HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemia, but the association between regional body fat and lipid levels is not well described.
Multivariable linear regression analyzed the association between magnetic resonance imaging–measured regional adipose tissue and fasting lipids in 284 HIV-infected and 129 control women.
Among African Americans, HIV-infected women had higher triglyceride (116 vs. 83 mg/dL; P < 0.001), similar high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 52 vs. 50 mg/dL; P = 0.60), and lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 99 vs. 118 mg/dL; P = 0.008) levels than controls. Among whites, HIV-infected women had higher triglyceride (141 vs. 78 mg/dL; P < 0.001), lower HDL (46 vs. 57 mg/dL; P < 0.001), and slightly lower LDL (100 vs. 107 mg/dL; P = 0.059) levels than controls. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, the highest tertile of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was associated with higher triglyceride (+85%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 55 to 121) and lower HDL (−9%, 95% CI: −18 to 0) levels in HIV-infected women; the highest tertile of leg subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was associated with lower triglyceride levels in HIV-infected women (−28%, 95% CI: −41 to −11) and controls (−39%, 95% CI: −5 to −18). After further adjustment for adipose tissue, HIV infection remained associated with higher triglyceride (+40%, 95% CI: 21 to 63) and lower LDL (−17%, 95% CI: −26 to −8) levels, whereas HIV infection remained associated with lower HDL levels (−21%, 95% CI: −29 to −12) in whites but not in African Americans (+8%, 95% CI: −2 to 19).
HIV-infected white women are more likely to have proatherogenic lipid profiles than HIV-infected African American women. Less leg SAT and more VAT are important factors associated with adverse lipid levels. HIV-infected women may be at particular risk for dyslipidemia because of the risk for HIV-associated lipoatrophy.
dyslipidemia; fat distribution; HIV infection; lipid levels; lipodystrophy; women
HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lipodystrophy, but the relationship between regional adipose tissue (AT) depots and CVD risk is not well-described. We determined regional AT volumes and CVD risk in an analysis of 586 HIV-infected and 280 control FRAM study subjects using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Median FRS and FRS >10% were higher in HIV than control men (4.7% vs. 3.7%, p=0.0002; 16% vs. 4%, p<0.0001). HIV and control women had similarly-low FRS (1.1% vs. 1.2%, p=0.91). In controls, total AT and all regional AT depots showed strong positive correlations with FRS (p<0.001) in men, and weaker positive correlations in women. Greater visceral AT (VAT) and lower leg subcutaneous AT (SAT) volumes were associated with elevated FRS in HIV subjects, with a trend for upper trunk SAT. Controls in the lowest quartile of leg SAT had the lowest FRS (1.5%), whereas HIV with similarly-low leg SAT had the highest FRS (4.0%, p<0.001 vs. controls). Increased VAT is associated with CVD risk, but the risk is higher in HIV-infected individuals relative to controls at every level of VAT. Peripheral lipoatrophy (as measured by leg SAT) is associated with striking increased CVD risk in HIV-infected patients, even after controlling for VAT, whereas low leg SAT is associated with low CVD risk in controls.
HIV; fat redistribution; lipoatrophy; visceral fat; cardiovascular risk
Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is associated with metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Increased IMAT has been found in obese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We hypothesized that IMAT, like VAT, would be similar or increased in HIV-infected persons compared with healthy controls, despite decreases in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) found in HIV infection. In the second FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection) exam, we studied 425 HIV-infected subjects and 211 controls (from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study) who had regional AT and skeletal muscle (SM) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable linear regression identified factors associated with IMAT and its association with metabolites. Total IMAT was 51% lower in HIV-infected participants compared with controls (P = 0.003). The HIV effect was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (to −28%, P < 0.0001 in men and −3.6%, P = 0.70 in women). Higher quantities of leg SAT, upper-trunk SAT, and VAT were associated with higher IMAT in HIV-infected participants, with weaker associations in controls. Stavudine use was associated with lower IMAT and SAT, but showed little relationship with VAT. In multivariable analyses, regional IMAT was associated with insulin resistance and triglycerides (TGs). Contrary to expectation, IMAT is not increased in HIV infection; after controlling for demographics, lifestyle, VAT, SAT, and SM, HIV+ men have lower IMAT compared with controls, whereas values for women are similar. Stavudine exposure is associated with both decreased IMAT and SAT, suggesting that IMAT shares cellular origins with SAT.
