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1.  RankAggreg, an R package for weighted rank aggregation 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10:62.
Background
Researchers in the field of bioinformatics often face a challenge of combining several ordered lists in a proper and efficient manner. Rank aggregation techniques offer a general and flexible framework that allows one to objectively perform the necessary aggregation. With the rapid growth of high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies, the potential utility of rank aggregation in the context of meta-analysis becomes even more apparent. One of the major strengths of rank-based aggregation is the ability to combine lists coming from different sources and platforms, for example different microarray chips, which may or may not be directly comparable otherwise.
Results
The RankAggreg package provides two methods for combining the ordered lists: the Cross-Entropy method and the Genetic Algorithm. Two examples of rank aggregation using the package are given in the manuscript: one in the context of clustering based on gene expression, and the other one in the context of meta-analysis of prostate cancer microarray experiments.
Conclusion
The two examples described in the manuscript clearly show the utility of the RankAggreg package in the current bioinformatics context where ordered lists are routinely produced as a result of modern high-throughput technologies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-62
PMCID: PMC2669484  PMID: 19228411
2.  ProDiGe: Prioritization Of Disease Genes with multitask machine learning from positive and unlabeled examples 
BMC Bioinformatics  2011;12:389.
Background
Elucidating the genetic basis of human diseases is a central goal of genetics and molecular biology. While traditional linkage analysis and modern high-throughput techniques often provide long lists of tens or hundreds of disease gene candidates, the identification of disease genes among the candidates remains time-consuming and expensive. Efficient computational methods are therefore needed to prioritize genes within the list of candidates, by exploiting the wealth of information available about the genes in various databases.
Results
We propose ProDiGe, a novel algorithm for Prioritization of Disease Genes. ProDiGe implements a novel machine learning strategy based on learning from positive and unlabeled examples, which allows to integrate various sources of information about the genes, to share information about known disease genes across diseases, and to perform genome-wide searches for new disease genes. Experiments on real data show that ProDiGe outperforms state-of-the-art methods for the prioritization of genes in human diseases.
Conclusions
ProDiGe implements a new machine learning paradigm for gene prioritization, which could help the identification of new disease genes. It is freely available at http://cbio.ensmp.fr/prodige.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-389
PMCID: PMC3215680  PMID: 21977986
3.  Disease candidate gene identification and prioritization using protein interaction networks 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10:73.
Background
Although most of the current disease candidate gene identification and prioritization methods depend on functional annotations, the coverage of the gene functional annotations is a limiting factor. In the current study, we describe a candidate gene prioritization method that is entirely based on protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analyses.
Results
For the first time, extended versions of the PageRank and HITS algorithms, and the K-Step Markov method are applied to prioritize disease candidate genes in a training-test schema. Using a list of known disease-related genes from our earlier study as a training set ("seeds"), and the rest of the known genes as a test list, we perform large-scale cross validation to rank the candidate genes and also evaluate and compare the performance of our approach. Under appropriate settings – for example, a back probability of 0.3 for PageRank with Priors and HITS with Priors, and step size 6 for K-Step Markov method – the three methods achieved a comparable AUC value, suggesting a similar performance.
Conclusion
Even though network-based methods are generally not as effective as integrated functional annotation-based methods for disease candidate gene prioritization, in a one-to-one comparison, PPIN-based candidate gene prioritization performs better than all other gene features or annotations. Additionally, we demonstrate that methods used for studying both social and Web networks can be successfully used for disease candidate gene prioritization.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-73
PMCID: PMC2657789  PMID: 19245720
4.  Prioritizing disease candidate genes by a gene interconnectedness-based approach 
BMC Genomics  2011;12(Suppl 3):S25.
Background
Genome-wide disease-gene finding approaches may sometimes provide us with a long list of candidate genes. Since using pure experimental approaches to verify all candidates could be expensive, a number of network-based methods have been developed to prioritize candidates. Such tools usually have a set of parameters pre-trained using available network data. This means that re-training network-based tools may be required when existing biological networks are updated or when networks from different sources are to be tried.
