To examine role transition and support requirements for nurse practitioner (NP) graduates in their first year of practice from the perspectives of the NPs and coparticipants familiar with the NPs’ practices; and to make recommendations for practice, education, and policy.
Descriptive qualitative design informed by focused ethnography and narrative analysis using semistructured, in-depth, qualitative interviews.
Primary health care (PHC) settings in Ontario in which NPs worked.
Twenty-three NPs who had graduated from the Ontario Primary Health Care Nurse Practitioner program, and 21 coparticipants including family physicians, NPs, and managers who were familiar with the NPs’ practices.
Anglophone and francophone NPs in their first year of practice in PHC settings were contacted by e-mail or letter. Participating NPs nominated colleagues in the workplace who could comment on their practice. Interviews were conducted within the first 3 months, at 6 months, and at 12 months of the NPs’ first year of practice and were transcribed verbatim and coded. Job descriptions and organizational charts demonstrating the NPs’ organization positions were also analyzed. The researchers collaboratively analyzed the interviews using a systematic data analysis protocol.
Familiarity of colleagues and employers with the NP role and scope of practice was an important element in successful NP role transition. Lack of preparation for integrating NPs into clinical settings and lack of infrastructure, orientation, mentorship, and awareness of the NP role and needs made the transition difficult for many. One-third of the NPs had changed employment, identifying interprofessional conflict or problems with acceptance of their role in new practice environments as reasons for the change.
The transition of NP graduates in Ontario was complicated by the health care environment being ill-prepared to receive them owing to rapid changes in PHC. Strategies for mentorship and for the integration of new NPs into PHC settings are available and need to be implemented by health professionals and administrators. Recommendations for family physicians to support NP graduate transition into practice are provided.
Edema formation, inflammation and ileus in the intestine are commonly seen in conditions like gastroschisis, inflammatory bowel disease and cirrhosis. We hypothesized that early enteral feeding would improve intestinal transit. We also wanted to study the impact of early enteral feeding on global gene expression in the intestine.
Rats were divided into Sham or Edema ± immediate enteral nutrition (IEN). At 12 hrs, small intestinal transit via FITC-Dextran and tissue water were measured. Ileum was harvested for total RNA to analyze gene expression using cDNA microarray with validation using real-time PCR. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, n=4-6 and *, ** = p < 0.05 vs. all groups using ANOVA.
IEN markedly improved intestinal transit with minimal genetic alterations in Edema animals. Major alterations in gene expression were detected in primary, cellular and macromolecular metabolic activities. Edema also altered more genes involved with the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
Intestinal edema results in impaired small intestinal transit and globally increased gene expression. Early enteral nutrition improves edema-induced impaired transit and minimizes gene transcriptional activity.
intestinal edema; ileus; enteral feeding; micorarray
Most Canadians receive basic health services from a family physician and these physicians are particularly critical in the management of chronic disease. Canada, however, has an endemic shortage of family physicians. Physician shortages and turnover are particularly acute in rural regions, leaving their residents at risk of needing to transition between family physicians. The knowledge base about how patients manage transitioning in a climate of scarcity remains nascent. The purpose of this study is to explore the experience of transitioning for chronically ill, rurally situated Canadian women to provide insight into if and how the system supports transitioning patients and to identify opportunities for enhancing that support.
Chronically ill women managing rheumatic diseases residing in two rural counties in the province of Ontario were recruited to participate in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically to identify emergent themes associated with the transitioning experience.
Seventeen women participated in this study. Ten had experienced transitioning and four with long-standing family physicians anticipated doing so soon. The remaining three expressed concerns about transitioning. Thematic analysis revealed the presence of a transitioning trajectory with three phases. The detachment phase focused on activities related to the termination of a physician-patient relationship, including haphazard notification tactics and the absence of referrals to replacement physicians. For those unable to immediately find a new doctor, there was a phase of unattachment during which patients had to improvise ways to receive care from alternative providers or walk-in clinics. The final phase, attachment, was characterized by acceptance into the practice of a new family physician.
Participants often found transitioning challenging, largely due to perceived gaps in support from the health care system. Barriers to a smooth transition included inadequate notification procedures, lack of formal assistance finding new physicians, and unsatisfactory experiences seeking care during unattachment. The participants’ accounts reveal opportunities for a stronger system presence during transition and a need for further research into alternative models of primary care delivery.