Both peripheral fat loss and central fat gain have been reported in HIV infection. Which changes are specific to HIV were determined by comparison with control subjects and the associations among different adipose tissue depots were determined.
Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-positive and control men from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection. Lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy was defined as concordance between participant report of change and examination. Regional adipose tissue volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
HIV-positive men reported more fat loss than controls in all peripheral and most central depots. Peripheral lipoatrophy was more frequent in HIV-positive men than in controls (38.3% vs. 4.6%, P < 0.001), whereas central lipohypertrophy was less frequent (40.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.001). Among HIV-positive men, the presence of central lipohypertrophy was not positively associated with peripheral lipoatrophy (odds ratio = 0.71, CI: 0.47 to 1.06, P = 0.10). On MRI, HIV-positive men with clinical peripheral lipoatrophy had less subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in peripheral and central sites and less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than HIV-positive men without peripheral lipoatrophy. HIV-positive men both with and without lipoatrophy had less SAT than controls, with legs and lower trunk more affected than upper trunk. Use of the antiretroviral drugs stavudine or indinavir was associated with less leg SAT but did not appear to be associated with more VAT; nevirapine use was associated with less VAT.
Both peripheral and central subcutaneous lipoatrophy was found in HIV infection. Lipoatrophy in HIV-positive men is not associated with reciprocally increased VAT.
HIV infection; lipodystrophy; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; visceral obesity; fat redistribution; body composition
Both peripheral fat loss and central fat gain have been reported in women with HIV infection. We determined the fat changes that are specific to HIV infection in women.
HIV-infected and control women from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) were compared. Lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy was defined as concordance between participant report of fat change and clinical examination. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volumes. The relationship among different adipose tissue depots was assessed. Factors associated with individual depots were analyzed using multivariate linear regression.
HIV-infected women reported more fat loss than controls in all peripheral and most central depots. Peripheral lipoatrophy was more frequent in HIV-infected women than controls (28% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), whereas central lipohypertrophy was similar (62% vs. 63%). Among HIV-infected women, those with central lipohypertrophy were less likely to have peripheral lipoatrophy (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.75, P = 0.006) than those without central lipohypertrophy. On magnetic resonance imaging, HIV-infected women with clinical peripheral lipoatrophy had less subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in peripheral and central sites and less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than HIV-infected women without peripheral lipoatrophy. Compared with controls, HIV-infected women had less SAT in the legs, regardless of the presence or absence of lipoatrophy. However, those without lipoatrophy had more VAT and upper trunk SAT than controls. Use of the antiretroviral drug stavudine was associated with less leg SAT but was not associated with VAT. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, however, was associated with more VAT.
Peripheral lipoatrophy occurs commonly in HIV-infected women but is not associated with reciprocally increased VAT or trunk fat.
HIV; lipodystrophy; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; visceral obesity; fat redistribution; body composition
Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance, but the association of other regional adipose depots with insulin resistance is not understood. In HIV infection, buffalo hump (upper trunk fat) is associated, but the association of upper trunk fat with insulin resistance has not been examined in controls. To determine the independent association of adipose depots other than visceral with insulin resistance, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of controls and HIV-infected subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study, who had measurements of glucose, insulin, and adipose tissue volumes by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. We studied 926 HIV-positive persons from 16 academic medical center clinics and trials units with demographic characteristics representative of US patients with HIV infection and 258 FRAM controls from the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. We measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume in the legs, arms, lower trunk (back and abdomen), and upper trunk (back and chest) and assessed their association with the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA) and HOMA >4 by stepwise multivariable analysis. The prevalence of HOMA >4 as a marker of insulin resistance was 28% among controls compared with 37% among HIV-infected subjects (P = 0.005). Among controls, those in the highest tertile of upper trunk SAT volume had an odds ratio (OR) of 9.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4 to 34; P = 0.001) for having HOMA >4 compared with the lowest tertile, whereas in HIV-positive subjects, the OR was lower (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.36 to 3.19; P = 0.001). Among controls, the highest tertile of VAT volume had an OR of 12.1 (95% CI: 3.2 to 46; P = 0.0002) of having HOMA >4 compared with the lowest tertile, whereas in HIV-positive subjects, the OR was 3.12 (95% CI: 2.0 to 4.8; P < 0.0001). After adjusting for VAT and upper trunk SAT, the association of other SAT depots with HOMA >4 did not reach statistical significance. Thus, VAT and upper trunk SAT are independently associated with insulin resistance in controls and in HIV-infected persons.
