which encodes a conserved DCC component. Knockdown of multiple DCC components in hermaphrodite and male animals indicates that the dauer suppression phenotype of dpy-21 mutants is due to a defect in dosage compensation per se. In dpy-21 mutants, expression of several X-linked genes that promote dauer bypass is elevated, including four genes encoding components of the DAF-2 insulin-like pathway that antagonize DAF-16/FoxO activity. Accordingly, dpy-21 mutation reduced the expression of DAF-16/FoxO target genes by promoting the exclusion of DAF-16/FoxO from nuclei. Thus, dosage compensation enhances dauer arrest by repressing X-linked genes that promote reproductive development through the inhibition of DAF-16/FoxO nuclear translocation. This work is the first to establish a specific postembryonic function for dosage compensation in any organism. The influence of dosage compensation on dauer arrest, a larval developmental fate governed by the integration of multiple environmental inputs and signaling outputs, suggests that the dosage compensation machinery may respond to external cues by modulating signaling pathways through chromosome-wide regulation of gene expression.
doi:10.1534/genetics.113.149948
PMCID: PMC3697968  PMID: 23733789
Caenorhabditis elegans; dosage compensation; dauer; insulin signaling; DAF-16/FoxO
21.  C. elegans Germline-Deficient Mutants Respond to Pathogen Infection Using Shared and Distinct Mechanisms 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11777.
Reproduction extracts a cost in resources that organisms are then unable to utilize to deal with a multitude of environmental stressors. In the nematode C. elegans, development of the germline shortens the lifespan of the animal and increases its susceptibility to microbial pathogens. Prior studies have demonstrated germline-deficient nematodes to have increased resistance to Gram negative bacteria. We show that germline-deficient strains display increased resistance across a broad range of pathogens including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Furthermore, we show that the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, which regulates longevity and immunity in C. elegans, appears to be crucial for maintaining longevity in both wild-type and germline-deficient backgrounds. Our studies indicate that germline-deficient mutants glp-1 and glp-4 respond to pathogen infection using common and different mechanisms that involve the activation of DAF-16.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011777
PMCID: PMC2909909  PMID: 20668681
22.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa Suppresses Host Immunity by Activating the DAF-2 Insulin-Like Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Pathogens  2008;4(10):e1000175.
Some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome host immune defenses by inhibiting host defense signaling pathways and suppressing the expression of host defense effectors. We present evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to suppress the expression of a subset of immune defense genes in the animal host Caenorhabditis elegans by activating the DAF-2/DAF-16 insulin-like signaling pathway. The DAF-2/DAF-16 pathway is important for the regulation of many aspects of organismal physiology, including metabolism, stress response, longevity, and immune function. We show that intestinal expression of DAF-16 is required for resistance to P. aeruginosa and that the suppression of immune defense genes is dependent on the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 and the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. By visualizing the subcellular localization of DAF-16::GFP fusion protein in live animals during infection, we show that P. aeruginosa–mediated downregulation of a subset of immune genes is associated with the ability to translocate DAF-16 from the nuclei of intestinal cells. Suppression of DAF-16 is mediated by an insulin-like peptide, INS-7, which functions upstream of DAF-2. Both the inhibition of DAF-16 and downregulation of DAF-16–regulated genes, such as thn-2, lys-7, and spp-1, require the P. aeruginosa two-component response regulator GacA and the quorum-sensing regulators LasR and RhlR and are not observed during infection with Salmonella typhimurium or Enterococcus faecalis. Our results reveal a new mechanism by which P. aeruginosa suppresses host immune defense.
Author Summary
Bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome the immune defenses that animals and plants deploy against them. In some cases, this involves directly interfering with the proper functioning of the immune system. Because pathogens that employ these strategies are often the most deadly and difficult to treat, it is important to understand how they are able to suppress the immune system in the context of the whole organism. In this paper, we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterial pathogen that is a major contributor to hospital-borne infections such as pneumonia, suppresses an immune defense pathway during infection of the simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic modifications of both the pathogen and host, we identify components of the signaling pathways required to suppress host immune defenses. We find that P. aeruginosa employs the cell-to-cell communication system known as quorum sensing, which coordinates the expression of virulence factors to suppress host immune defense. In the host, an evolutionarily conserved insulin-like signaling pathway is affected by P. aeruginosa, resulting in the suppression of genes that are required for defense against infection in the intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the possibility that P. aeruginosa may exploit similar mechanisms when causing infections of human epithelium, such as the epithelial lining of the lungs.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000175
PMCID: PMC2568960  PMID: 18927620
23.  A soma-to-germline transformation in long-lived C. elegans mutants 
Nature  2009;459(7250):1079-1084.