Family medicine; Canada; Unattached patients; Continuity; Attachment; Rural
Developed countries' gains in health human resources (HHR) from developing countries with significantly lower ratios of health workers have raised questions about the ethics or fairness of recruitment from such countries. By attracting and/or facilitating migration for foreign-trained HHR, notably those from poorer, less well-resourced nations, recruitment practices and policies may be compromising the ability of developing countries to meet the health care needs of their own populations. Little is known, however, about actual recruitment practices. In this study we focus on Canada (a country with a long reliance on internationally trained HHR) and recruiters working for Canadian health authorities.
We conducted interviews with health human resources recruiters employed by Canadian health authorities to describe their recruitment practices and perspectives and to determine whether and how they reflect ethical considerations.
Results and discussion
We describe the methods that recruiters used to recruit foreign-trained health professionals and the systemic challenges and policies that form the working context for recruiters and recruits. HHR recruiters' reflections on the global flow of health workers from poorer to richer countries mirror much of the content of global-level discourse with regard to HHR recruitment. A predominant market discourse related to shortages of HHR outweighed discussions of human rights and ethical approaches to recruitment policy and action that consider global health impacts.
We suggest that the concept of corporate social responsibility may provide a useful approach at the local organizational level for developing policies on ethical recruitment. Such local policies and subsequent practices may inform public debate on the health equity implications of the HHR flows from poorer to richer countries inherent in the global health worker labour market, which in turn could influence political choices at all government and health system levels.
Literature describing effective population interventions related to the pregnancy, birth, and post-birth care of international migrants, as defined by them, is scant. Hence, we sought to determine: 1) what processes are used by migrant women to respond to maternal-child health and psychosocial concerns during the early months and years after birth; 2) which of these enhance or impede their resiliency; and 3) which population interventions they suggest best respond to these concerns.
Sixteen international migrant women living in Montreal or Toronto who had been identified in a previous study as having a high psychosocial-risk profile and subsequently classified as vulnerable or resilient based on indicators of mental health were recruited. Focused ethnography including in-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted. Data were analyzed thematically and as an integrated whole.
Migrant women drew on a wide range of coping strategies and resources to respond to maternal-child health and psychosocial concerns. Resilient and vulnerable mothers differed in their use of certain coping strategies. Social inclusion was identified as an overarching factor for enhancing resiliency by all study participants. Social processes and corresponding facilitators relating to social inclusion were identified by participants, with more social processes identified by the vulnerable group. Several interventions related to services were described which varied in type and quality; these were generally found to be effective. Participants identified several categories of interventions which they had used or would have liked to use and recommended improvements for and creation of some programs. The social determinants of health categories within which their suggestions fell included: income and social status, social support network, education, personal health practices and coping skills, healthy child development, and health services. Within each of these, the most common suggestions were related to creating supportive environments and building healthy public policy.
A wealth of data was provided by participants on factors and processes related to the maternal-child health care of international migrants and associated population interventions. Our results offer a challenge to key stakeholders to improve existing interventions and create new ones based on the experiences and views of international migrant women themselves.
Immigrants; Women; Health services; Qualitative research; Childbirth
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) usually lacks melanocytes within the tumor. A few reports have documented invasive SCC or SCC in situ (intraepithelial neoplasia, IEN) with melanocytic hyperplasia within the tumor, referred to as pigmented SCC, in some organs. However, case series of pigmented SCC or IEN of the esophagus have not yet been reported. This is the first study to analyze the incidence and clinicopathological features of pigmented SCC or IEN of the esophagus. We reviewed 18 surgically-resected and 122 endoscopically-resected esophageal specimens, including 79 cases of IEN. Three cases of pigmented IEN were observed in this series, and all of them were located in the middle to lower third of the esophagus. Two of 3 cases had melanocytosis in the non-neoplastic squamous epithelium around the IEN. The incidence of pigmented IEN was 2.5% of all endoscopically resected specimens and 3.8% of IEN cases. No pigmented invasive SCC was detected in both endoscopically-resected and surgically-resected specimens. The mechanism of pigmentation of esophageal IEN is unknown. However, production of melanocyte chemotactic factors by tumor cells has been demonstrated in pigmented SCC of the oral mucosa. Moreover, two of 3 cases of pigmented IEN in the present series had melanocytosis in the non-neoplastic squamous epithelium, and melanocytosis is thought to be associated with chronic esophagitis, therefore, it has been hypothesized that various stimuli can cause pigmentation in squamous epithelium. Additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of pigmentation in squamous IEN of the esophagus.