buffalo hump; fat distribution; insulin resistance; lipodystrophy; visceral obesity
Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is reported to be associated with a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy than HIV infection alone. We examine the association between HCV and adipose tissue volume in HIV-infected men and women.
Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected subjects from the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection. MRI measured regional adipose tissue volume. Detectable HCV RNA defined HCV infection.
Twenty percent of 792 men and 26% of 329 women were HIV/HCV-coinfected. HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected women had similar amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the leg, lower trunk, upper trunk, and arm and similar amounts of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Similar findings were seen in men, except in the leg and VAT. After adjustment, HCV infection remained associated with more leg fat in men (12.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3 to 25.3; P = 0.043). Among those on stavudine, HIV-monoinfected men had less leg fat (−7% effect per year of stavudine use, 95% CI: −9 to −5; P < 0.001); a weaker association was seen in HIV/HCV-coinfected men (−2% effect, 95% CI: −7 to 3; P = 0.45). Indinavir was associated with less leg fat (−4% in HIV-monoinfected men, 95% CI: −6 to −1; P = 0.002; −5% in HIV/HCV-coinfected men, 95% CI: −11 to 2; P = 0.14).
Our findings suggest that HIV/HCV coinfection is not associated with less SAT in men and women. HCV infection seems to mitigate the loss of leg fat seen in HIV-infected men on stavudine.
adipose tissue volume; fat distribution; hepatitis C virus; HIV; lipodystrophy
Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT.
Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT.
Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p < 0.01) and mean volume of SAT (1,721 ± 803 cm3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p < 0.01) but significantly higher mean volume of VAT (884 ± 416 cm3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p < 0.01). Among women, a one standard deviation increment in VAT was inversely associated with adiponectin (β = − 0.13; p < 0.0001) after controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, education, pack-years of smoking and daily intake of alcohol. The statistically significant inverse association of VAT and adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (β = 0.18; p = 0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of SAT. Insulin resistance mediated the association of SAT with adiponectin in women.
In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.
Inflammation is a potential mechanism to explain the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in HIV- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)–infected persons. We evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) in HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the era of effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy.
Cross-sectional study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) cohort and controls from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
CRP levels were measured in 1135 HIV-infected participants from the FRAM cohort and 281 controls from the CARDIA study. The associations of HIV and HIV/HCV infection with CRP levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression.
Compared with controls, HIV monoinfection was associated with an 88% higher CRP level in men (P < 0.0001) but with no difference in women (5%; P = 0.80) in multivariate analysis. CRP levels were not associated with ARV therapy, HIV RNA level, or CD4 cell count. Compared with controls, HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with a 41% lower CRP level in women (P = 0.012) but with no difference in men (+4%; P = 0.90). Among HIV-infected participants, HCV coinfection was associated with 50% lower CRP levels after multivariable analysis (P < 0.0001) in men and women. Greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were strongly associated with CRP levels. Among HIV- infected participants, CRP levels were 17% (P < 0.001) and 21% (P = 0.002) higher per doubling of VAT and SAT; among controls, CRP levels were 34% (P < 0.001) and 61% (P = 0.009) higher, respectively.
In the absence of HCV coinfection, HIV infection is associated with higher CRP levels in men. HCV coinfection is associated with lower CRP levels in men and women.
cardiovascular disease; C-reactive protein; hepatitis C virus; HIV; inflammation
OBJECTIVE—Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. We examined the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots, independent of BMI, on the dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— A total of 382 subjects with type 2 diabetes underwent abdominal computed tomography to evaluate subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) distribution and had anthropometric measurements to determine BMI and waist and hip circumference. Fasting blood was obtained for lipoprotein particle number and size using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relationship of lipoprotein particle number and size with BMI, SAT, and VAT was examined using multivariable regression models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes therapy, duration of diabetes, smoking, statin use, and A1C levels. The relation of VAT to lipoprotein particle number and size was further evaluated after the addition of BMI, BMI plus SAT, or BMI plus homeostatis is model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to the model.