Results
We developed a parameter-free method, interconnectedness (ICN), to rank candidate genes by assessing the closeness of them to known disease genes in a network. ICN was tested using 1,993 known disease-gene associations and achieved a success rate of ~44% using a protein-protein interaction network under a test scenario of simulated linkage analysis. This performance is comparable with those of other well-known methods and ICN outperforms other methods when a candidate disease gene is not directly linked to known disease genes in a network. Interestingly, we show that a combined scoring strategy could enable ICN to achieve an even better performance (~50%) than other methods used alone.
Conclusions
ICN, a user-friendly method, can well complement other network-based methods in the context of prioritizing candidate disease genes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-S3-S25
PMCID: PMC3333184  PMID: 22369140
5.  Inferring Carbon Sources from Gene Expression Profiles Using Metabolic Flux Models 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e36947.
Background
Bacteria have evolved the ability to efficiently and resourcefully adapt to changing environments. A key means by which they optimize their use of available nutrients is through adjustments in gene expression with consequent changes in enzyme activity. We report a new method for drawing environmental inferences from gene expression data. Our method prioritizes a list of candidate carbon sources for their compatibility with a gene expression profile using the framework of flux balance analysis to model the organism’s metabolic network.
Principal Findings
For each of six gene expression profiles for Escherichia coli grown under differing nutrient conditions, we applied our method to prioritize a set of eighteen different candidate carbon sources. Our method ranked the correct carbon source as one of the top three candidates for five of the six expression sets when used with a genome-scale model. The correct candidate ranked fifth in the remaining case. Additional analyses show that these rankings are robust with respect to biological and measurement variation, and depend on specific gene expression, rather than general expression level. The gene expression profiles are highly adaptive: simulated production of biomass averaged 94.84% of maximum when the in silico carbon source matched the in vitro source of the expression profile, and 65.97% when it did not.
Conclusions
Inferences about a microorganism’s nutrient environment can be made by integrating gene expression data into a metabolic framework. This work demonstrates that reaction flux limits for a model can be computed which are realistic in the sense that they affect in silico growth in a manner analogous to that in which a microorganism’s alteration of gene expression is adaptive to its nutrient environment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036947
PMCID: PMC3351459  PMID: 22606312
6.  Prioritization and Evaluation of Depression Candidate Genes by Combining Multidimensional Data Resources 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e18696.
Background
Large scale and individual genetic studies have suggested numerous susceptible genes for depression in the past decade without conclusive results. There is a strong need to review and integrate multi-dimensional data for follow up validation. The present study aimed to apply prioritization procedures to build-up an evidence-based candidate genes dataset for depression.
Methods
Depression candidate genes were collected in human and animal studies across various data resources. Each gene was scored according to its magnitude of evidence related to depression and was multiplied by a source-specific weight to form a combined score measure. All genes were evaluated through a prioritization system to obtain an optimal weight matrix to rank their relative importance with depression using the combined scores. The resulting candidate gene list for depression (DEPgenes) was further evaluated by a genome-wide association (GWA) dataset and microarray gene expression in human tissues.
Results
A total of 5,055 candidate genes (4,850 genes from human and 387 genes from animal studies with 182 being overlapped) were included from seven data sources. Through the prioritization procedures, we identified 169 DEPgenes, which exhibited high chance to be associated with depression in GWA dataset (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p = 0.00005). Additionally, the DEPgenes had a higher percentage to express in human brain or nerve related tissues than non-DEPgenes, supporting the neurotransmitter and neuroplasticity theories in depression.