Intraepithelial squamous neoplasia; squamous cell carcinoma; esophagus; melanocytes
Rural nursing is recognized as a unique health care domain. Within that context, the preceptorship experience is purported to be an important approach to preparing safe and competent rural practitioners. Preceptorship is the one-to-one pairing of a nursing student with a professional nurse who assumes the mandate of teacher and role model in a designated clinical/contextual setting, in this case the rural setting. A research gap exists in the literature in which rural preceptorship is specifically explored. The purpose of this paper is to review preceptorship in relation to preparing nursing students specifically for the rural setting. Understanding how preceptorship as an educational model can prepare nursing students to transition to rural practice is an important endeavor. An authentic rural preceptorship may serve to influence the recruitment and retention needs for registered nurses in rural areas. A greater understanding of rural preceptorship serves to illustrate the appropriate support, socialization and contextual competence required to prepare nursing students for rural nursing practice. This paper's review may serve to highlight the research that currently exists related to rural preceptorship and where additional research can contribute to further understanding and development for authentic rural nursing preparation.
During the last 25 years, cultural diversity has increased substantially with global migration. In more recent years this has become highly evident in the south of Spain with its steadily increasing Moroccan population. The accompanying differences in ethnocultural values and traditions between the host and newcomer populations may greatly impact healthcare interactions and thus also effective provision of care. This landscape provides for excellent exploration of intercultural communication in healthcare settings and elucidation of possible ways to overcome existing barriers to provision of culturally competent care by nurses. This study aimed to ascertain how nurses perceive their intercultural communication with Moroccan patients and what barriers are evident which may be preventing effective communication and care.
A focused ethnography was conducted with semi-structured interviews of 32 nurses in three public hospitals in southern Spain. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim before undergoing translation and back-translation between Spanish and English. Data was managed, classified and ordered with the aid of AQUAD.6 (Günter L. Huber, Tübingen, Germany) qualitative data analysis software.
As an important dimension of cultural competence, findings from the interviews with nurses in this study were interpreted within the framework of intercultural communication. Various barriers, for which we have termed “boundaries”, seem to exist preventing effective communication between nurses and their patients. The substantial language barrier seems to negatively affect communication. Relations between the nurses and their Moroccan patients are also marked by prejudices and social stereotypes which likely compromise the provision of culturally appropriate care.
The language barrier may compromise nursing care delivery and could be readily overcome by implementation of professional interpretation within the hospital settings. Moreover, it is essential that the nurses of southern Spain are educated in the provision of culturally appropriate and sensitive care.
Intercultural communication; Cultural competency in nursing; Immigration in Spain; Moroccan immigrants
To synthesize information about nurse migration in and out of Canada and analyze its role as a policy lever to address the Canadian nursing shortage.
Canada is both a source and a destination country for international nurse migration with an estimated net loss of nurses. The United States is the major beneficiary of Canadian nurse emigration resulting from the reduction of full-time jobs for nurses in Canada due to health system reforms. Canada faces a significant projected shortage of nurses that is too large to be ameliorated by ethical international nurse recruitment and immigration.
The current and projected shortage of nurses in Canada is a product of health care cost containment policies that failed to take into account long-term consequences for nurse workforce adequacy. An aging nurse workforce, exacerbated by layoffs of younger nurses with less seniority, and increasing demand for nurses contribute to a projection of nurse shortage that is too great to be solved ethically through international nurse recruitment. National policies to increase domestic nurse production and retention are recommended in addition to international collaboration among developed countries to move toward greater national nurse workforce self sufficiency.
Nurse migration; nurse shortage; nursing workforce
The health and educational systems in Greenland and Nunavut are reflections of those in Denmark and Southern Canada, with the language of instruction and practise being Danish and English. This places specific demands on Inuit studying nursing.
This paper discusses the experiences of Inuit who are educated in nursing programmes and practise in healthcare systems located in the Arctic but dominated by EuroCanadian and Danish culture and language.
Research was qualitative and ethnographic. It was conducted through 12 months of fieldwork in 5 Greenlandic and 2 Nunavut communities.
Observation, participant observation, interviews, questionnaires and document review were used. The analytical framework involved Bourdieu's concepts of capital and habitus.
Participants experienced degrees of success and well-being in the educational systems that are afforded to few other Canadian and Greenlandic Inuit. This success appeared to be based on nurses and students possessing, or having acquired, what I call “double culturedness”; this makes them able to communicate in at least 2 languages and cultures, including the ability to understand, negotiate and interact, using at least 2 ways of being in the world and 2 ways of learning and teaching.
There continues to be a critical need for Inuit nurses with their special knowledge and abilities in the healthcare systems of the Arctic. Inuit nurses’ experiences will help inform the education and healthcare systems and point to areas in need of support and change in order to increase recruitment and retention of nursing students and practitioners.