RESULTS—VAT was positively related to VLDL particle number (P < 0.0001), LDL particle number (P < 0.01), and VLDL size (P < 0.0001) and negatively related to LDL size (P < 0.0001) and HDL size (P < 0.0001). These relationships remained unchanged after addition of BMI and SAT to the model. After addition of HOMA-IR, VAT remained positively related to VLDL particle number (P < 0.0001) and size (P < 0.01) and negatively related to LDL and HDL particle size (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Neither BMI nor SAT was independently related to lipoprotein parameters.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher VAT independent of BMI was associated with higher VLDL and LDL particle number, larger VLDL particles, and smaller LDL and HDL particles. This lipoprotein pattern has been associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
The anatomic location of excess body fat has an impact on associated cardiometabolic morbidity, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more pathogenic than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). However, VAT or SAT alone provides little information regarding the relative distribution of body fat. We hypothesised that the propensity to store energy in VAT relative to SAT depots may be a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, and tested this hypothesis using the VAT/SAT ratio as a metric of fat distribution.
We investigated associations of the VAT/SAT ratio with cardiometabolic traits in 3,223 participants (48% women) from the Framingham Heart Study. Fat depots were quantified by multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanning.
In women and men, higher VAT/SAT ratio was associated (p<0.05) with most assessed cardiovascular risk factors reflecting blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Additional adjustment for BMI did not materially change the findings in women, and generally strengthened associations in men. Further adjustment for VAT attenuated some associations in women, but those with lower HDL-cholesterol, higher triacylglycerol (both p<0.0001) and higher prevalence of hypertension (p=0.02), diabetes (p=0.01) and the metabolic syndrome (p=0.005) remained significant. Similarly, in men, associations with higher systolic (p=0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.03), higher fasting glucose (p=0.0005), lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triacylglycerol (both p<0.0001) and higher prevalence of diabetes (p=0.006) remained significant.
VAT/SAT ratio is a correlate of cardiometabolic risk, above and beyond BMI and VAT. The propensity to store fat viscerally versus subcutaneously may be a unique risk factor independent of absolute fat volumes.
Body fat distribution; Obesity; Risk factors; Subcutaneous fat; Visceral fat
Changes in body fat distribution and abnormal glucose metabolism are common in HIV-infected patients. We hypothesized that HIV-infected participants would have a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with control subjects.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 491 HIV-infected and 187 control participants from the second examination of the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) underwent glucose tolerance testing (GTT). Multivariable regression was used to identify factors associated with GTT parameters.
The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (>110 mg/dL) was similar in HIV-infected and control participants (21 vs. 25%, P = 0.23). In those without IFG, the prevalence of IGT was slightly higher in HIV-infected participants compared with control subjects (13.1 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.14) and in HIV+ participants with lipoatrophy versus without (18.1 vs. 11.5%, P = 0.084). Diabetes detected by GTT was rare (HIV subjects 1.3% and control subjects 0%, P = 0.65). Mean 2-h glucose levels were 7.6 mg/dL higher in the HIV-infected participants (P = 0.012). Increased upper trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and decreased leg SAT were associated with 2-h glucose and IGT in both HIV-infected and control participants. Adjusting for adipose tissue reduced the estimated effects of HIV. Exercise, alcohol use, and current tenofovir use were associated with lower 2-h glucose levels in HIV-infected participants.
In HIV infection, increased upper trunk SAT and decreased leg SAT are associated with higher 2-h glucose. These body fat characteristics may identify HIV-infected patients with normal fasting glucose but nonetheless at increased risk for diabetes.
Accumulation of adipose tissue is associated with cardiometabolic risks. Although visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been strongly implicated in this relationship, there is still some debate regarding the contribution of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of abdominal SAT to cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of total and visceral adiposity. These relationships were assessed in Caucasian and African Americans.