Conclusions
With comprehensive data collection and curation and an application of integrative approach, we successfully generated DEPgenes through an effective gene prioritization system. The prioritized DEPgenes are promising for future biological experiments or replication efforts to discoverthe underlying molecular mechanisms for depression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018696
PMCID: PMC3071871  PMID: 21494644
7.  Algebraic Comparison of Partial Lists in Bioinformatics 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e36540.
The outcome of a functional genomics pipeline is usually a partial list of genomic features, ranked by their relevance in modelling biological phenotype in terms of a classification or regression model. Due to resampling protocols or to a meta-analysis comparison, it is often the case that sets of alternative feature lists (possibly of different lengths) are obtained, instead of just one list. Here we introduce a method, based on permutations, for studying the variability between lists (“list stability”) in the case of lists of unequal length. We provide algorithms evaluating stability for lists embedded in the full feature set or just limited to the features occurring in the partial lists. The method is demonstrated by finding and comparing gene profiles on a large prostate cancer dataset, consisting of two cohorts of patients from different countries, for a total of 455 samples.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036540
PMCID: PMC3355159  PMID: 22615778
8.  Cancer Gene Prioritization for Targeted Resequencing Using FitSNP Scores 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e31333.
Background
Although the throughput of next generation sequencing is increasing and at the same time the cost is substantially reduced, for the majority of laboratories whole genome sequencing of large cohorts of cancer samples is still not feasible. In addition, the low number of genomes that are being sequenced is often problematic for the downstream interpretation of the significance of the variants. Targeted resequencing can partially circumvent this problem; by focusing on a limited number of candidate cancer genes to sequence, more samples can be included in the screening, hence resulting in substantial improvement of the statistical power. In this study, a successful strategy for prioritizing candidate genes for targeted resequencing of cancer genomes is presented.
Results
Four prioritization strategies were evaluated on six different cancer types: genes were ranked using these strategies, and the positive predictive value (PPV) or mutation rate within the top-ranked genes was compared to the baseline mutation rate in each tumor type. Successful strategies generate gene lists in which the top is enriched for known mutated genes, as evidenced by an increase in PPV. A clear example of such an improvement is seen in colon cancer, where the PPV is increased by 2.3 fold compared to the baseline level when 100 top fitSNP genes are sequenced.
Conclusions
A gene prioritization strategy based on the fitSNP scores appears to be most successful in identifying mutated cancer genes across different tumor entities, with variance of gene expression levels as a good second best.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031333
PMCID: PMC3291573  PMID: 22396732
9.  Extending pathways based on gene lists using InterPro domain signatures 
BMC Bioinformatics  2008;9:3.
Background
High-throughput technologies like functional screens and gene expression analysis produce extended lists of candidate genes. Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis is a commonly used and well established technique to test for the statistically significant over-representation of particular pathways. A shortcoming of this method is however, that most genes that are investigated in the experiments have very sparse functional or pathway annotation and therefore cannot be the target of such an analysis. The approach presented here aims to assign lists of genes with limited annotation to previously described functional gene collections or pathways. This works by comparing InterPro domain signatures of the candidate gene lists with domain signatures of gene sets derived from known classifications, e.g. KEGG pathways.
Results
In order to validate our approach, we designed a simulation study. Based on all pathways available in the KEGG database, we create test gene lists by randomly selecting pathway genes, removing these genes from the known pathways and adding variable amounts of noise in the form of genes not annotated to the pathway. We show that we can recover pathway memberships based on the simulated gene lists with high accuracy. We further demonstrate the applicability of our approach on a biological example.
Conclusion
Results based on simulation and data analysis show that domain based pathway enrichment analysis is a very sensitive method to test for enrichment of pathways in sparsely annotated lists of genes. An R based software package domainsignatures, to routinely perform this analysis on the results of high-throughput screening, is available via Bioconductor.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-9-3
PMCID: PMC2245903  PMID: 18177498
10.  ICSNPathway: identify candidate causal SNPs and pathways from genome-wide association study by one analytical framework 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;39(Web Server issue):W437-W443.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is widely utilized to identify genes involved in human complex disease or some other trait. One key challenge for GWAS data interpretation is to identify causal SNPs and provide profound evidence on how they affect the trait. Currently, researches are focusing on identification of candidate causal variants from the most significant SNPs of GWAS, while there is lack of support on biological mechanisms as represented by pathways. Although pathway-based analysis (PBA) has been designed to identify disease-related pathways by analyzing the full list of SNPs from GWAS, it does not emphasize on interpreting causal SNPs. To our knowledge, so far there is no web server available to solve the challenge for GWAS data interpretation within one analytical framework. ICSNPathway is developed to identify candidate causal SNPs and their corresponding candidate causal pathways from GWAS by integrating linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis, functional SNP annotation and PBA. ICSNPathway provides a feasible solution to bridge the gap between GWAS and disease mechanism study by generating hypothesis of SNP → gene → pathway(s). The ICSNPathway server is freely available at http://icsnpathway.psych.ac.cn/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr391
PMCID: PMC3125783  PMID: 21622953
11.  AGRA: analysis of gene ranking algorithms 
Bioinformatics  2011;27(8):1185-1186.