Unlike the soma which ages during the lifespan of multicellular organisms, the germline traces an essentially immortal lineage. Genomic instability in somatic cells increases with age, and this decline in somatic maintenance might be regulated to facilitate resource reallocation toward reproduction at the expense of cellular senescence. We report here that C. elegans mutants with increased longevity exhibit a soma-to-germline transformation of gene expression programs normally limited to the germline. Decreased insulin-like signaling causes the somatic misexpression of germline-limited pie-1 and pgl family of genes in intestinal and ectodermal tissues. DAF-16/FoxO, the major transcriptional effector of insulin-like signaling, regulates pie-1 expression by directly binding to the pie-1 promoter. The somatic tissues of insulin-like mutants are more germline-like and protected from genotoxic stress. Gene inactivation of components of the cytosolic chaperonin complex that induce increased longevity also cause somatic misexpression of PGL-1. These results suggest that the acquisition of germline characteristics by the somatic cells of C. elegans mutants with increased longevity contributes to their increased health and survival.
doi:10.1038/nature08106
PMCID: PMC2716045  PMID: 19506556
aging; RNAi; soma-to-germline transformation; essential genes; lethal; daf-2; daf-16; pie-1; pgl-1; cct-4; cct-6; cytosolic chaperonin complex; insulin signaling; germline; stem cells; longevity; C. elegans
24.  A Role for Autophagy in the Extension of Lifespan by Dietary Restriction in C. elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2008;4(2):e24.
In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin). TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.
Author Summary
Dietary restriction (limited food intake) increases lifespan in many organisms. However, the cellular processes underlying this fascinating phenomenon are still poorly understood. When an animal is starved, it degrades and recycles its organelles and other cellular components in a process called autophagy (literally “self-eating”). Here, we have asked whether autophagy also occurs in response to dietary restriction, using the roundworm C. elegans for our studies. We find that autophagy does take place when food intake is limited. Moreover, inhibiting genes required for autophagy has little effect on well-fed animals but prevents food limitation from extending lifespan. This autophagy requires PHA-4/FOXA, a life-extension protein that regulates gene expression, suggesting that changes in gene expression are required for dietary restriction to stimulate autophagy. Because autophagy seems like such a rejuvenating process, it might seem to be sufficient to increase longevity. However, we find that, in long-lived hormone-pathway mutants, both autophagy and DAF-16/FOXO, another protein that controls gene expression, are required for longevity. We propose that autophagy frees up new resources for the cell, but that transcription factors like the DAF-16/FOXO protein must channel this raw material into new cell-protective proteins in order for lifespan to be increased.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0040024
PMCID: PMC2242811  PMID: 18282106
25.  Repression of a Potassium Channel by Nuclear Hormone Receptor and TGF-β Signaling Modulates Insulin Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(2):e1002519.
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling acts through Smad proteins to play fundamental roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolism. The Receptor associated Smads (R-Smads) interact with DNA and other nuclear proteins to regulate target gene transcription. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans R-Smad DAF-8 partners with the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-69, a C. elegans ortholog of mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α HNF4α), to repress the exp-2 potassium channel gene and increase insulin secretion. We find that NHR-69 associates with DAF-8 both in vivo and in vitro. Functionally, daf-8 nhr-69 double mutants show defects in neuropeptide secretion and phenotypes consistent with reduced insulin signaling such as increased expression of the sod-3 and gst-10 genes and a longer life span. Expression of the exp-2 gene, encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel, is synergistically increased in daf-8 nhr-69 mutants compared to single mutants and wild-type worms. In turn, exp-2 acts selectively in the ASI neurons to repress the secretion of the insulin-like peptide DAF-28. Importantly, exp-2 mutation shortens the long life span of daf-8 nhr-69 double mutants, demonstrating that exp-2 is required downstream of DAF-8 and NHR-69. Finally, animals over-expressing NHR-69 specifically in DAF-28–secreting ASI neurons exhibit a lethargic, hypoglycemic phenotype that is rescued by exogenous glucose. We propose a model whereby DAF-8/R-Smad and NHR-69 negatively regulate the transcription of exp-2 to promote neuronal DAF-28 secretion, thus demonstrating a physiological crosstalk between TGF-β and HNF4α-like signaling in C. elegans. NHR-69 and DAF-8 dependent regulation of exp-2 and DAF-28 also provides a novel molecular mechanism that contributes to the previously recognized link between insulin and TGF-β signaling in C. elegans.
Author Summary
All animals must ensure metabolic homeostasis; if they fail to do so, diseases such as obesity and diabetes can develop. To maintain glucose balance, insulin is secreted upon glucose intake in a highly regulated and coordinated process. Previous studies suggested that the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway regulates insulin secretion in mammals. In the genetically tractable roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, TGF-β and insulin signaling modulate larval development and aging, although the molecular link between insulin and TGF-β signaling remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that the TGF-β signaling component DAF-8 partners with NHR-69, a nuclear hormone receptor, to control the expression of the potassium channel exp-2, which in turn modulates the secretion of an insulin-like peptide. A loss-of-function exp-2 mutant exhibits increased insulin secretion and a shortened life span, whereas a gain-of-function mutant exhibits decreased insulin secretion. We also show that tissue-specific expression of nhr-69 in a pair of neurons that secrete neuropeptides causes reduced glucose content, increased insulin-like peptide levels and a lethargic phenotype. Because insulin and TGF-β signaling are linked to numerous diseases, our data may provide novel insights into the mechanisms contributing to pathophysiological changes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002519
PMCID: PMC3280960  PMID: 22359515

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