It is a cross-sectional analysis of the Pennington Center Longitudinal Study.
Data were extracted from 1246 participants. Total body fat mass (FM) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whereas abdominal VAT and SAT areas (cm2) were measured with computed tomography. The cardiometabolic risk factors included resting blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
Positive relationships across tertiles of VAT were seen for the participants with high glucose, high BP and low HDL-C (P<0.043). There was also a significant increase in the percentage of participants with two or more cardiometabolic risk factors across most tertiles of abdominal SAT (P<0.042). Logistic regression analysis showed that in univariate models, all adiposity measures were significantly associated with increased odds of having all risk factors in men and women. In multivariate models, VAT was significantly associated with most risk factors across gender. Abdominal SAT and FM (odds ratios (ORs) 1.3–2.1; all P<0.05) were associated with fewer risk factors after accounting for VAT. VAT (OR=5.9 and 5.3) and SAT (OR=2.0 and 1.8) were both associated with higher odds of the presence of two or more cardiometabolic risk factors in both males and females (P<0.001).
The data suggest that abdominal SAT is not protective against unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles. These conclusions were consistent across ethnic groups.
abdominal fat distribution; heart disease risk; epidemiology; ethnic differences
Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking these alterations. Our aim was to evaluate adipocyte-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, PAI-1) and ghrelin plasma levels and their relationship with IR in HIV-infected patients according to the presence of lipodystrophy and fat redistribution.
Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR, body composition by DXA and CT, and adipokines were evaluated in 217 HIV-infected patients on cART and 74 controls. Fat mass ratio defined lipodystrophy (L-FMR) was defined as the ratio of the percentage of the trunk fat mass to the percentage of the lower limb fat mass by DXA. Patient’s fat redistribution was classified into 4 different groups according the presence or absence of either clinical lipoatrophy or abdominal prominence: no lipodystrophy, isolated central fat accumulation (ICFA), isolated lipoatrophy and mixed forms (MXF). The associations between adipokines levels and anthropometric, metabolic and body composition were estimated by Spearman correlation.
Leptin levels were lower in patients with FMR-L and isolated lipoatrophy, and higher in those with ICFA and MXF. Positive correlations were found between leptin and body fat (total, trunk, leg, arm fat evaluated by DXA, and total, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and VAT/SAT ratio evaluated by CT) regardless of FMR-L, and with HOMA-IR only in patients with FMR-L. Adiponectin correlated negatively with VAT, and its mean levels were lower in patients with ICFA and higher in those with no lipodystrophy. Resistin was not correlated with adipose tissue but positively correlated with HOMA-IR in FMR-L patients. PAI-1 levels were higher in MXF-patients and their levels were positively correlated with VAT in those with FMR-L. Ghrelin was higher in HIV-infected patients than controls despite BMI-matching.
The overall body fat reduction in HIV lipoatrophy was associated with low leptin plasma levels, and visceral fat accumulation was mainly associated with decreased plasma levels of adiponectin.
Lipodystrophy; HIV; Adipokines; Body composition; Insulin resistance
HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT.
Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models.
L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671).
HIV-infected patients on cART with lipodystrophy defined by FMR, had a significantly higher cIMT. Carotid IMT was also associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors. In these patients, visceral adipose tissue had a significant impact on cIMT, although age was the strongest associated factor.
Lipodystrophy; HIV; Carotid intima media thickness; Fat mass ratio; Body composition
Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
Patients and methods:
Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age ± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years) with hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc) levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT) and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride levels.
The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812 ± 375 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women). Significant decreases (P = 0.05) in BMI and HbA1c levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021) in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001) in women. VAT (−21.6 cm2, P < 0.001 in men; −19.6 cm2, P < 0.001 in women) and SAT (−13.5 cm2, P = 0.004 in men; −19.1 cm2, P = 0.003 in women) significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT) was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT) in women (P = 0.022). A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss was detected in men (P = 0.111). In women, the %ΔSAT significantly correlated with changes in FBG (ΔFBG) (r = 0.417) and HDL-C (ΔHDL) (r = −0.720), as was %ΔVAT with changes in triglyceride (ΔTG) (r = 0.591).