Summary: Often, the most informative genes have to be selected from different gene sets and several computer gene ranking algorithms have been developed to cope with the problem. To help researchers decide which algorithm to use, we developed the analysis of gene ranking algorithms (AGRA) system that offers a novel technique for comparing ranked lists of genes. The most important feature of AGRA is that no previous knowledge of gene ranking algorithms is needed for their comparison. Using the text mining system finding-associated concepts with text analysis. AGRA defines what we call biomedical concept space (BCS) for each gene list and offers a comparison of the gene lists in six different BCS categories. The uploaded gene lists can be compared using two different methods. In the first method, the overlap between each pair of two gene lists of BCSs is calculated. The second method offers a text field where a specific biomedical concept can be entered. AGRA searches for this concept in each gene lists' BCS, highlights the rank of the concept and offers a visual representation of concepts ranked above and below it.
Availability and Implementation: Available at http://agra.fzv.uni-mb.si/, implemented in Java and running on the Glassfish server.
Contact: simon.kocbek@uni-mb.si
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btr097
PMCID: PMC3072556  PMID: 21349873
12.  Computational selection and prioritization of candidate genes for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:389.
Background
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious global health problem and is observed at high frequencies in certain South African communities. Although in utero alcohol exposure is the primary trigger, there is evidence for genetic- and other susceptibility factors in FAS development. No genome-wide association or linkage studies have been performed for FAS, making computational selection and -prioritization of candidate disease genes an attractive approach.
Results
10174 Candidate genes were initially selected from the whole genome using a previously described method, which selects candidate genes according to their expression in disease-affected tissues. Hereafter candidates were prioritized for experimental investigation by investigating criteria pertinent to FAS and binary filtering. 29 Criteria were assessed by mining various database sources to populate criteria-specific gene lists. Candidate genes were then prioritized for experimental investigation using a binary system that assessed the criteria gene lists against the candidate list, and candidate genes were scored accordingly. A group of 87 genes was prioritized as candidates and for future experimental validation. The validity of the binary prioritization method was assessed by investigating the protein-protein interactions, functional enrichment and common promoter element binding sites of the top-ranked genes.
Conclusion
This analysis highlighted a list of strong candidate genes from the TGF-β, MAPK and Hedgehog signalling pathways, which are all integral to fetal development and potential targets for alcohol's teratogenic effect. We conclude that this novel bioinformatics approach effectively prioritizes credible candidate genes for further experimental analysis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-389
PMCID: PMC2194724  PMID: 17961254
13.  BioGPS and MyGene.info: organizing online, gene-centric information 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;41(D1):D561-D565.
Fast-evolving technologies have enabled researchers to easily generate data at genome scale, and using these technologies to compare biological states typically results in a list of candidate genes. Researchers are then faced with the daunting task of prioritizing these candidate genes for follow-up studies. There are hundreds, possibly even thousands, of web-based gene annotation resources available, but it quickly becomes impractical to manually access and review all of these sites for each gene in a candidate gene list. BioGPS (http://biogps.org) was created as a centralized gene portal for aggregating distributed gene annotation resources, emphasizing community extensibility and user customizability. BioGPS serves as a convenient tool for users to access known gene-centric resources, as well as a mechanism to discover new resources that were previously unknown to the user. This article describes updates to BioGPS made after its initial release in 2008. We summarize recent additions of features and data, as well as the robust user activity that underlies this community intelligence application. Finally, we describe MyGene.info (http://mygene.info) and related web services that provide programmatic access to BioGPS.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1114
PMCID: PMC3531157  PMID: 23175613
14.  Integration of multiple data sources to prioritize candidate genes using discounted rating system 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11(Suppl 1):S20.