Greenland; Nunavut; nursing; nursing education; capital; habitus
We examined the prevalence of substance use disorders among homeless and vulnerably housed persons in three Canadian cities and its association with unmet health care needs and access to addiction treatment using baseline data from the Health and Housing in Transition Study.
In 2009, 1191 homeless and vulnerably housed persons were recruited in Vancouver, Toronto, and Ottawa, Canada. Interviewer administered questionnaires collected data on socio-demographics, housing history, chronic health conditions, mental health diagnoses, problematic drug use (DAST-10≥6), problematic alcohol use (AUDIT≥20), unmet physical and mental health care needs, addiction treatment in the past 12 months. Three multiple logistic regression models were fit to examine the independent association of substance use with unmet physical health care need, unmet mental health care need, and addiction treatment.
Substance use was highly prevalent, with over half (53%) screening positive for the DAST-10 and 38% screening positive for the AUDIT. Problematic drug use was 29%, problematic alcohol use was lower at 16% and 7% had both problematic drug and alcohol use. In multiple regression models for unmet need, we found that problematic drug use was independently associated with unmet physical (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–2.64) and unmet mental (AOR 3.06; 95% CI 2.17–4.30) health care needs. Problematic alcohol use was not associated with unmet health care needs. Among those with problematic substance use, problematic drug use was associated with a greater likelihood of accessing addiction treatment compared to those with problematic alcohol use alone (AOR 2.32; 95% CI 1.18–4.54).
Problematic drug use among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals was associated with having unmet health care needs and accessing addiction treatment. Strategies to provide comprehensive health services including addiction treatment should be developed and integrated within community supported models of care.
Pregnancy and the transition to parenthood are major adjustment periods within a family. Existing studies have asked parents, retrospectively, about their experience of antenatal education, mainly focusing on women. We sought to address this gap by asking first-time mothers and their partners about how they could be better supported during the antenatal period, particularly in relation to the transition to parenthood and parenting skills.
Purposive sampling was used to recruit 24 nulliparous women with a range of ages from two healthcare organisations in South-West England, 20 of whom had partners. Recruitment took place antenatally at around 28 weeks gestation. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken at home in the last trimester of pregnancy and between 3–4 months postpartum. Content analysis of the interview data was undertaken.
Several common themes emerged from both the ante- and postnatal data, including support mechanisms, information and antenatal education, breastfeeding, practical baby-care and relationship changes. Knowledge about the transition to parenthood was poor. Women generally felt well supported, especially by female relatives and, for those who attended them, postnatal groups. This was in contrast to the men who often only had health professionals and work colleagues to turn to. The men felt very involved with their partners' pregnancy but excluded from antenatal appointments, antenatal classes and by the literature that was available. Parents had been unaware of, and surprised at, the changes in the relationship with their partners. They would have liked more information on elements of parenting and baby care, relationship changes and partners' perspectives prior to becoming parents.
Many studies and policy documents have highlighted the paucity of parents' preparation for parenthood. This study has indicated the need for an improvement in parents' preparation for parenthood, the importance of including fathers in antenatal education and that inadequate preparation remains a concern to both women and their partners.
This paper identifies several avenues for action and further research to improve both new parents' experience of antenatal education and their preparation for parenthood.
To develop evidence-based standardized care plans (EB-SCP) for use internationally to improve home care practice and population health.
A clinical-expert and scholarly method consisting of clinical experts recruitment, identification of health concerns, literature reviews, development of EB-SCPs using the Omaha System, a public comment period, revisions and consensus.
Clinical experts from Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States participated in the project, together with University of Minnesota School of Nursing graduate students and faculty researchers. Twelve Omaha System problems were selected by the participating agencies as a basic home care assessment that should be used for all elderly and disabled patients. Interventions based on the literature and clinical expertise were compiled into EB-SCPs, and reviewed by the group. The EB-SCPs were revised and posted on-line for public comment; revised again, then approved in a public meeting by the participants. The EB-SCPs are posted on-line for international dissemination.
Home care EB-SCPs were successfully developed and published on-line. They provide a shared standard for use in practice and future home care research. This process is an exemplar for development of evidence-based practice standards to be used for assessment and documentation to support global population health and research.
Evidence-based practice; standardization; patient care planning; home care services; Electronic health records
New graduates report intense stress during the transition from school to their first work settings. Managing this transition is important to reduce turnover rates. This study compared the effects of an externship program and a corporate-academic cooperation program on enhancing junior college students’ nursing competence and retention rates in the first 3 months and 1 year of initial employment.
This two-phase study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. All participants were graduating students drawn from a 5-year junior nursing college in Taiwan. There were 19 and 24 students who participated in the phase I externship program and phase II corporate-academic cooperation program, respectively. The nursing competence of the students had to be evaluated by mentors within 48 hours of practicum training and after practicum training. The retention rate was also surveyed at 3 months and 1 year after beginning employment.