Six months of a moderate LCD resulted in preferential VAT loss only in women, with significant correlations between %ΔSAT and both ΔHDL and ΔFBG, as well as between %ΔVAT and ΔTG. Our results suggest that an LCD has the potential to reduce abdominal fat in patients with T2DM and deterioration of serum lipid profiles.
low-carbohydrate diet; visceral adipose tissue; subcutaneous adipose tissue; cardiovascular risk factors
Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured adipose tissue (AT), but no such study has been conducted in HIV+ subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss.
We compared DXA with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects.
Cross-sectional analysis in 877 HIV+ and 260 controls in FRAM (Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status.
Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r≥0.92), and slightly weaker in leg (r≥0.87) and arm (r≥0.71). Estimated limb fat averaged substantially higher for DXA than MRI for HIV+ and control, men and women (all p<0.0001). Trunk showed much less difference between DXA and MRI, but was still statistically significant (p<0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability; higher average limb fat in controls and HIV+ (both p<0.0001) was associated with greater DXA vs. MRI difference. As controls have more limb fat than HIV+, the bias leads to even higher fat measured by DXA than by MRI when controls are compared to HIV+; more HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of controls by DXA than by MRI (p<0.0001).
Although DXA and MRI-measured AT depots correlate strongly in HIV+ subjects and controls, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher peripheral lipoatrophy prevalence than MRI in HIV+ subjects.
DXA; MRI; adipose tissue depots; lipoatrophy; HIV infection
The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population.
Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume.
After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (−14.3%, 95% CI: −24.7 to −4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (−11.9%, 95% CI: −18.4 to −5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (−7.1%, 95% CI: −22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance.
More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.
adipose tissue; aminotransferase levels; hepatitis C virus; HIV; lipodystrophy
Volumetric visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) as measured by computed tomography (CT) are associated with metabolic risk factors. We sought to identify the correlations of VAT and SAT between area-based measures at different anatomic locations with volumetric measurements to identify the optimal anatomic site, and to relate measurements at this site with metabolic risk factors.
We measured SAT and VAT volumes across the total imaging volume, whereas we measured SAT and VAT area at seven predefined anatomic landmarks in 200 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (mean age 54 years, 50% women) who underwent abdominal multi-detector CT. Correlation coefficients were used to assess the association between area measurements and volumes as well as metabolic risk factors stratified by gender.
Area-based measurements of SAT and VAT obtained at all anatomic landmarks were strongly associated with SAT and VAT volumes (all r>0.93, P<0.0001 and r>0.87, P<0.0001, for women and men; respectively). Consistently, area-based measurements of SAT and VAT obtained at L3/4 were most strongly associated with volumetric measured VAT and SAT independent of age (both r=0.99 in men, r=0.96 for SAT and r=0.99 for VAT in women, all P-value <0.0001) and were similarly correlated with risk factors compared with SAT and VAT volumes (all P<0.05 for fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure).
Among area-based measurements of SAT and VAT, those obtained at the level of L3/4 were strongly associated with SAT and VAT volumes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in both men and women.
abdominal adiposity; adipose tissue quantification; single-slice measurement; computed tomography; cardiovascular risk factors
Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are associated with increased metabolic risk. Clinical and DXA body composition measures that are associated with VAT are generally even more strongly associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reflecting general adiposity, and thus are not specific for VAT. Measures more strongly associated with VAT than SAT (thus more specific for VAT), and predictors of IMCL have not been reported.
We studied 30 girls 12-18 years; 15 obese, 15 normal-weight. The following were assessed: (1) anthropometric measures: waist circumference at the umbilicus and iliac crest (WC-UC and WC-IC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), (2) DXA measures: total fat, percent body fat (PBF), percent trunk fat (PTF), trunk-to-extremity fat ratio (TEFR), (3) MRI and 1H-MRS: VAT and SAT (L4-L5), soleus-IMCL.