Background
Identifying disease gene from a list of candidate genes is an important task in bioinformatics. The main strategy is to prioritize candidate genes based on their similarity to known disease genes. Most of existing gene prioritization methods access only one genomic data source, which is noisy and incomplete. Thus, there is a need for the integration of multiple data sources containing different information.
Results
In this paper, we proposed a combination strategy, called discounted rating system (DRS). We performed leave one out cross validation to compare it with N-dimensional order statistics (NDOS) used in Endeavour. Results showed that the AUC (Area Under the Curve) values achieved by DRS were comparable with NDOS on most of the disease families. But DRS worked much faster than NDOS, especially when the number of data sources increases. When there are 100 candidate genes and 20 data sources, DRS works more than 180 times faster than NDOS. In the framework of DRS, we give different weights for different data sources. The weighted DRS achieved significantly higher AUC values than NDOS.
Conclusion
The proposed DRS algorithm is a powerful and effective framework for candidate gene prioritization. If weights of different data sources are proper given, the DRS algorithm will perform better.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-S1-S20
PMCID: PMC3009491  PMID: 20122192
15.  Update of the G2D tool for prioritization of gene candidates to inherited diseases 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(Web Server issue):W212-W216.
G2D (genes to diseases) is a web resource for prioritizing genes as candidates for inherited diseases. It uses three algorithms based on different prioritization strategies. The input to the server is the genomic region where the user is looking for the disease-causing mutation, plus an additional piece of information depending on the algorithm used. This information can either be the disease phenotype (described as an online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) identifier), one or several genes known or suspected to be associated with the disease (defined by their Entrez Gene identifiers), or a second genomic region that has been linked as well to the disease. In the latter case, the tool uses known or predicted interactions between genes in the two regions extracted from the STRING database. The output in every case is an ordered list of candidate genes in the region of interest. For the first two of the three methods, the candidate genes are first retrieved through sequence homology search, then scored accordingly to the corresponding method. This means that some of them will correspond to well-known characterized genes, and others will overlap with predicted genes, thus providing a wider analysis. G2D is publicly available at http://www.ogic.ca/projects/g2d_2/
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm223
PMCID: PMC1933178  PMID: 17478516
16.  Improving disease gene prioritization using the semantic similarity of Gene Ontology terms 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(18):i561-i567.
Motivation: Many hereditary human diseases are polygenic, resulting from sequence alterations in multiple genes. Genomic linkage and association studies are commonly performed for identifying disease-related genes. Such studies often yield lists of up to several hundred candidate genes, which have to be prioritized and validated further. Recent studies discovered that genes involved in phenotypically similar diseases are often functionally related on the molecular level.
Results: Here, we introduce MedSim, a novel approach for ranking candidate genes for a particular disease based on functional comparisons involving the Gene Ontology. MedSim uses functional annotations of known disease genes for assessing the similarity of diseases as well as the disease relevance of candidate genes. We benchmarked our approach with genes known to be involved in 99 diseases taken from the OMIM database. Using artificial quantitative trait loci, MedSim achieved excellent performance with an area under the ROC curve of up to 0.90 and a sensitivity of over 70% at 90% specificity when classifying gene products according to their disease relatedness. This performance is comparable or even superior to related methods in the field, albeit using less and thus more easily accessible information.
Availability: MedSim is offered as part of our FunSimMat web service (http://www.funsimmat.de).
Contact: mario.albrecht@mpi-inf.mpg.de
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq384
PMCID: PMC2935448  PMID: 20823322
17.  DRIMust: a web server for discovering rank imbalanced motifs using suffix trees 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(Web Server issue):W174-W179.