Group as a whole: WC, trunk fat and PBF were more strongly associated with SAT than VAT; none were specific for VAT. In contrast, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.83 and 0.81 respectively, p <0.0001 for both) than SAT (r = 0.77 and 0.75, p < 0.0001 for both). Strongest associations of S-IMCL were with WHR (r = 0.66, p = 0.0004). Subgroup analysis: In obese girls, WHR and WHtR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.62 and 0.82, p = 0.04 and 0.001) than SAT (r = 0.41 and 0.73, p not significant and 0.007), and for DXA measures, PTF and TEFR were more significantly associated with VAT (r = 0.70 and 0.72, p = 0.007 and 0.006) than SAT (r = 0.52 and 0.53, p = 0.07 and 0.06). In controls, PTF and TEFR were more strongly correlated with VAT (r = 0.79, p = 0.0004 for both) than SAT (r = 0.71 and 0.72, p = 0.003 for both). WHR was associated with IMCL in obese girls (r = 0.78, p = 0.008), but not controls.
Overall, WHR (anthropometry), and PTF and TEFR (DXA) are good surrogates for IMCL and for visceral fat respectively in adolescent girls.
Loss of subcutaneous (SAT) with sparing of visceral (VAT) adipose tissue (AT) has been documented in HIV + men and women. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) rivals VAT in independent associations with cardiovascular risk.
To determine whether the size and distribution of IMAT differs in HIV+ vs. HIV- men and/or women.
We used whole-body MRI to measure VAT, IMAT and four SAT compartments and compared them by HIV status using whole-body skeletal muscle (SM) or total AT (TAT) as co-variates in multi-ethnic groups of healthy HIV- (n=86) and stable HIV+ (n=76) men and women.
The sizes of AT depots (adjusting for SM) did not differ by HIV status, except for smaller gluteal SAT (lower trunk, between L4-L5 to greater trochanter) in both sexes (P<0.05). The AT distribution (adjusting for TAT) was significantly different, with larger VAT (P<0.05) and smaller gluteal and limb SAT (P<0.05) in both HIV+ sexes; IMAT increased more with TAT in HIV+ vs. HIV- men (P<0.05 for slope interaction) but there were no significant differences in women. There were significant race by HIV interactions in AT distribution with more pronounced VAT differences in non-Hispanic white men and larger trunk SAT in African Americans HIV+ vs. HIV-.
The AT distribution differed markedly in HIV+ vs. HIV- with limb and lower body SAT representing a smaller proportion of TAT in HIV+ in both sexes and IMAT representing a larger proportion of TAT in HIV+ vs. HIV- men.
fat distribution; muscle adipose tissue infiltration; HIV; magnetic resonance imaging
Visceral (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues contribute to obesity but may have different metabolic and atherosclerosis risk profiles. Among obese participants in the Dallas Heart Study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of abdominal VAT and SAT mass, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and indexed to body surface area (BSA), with circulating biomarkers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation (n=942); and with aortic plaque and liver fat by MRI and coronary calcium by computed tomography (n=1200). Associations of VAT/BSA and SAT/BSA were examined after adjustment for age, sex, race, menopause, and body mass index. In multivariable models, VAT significantly associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lower adiponectin, smaller LDL and HDL particle size, larger VLDL size, and increased LDL and VLDL particle number (p<0.001 for each). VAT also associated with prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis, and aortic plaque (p<0.001 for each). VAT independently associated with C-reactive protein but not with any other inflammatory biomarkers tested. In contrast, SAT associated with leptin and inflammatory biomarkers, but not with dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis. Associations between SAT and HOMA-IR were significant in univariable analyses but attenuated after multivariable adjustment. In conclusion, VAT associated with an adverse metabolic, dyslipidemic, and atherogenic obesity phenotype. In contrast, SAT demonstrated a more benign phenotype, characterized by modest associations with inflammatory biomarkers and leptin, but no independent association with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, or atherosclerosis in obese individuals. These findings suggest that abdominal fat distribution defines distinct obesity sub-phenotypes with heterogeneous metabolic and atherosclerosis risk.