Cellular regulation mechanisms that involve proteins and other active molecules interacting with specific targets often involve the recognition of sequence patterns. Short sequence elements on DNA, RNA and proteins play a central role in mediating such molecular recognition events. Studies that focus on measuring and investigating sequence-based recognition processes make use of statistical and computational tools that support the identification and understanding of sequence motifs. We present a new web application, named DRIMust, freely accessible through the website http://drimust.technion.ac.il for de novo motif discovery services. The DRIMust algorithm is based on the minimum hypergeometric statistical framework and uses suffix trees for an efficient enumeration of motif candidates. DRIMust takes as input ranked lists of sequences in FASTA format and returns motifs that are over-represented at the top of the list, where the determination of the threshold that defines top is data driven. The resulting motifs are presented individually with an accurate P-value indication and as a Position Specific Scoring Matrix. Comparing DRIMust with other state-of-the-art tools demonstrated significant advantage to DRIMust, both in result accuracy and in short running times. Overall, DRIMust is unique in combining efficient search on large ranked lists with rigorous P-value assessment for the detected motifs.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt407
PMCID: PMC3692051  PMID: 23685432
18.  Prioritized Subset Analysis: Improving Power in Genome-wide Association Studies 
Human Heredity  2007;65(3):129-141.
Background
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now feasible for studying the genetics underlying complex diseases. For many diseases, a list of candidate genes or regions exists and incorporation of such information into data analyses can potentially improve the power to detect disease variants. Traditional approaches for assessing the overall statistical significance of GWAS results ignore such information by inherently treating all markers equally.
Methods
We propose the prioritized subset analysis (PSA), in which a prioritized subset of markers is pre-selected from candidate regions, and the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure is carried out in the prioritized subset and its complementary subset, respectively.
Results
The PSA is more powerful than the whole-genome single-step FDR adjustment for a range of alternative models. The degree of power improvement depends on the fraction of associated SNPs in the prioritized subset and their nominal power, with higher fraction of associated SNPs and higher nominal power leading to more power improvement. The power improvement can be substantial; for disease loci not included in the prioritized subset, the power loss is almost negligible.
Conclusion
The PSA has the flexibility of allowing investigators to combine prior information from a variety of sources, and will be a useful tool for GWAS.
doi:10.1159/000109730
PMCID: PMC2858373  PMID: 17934316
Association analysis; False discovery rate; HapMap
19.  Speeding disease gene discovery by sequence based candidate prioritization 
BMC Bioinformatics  2005;6:55.
Background
Regions of interest identified through genetic linkage studies regularly exceed 30 centimorgans in size and can contain hundreds of genes. Traditionally this number is reduced by matching functional annotation to knowledge of the disease or phenotype in question. However, here we show that disease genes share patterns of sequence-based features that can provide a good basis for automatic prioritization of candidates by machine learning.
Results
We examined a variety of sequence-based features and found that for many of them there are significant differences between the sets of genes known to be involved in human hereditary disease and those not known to be involved in disease. We have created an automatic classifier called PROSPECTR based on those features using the alternating decision tree algorithm which ranks genes in the order of likelihood of involvement in disease. On average, PROSPECTR enriches lists for disease genes two-fold 77% of the time, five-fold 37% of the time and twenty-fold 11% of the time.
Conclusion
PROSPECTR is a simple and effective way to identify genes involved in Mendelian and oligogenic disorders. It performs markedly better than the single existing sequence-based classifier on novel data. PROSPECTR could save investigators looking at large regions of interest time and effort by prioritizing positional candidate genes for mutation detection and case-control association studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-6-55
PMCID: PMC1274252  PMID: 15766383
20.  regSNPs: a strategy for prioritizing regulatory single nucleotide substitutions 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(14):1879-1886.
Motivation: One of the fundamental questions in genetics study is to identify functional DNA variants that are responsible to a disease or phenotype of interest. Results from large-scale genetics studies, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and the availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies provide opportunities in identifying causal variants. Despite the technical advances, informatics methodologies need to be developed to prioritize thousands of variants for potential causative effects.
Results: We present regSNPs, an informatics strategy that integrates several established bioinformatics tools, for prioritizing regulatory SNPs, i.e. the SNPs in the promoter regions that potentially affect phenotype through changing transcription of downstream genes. Comparing to existing tools, regSNPs has two distinct features. It considers degenerative features of binding motifs by calculating the differences on the binding affinity caused by the candidate variants and integrates potential phenotypic effects of various transcription factors. When tested by using the disease-causing variants documented in the Human Gene Mutation Database, regSNPs showed mixed performance on various diseases. regSNPs predicted three SNPs that can potentially affect bone density in a region detected in an earlier linkage study. Potential effects of one of the variants were validated using luciferase reporter assay.
Contact: yunliu@iupui.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts275
PMCID: PMC3389767  PMID: 22611130
21.  A High-Throughput Computational Framework for Identifying Significant Copy Number Aberrations from Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation Data 
Advances in Bioinformatics  2012;2012:876976.
Reliable identification of copy number aberrations (CNA) from comparative genomic hybridization data would be improved by the availability of a generalised method for processing large datasets. To this end, we developed swatCGH, a data analysis framework and region detection heuristic for computational grids. swatCGH analyses sequentially displaced (sliding) windows of neighbouring probes and applies adaptive thresholds of varying stringency to identify the 10% of each chromosome that contains the most frequently occurring CNAs. We used the method to analyse a published dataset, comparing data preprocessed using four different DNA segmentation algorithms, and two methods for prioritising the detected CNAs. The consolidated list of the most commonly detected aberrations confirmed the value of swatCGH as a simplified high-throughput method for identifying biologically significant CNA regions of interest.
doi:10.1155/2012/876976
PMCID: PMC3449101  PMID: 23008709
22.  SNPranker 2.0: a gene-centric data mining tool for diseases associated SNP prioritization in GWAS 
BMC Bioinformatics  2013;14(Suppl 1):S9.
Background
The capability of correlating specific genotypes with human diseases is a complex issue in spite of all advantages arisen from high-throughput technologies, such as Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). New tools for genetic variants interpretation and for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) prioritization are actually needed. Given a list of the most relevant SNPs statistically associated to a specific pathology as result of a genotype study, a critical issue is the identification of genes that are effectively related to the disease by re-scoring the importance of the identified genetic variations. Vice versa, given a list of genes, it can be of great importance to predict which SNPs can be involved in the onset of a particular disease, in order to focus the research on their effects.
Results
We propose a new bioinformatics approach to support biological data mining in the analysis and interpretation of SNPs associated to pathologies. This system can be employed to design custom genotyping chips for disease-oriented studies and to re-score GWAS results. The proposed method relies (1) on the data integration of public resources using a gene-centric database design, (2) on the evaluation of a set of static biomolecular annotations, defined as features, and (3) on the SNP scoring function, which computes SNP scores using parameters and weights set by users. We employed a machine learning classifier to set default feature weights and an ontological annotation layer to enable the enrichment of the input gene set. We implemented our method as a web tool called SNPranker 2.0 (http://www.itb.cnr.it/snpranker), improving our first published release of this system. A user-friendly interface allows the input of a list of genes, SNPs or a biological process, and to customize the features set with relative weights. As result, SNPranker 2.0 returns a list of SNPs, localized within input and ontologically enriched genes, combined with their prioritization scores.
Conclusions
Different databases and resources are already available for SNPs annotation, but they do not prioritize or re-score SNPs relying on a-priori biomolecular knowledge. SNPranker 2.0 attempts to fill this gap through a user-friendly integrated web resource. End users, such as researchers in medical genetics and epidemiology, may find in SNPranker 2.0 a new tool for data mining and interpretation able to support SNPs analysis. Possible scenarios are GWAS data re-scoring, SNPs selection for custom genotyping arrays and SNPs/diseases association studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-14-S1-S9
PMCID: PMC3548692  PMID: 23369106
23.  Disease gene identification by random walk on multigraphs merging heterogeneous genomic and phenotype data 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 7):S27.