Obesity; Lipoproteins; Inflammation; Atherosclerosis; Diabetes
Altered fat distribution is associated with insulin resistance in HIV, but little is known about regional glucose metabolism in fat and muscle depots in this patient population. The aim of the present study was to quantify regional fat, muscle, and whole body glucose disposal in HIV-infected men with lipoatrophy. Whole body glucose disposal was determined by hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (80 mU·m−2·min−1) in 6 HIV-infected men and 5 age/weight-matched healthy volunteers. Regional glucose uptake in muscle and subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was quantified in fasting and insulin-stimulated states using 2-deoxy-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography. HIV-infected subjects with lipoatrophy had significantly increased glucose uptake into SAT (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.5 μmol·kg tissue−1·min−1, P < 0.05) in the fasted state. Glucose uptake into VAT did not differ between groups. VAT area was inversely related with whole body glucose disposal, insulin sensitivity, and muscle glucose uptake during insulin stimulation. VAT area was highly predictive of whole body glucose disposal (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.0001). This may be mediated by adiponectin, which was significantly associated with VAT area (r =−0.75, P = 0.008), and whole body glucose disposal (r = 0.80, P = 0.003). This is the first study to directly demonstrate increased glucose uptake in subcutaneous fat of lipoatrophic patients, which may partially compensate for loss of SAT. Furthermore, we demonstrate a clear relationship between VAT and glucose metabolism in multiple fat and muscle depots, suggesting the critical importance of this depot in the regulation of glucose and highlighting the significant potential role of adiponectin in this process.
positron emission tomography; adipose tissue; insulin resistance; human immunodeficiency virus-lipodystrophy
Genetic studies may help explain abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ARV).
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in leg, lower trunk, upper trunk, and arm was examined in 192 HIV-infected Caucasian men, ARV-treated from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection (FRAM) study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assayed using the Illumina HumanCNV370-quad beadchip. Multivariate and univariate genome wide association analyses of the four SAT depots were implemented in PLINK software adjusted for age and ARV duration. Functional annotation analysis (FAA) using Ingenuity Systems Pathway Analysis tool (IPA) was carried out for markers with P<10-3 near known genes identified by multivariate analysis.
Loci (rs10504906, rs13267998, rs921231) in or near the anion exchanger solute carrier family 26, member 7 isoform a (SLC26A7) were strongly associated with upper trunk and arm SAT (9.8*10-7≤P<7.8*10-6). Loci (rs193139, rs7523050, rs1761621) in and near a gene rich region including G-protein-signaling modulator 2 (GPSM2) and syntaxin binding protein 3 (STXBP3) were significantly associated with lower body SAT depots (9.9*10-7≤P<9.5*10-6). GPSM2 is associated with cell division and cancer while STXBP3 is associated with glucose metabolism in adipoctyes. IPA identified atherosclerosis, mitochondrial function and T-Cell mediated apoptosis as processes related to SAT volume in HIV-infected individuals (P<5*10-3).
Our results are limited by the small sample size and replication is needed, however this genomic scan uncovered new genes associated with metabolism and inflammatory pathways that may affect SAT volume in ARV-treated HIV-infected patients.
HIV; HAART; GWAS; Subcutaneous Fat; SAT
Both indices of obesity and lipoprotein subfractions contribute to
coronary heart disease risk. However, associations between indices of
obesity and lipoprotein subfractions remain undetermined across different
ethnic groups. This study aims to examine the associations of indices of
obesity in Japanese Americans (JA), African Americans (AA) and Koreans with
A population-based sample of 230 JA, 91 AA, and 291 Korean men aged
40–49 was examined for indices of obesity, i.e., visceral and
subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively), waist circumference
(WC), and body-mass index (BMI), and for lipoprotein subfractions by
nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy. Multiple regression analyses were
performed in each of the three ethnic groups to examine the associations of
each index of obesity with lipoprotein.
VAT had significant positive associations with total and small
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significant negative association with
large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in all three ethnicities (p < 0.01).
SAT, WC, and BMI had significant positive associations with total and small
LDL in only JA and Koreans, while these indices had significant inverse
associations with large HDL in all ethnic groups (p < 0.01). Compared to
SAT, VAT had larger R2 values in the
associations with total and small LDL and large HDL in all three ethnic
VAT is significantly associated with total and small LDL and large
HDL in all three ethnic groups. The associations of SAT, WC, and BMI with
lipoprotein subfractions are weaker compared to VAT in all three ethnic
visceral adipose tissue; subcutaneous adipose tissue; body-mass index; waist circumference; lipoprotein subfractions