Background
High throughput experiments resulted in many genomic datasets and hundreds of candidate disease genes. To discover the real disease genes from a set of candidate genes, computational methods have been proposed and worked on various types of genomic data sources. As a single source of genomic data is prone of bias, incompleteness and noise, integration of different genomic data sources is highly demanded to accomplish reliable disease gene identification.
Results
In contrast to the commonly adapted data integration approach which integrates separate lists of candidate genes derived from the each single data sources, we merge various genomic networks into a multigraph which is capable of connecting multiple edges between a pair of nodes. This novel approach provides a data platform with strong noise tolerance to prioritize the disease genes. A new idea of random walk is then developed to work on multigraphs using a modified step to calculate the transition matrix. Our method is further enhanced to deal with heterogeneous data types by allowing cross-walk between phenotype and gene networks. Compared on benchmark datasets, our method is shown to be more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods in disease gene identification. We also conducted a case study to identify disease genes for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Some of the newly identified disease genes are supported by recently published literature.
Conclusions
The proposed RWRM (Random Walk with Restart on Multigraphs) model and CHN (Complex Heterogeneous Network) model are effective in data integration for candidate gene prioritization.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-S7-S27
PMCID: PMC3521411  PMID: 23282070
24.  GeneTrail—advanced gene set enrichment analysis 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(Web Server issue):W186-W192.
We present a comprehensive and efficient gene set analysis tool, called ‘GeneTrail’ that offers a rich functionality and is easy to use. Our web-based application facilitates the statistical evaluation of high-throughput genomic or proteomic data sets with respect to enrichment of functional categories. GeneTrail covers a wide variety of biological categories and pathways, among others KEGG, TRANSPATH, TRANSFAC, and GO. Our web server provides two common statistical approaches, ‘Over-Representation Analysis’ (ORA) comparing a reference set of genes to a test set, and ‘Gene Set Enrichment Analysis’ (GSEA) scoring sorted lists of genes. Besides other newly developed features, GeneTrail's statistics module includes a novel dynamic-programming algorithm that improves the P-value computation of GSEA methods considerably. GeneTrail is freely accessible at http://genetrail.bioinf.uni-sb.de
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm323
PMCID: PMC1933132  PMID: 17526521
25.  FitSNPs: highly differentially expressed genes are more likely to have variants associated with disease 
Genome Biology  2008;9(12):R170.
Differential expressed genes are more likely to have variants associated with disease. A new tool, fitSNP, prioritizes candidate SNPs from association studies.
Background
Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were often selected for validation based on their functional annotation, which was inadequate and biased. We propose to use the more than 200,000 microarray studies in the Gene Expression Omnibus to systematically prioritize candidate SNPs from GWASs.
Results
We analyzed all human microarray studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and calculated the observed frequency of differential expression, which we called differential expression ratio, for every human gene. Analysis conducted in a comprehensive list of curated disease genes revealed a positive association between differential expression ratio values and the likelihood of harboring disease-associated variants. By considering highly differentially expressed genes, we were able to rediscover disease genes with 79% specificity and 37% sensitivity. We successfully distinguished true disease genes from false positives in multiple GWASs for multiple diseases. We then derived a list of functionally interpolating SNPs (fitSNPs) to analyze the top seven loci of Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium type 1 diabetes mellitus GWASs, rediscovered all type 1 diabetes mellitus genes, and predicted a novel gene (KIAA1109) for an unexplained locus 4q27. We suggest that fitSNPs would work equally well for both Mendelian and complex diseases (being more effective for cancer) and proposed candidate genes to sequence for their association with 597 syndromes with unknown molecular basis.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrates that highly differentially expressed genes are more likely to harbor disease-associated DNA variants. FitSNPs can serve as an effective tool to systematically prioritize candidate SNPs from GWASs.
doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-12-r170
PMCID: PMC2646274  PMID: 19061490

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