Students who participated in the corporate-academic cooperation program achieved a statistically significant improvement in nursing competence and retention rates relative to those who participated in the externship program (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively).
The corporate-academic cooperation program facilitates the transition of junior college nursing students into independent staff nurses, enhances their nursing competence, and boosts retention rates.
Clinical competence; Corporate-academic cooperation program; Nursing education; Nursing students; Retention
BACKGROUND: Clinical governance will require general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) to become competent in finding, appraising, and implementing research evidence--the skills of evidence-based health care (EBHC). AIM: To report the experiences of GPs and PNs in training in this area. METHOD: We held 30 in-depth, semi-structured interviews throughout North Thames region with three groups of informants: primary care practitioners recruited from the mailing lists of established EBHC courses; organizers and teachers on these courses; and educational advisers from Royal Colleges, universities, and postgraduate departments. Detailed qualitative analysis was undertaken to identify themes from each of these interview groups. RESULTS: At the time of the fieldwork for this study (late 1997), remarkably few GPs or PNs had attended any formal EBHC courses in our region. Perceived barriers to attendance on courses included inconsistency in marketing terminology, cultural issues (e.g. EBHC being perceived as one aspect of rapid and unwanted change in the workplace), lack of confidence in the subject matter (especially mathematics and statistics), lack of time, and practical and financial constraints. Our interviews suggested, however, that the principles and philosophy of EBHC are beginning to permeate traditional lecture-based continuing medical education courses, and consultant colleagues increasingly seek to make their advice 'evidence based'. CONCLUSION: We offer some preliminary recommendations for the organizers of EBHC courses for primary care. These include offering a range of flexible training, being explicit about course content, recognizing differences in professional culture between primary and secondary care and between doctors and nurses, and addressing issues of funding and accreditation at national level. Introducing EBHC through traditional topic-based postgraduate teaching programmes may be more acceptable and more effective than providing dedicated courses in its theoretical principles.
Immigrant Latino adolescents experience health disparities and barriers to accessing health care. The purpose of this study is to describe barriers experienced by immigrant Latino adolescents seeking U.S. health care.
Focused ethnography using one-to-one interviews.
Participants identified language barriers to accessing care at all stages in the process.
Immigrant Latino youth experience barriers when accessing U.S. health care, resulting in negative perceptions and likelihood of reduced health seeking.
Implications for practice
Health care providers can lead positive change in health care delivery resulting in minimized language barriers and improved culturally relevant care for immigrant Latino youth and their families.
Immigrant; Latino; Adolescent; Barriers to care; Language; Qualitative; Ethnography
Purpose of this paper
To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy.
OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy.
The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents’ confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements.
This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences.
In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy.
Original value of paper
This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth’s developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence.
self-efficacy; adolescence; employment; work quality
The purpose of this study was to describe the first attempts and performance of health system in Iran in training specialist nurses in the field of diabetes- related care and education.
Materials and Methods:
This was a qualitative content analysis. Three diabetes management planners in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, three provincial executive authorities of diabetes in the health system and ten nurses who worked as diabetes nurse educators (DNEs) participated in this study. Data obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews, a focus group, existing documents, field notes, and multiple observations. Data analysis was guided by the conventional approach of qualitative content analysis.
Three major themes and six sub-themes were emerged through data analysis. Main themes were: (a) decentralization diabetes nurse educator training without any management (stop education due to transition training responsibility to provincial health authorities and lack of supervision of managers on training); (b) try to reform nursing education infrastructures (try to train qualified educators who were candidate for teaching to DNEs, try to reform undergraduate nursing curriculum); (c) failure of DNE curriculum (lack of consistency between content and timing with the curriculum objectives and lack of attention to learn evaluation process).
The findings of this study reflected the failure and multiple challenges in educating nurses working in diabetes units. Despite the fact that important roles were defined for nurses in the action plan for preventing and controlling diabetes, any specific action was not done in preparing nurses for these roles.
Diabetes; Iran; nursing education; qualitative research
From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massive, existential trauma.
This paper is a qualitative inquiry into the psychosocial situation of the Vanni displaced and their ethnography using narratives and observations obtained through participant observation; in depth interviews; key informant, family and extended family interviews; and focus groups using a prescribed, semi structured open ended questionnaire.
The narratives, drawings, letters and poems as well as data from observations, key informant interviews, extended family and focus group discussions show considerable impact at the family and community. The family and community relationships, networks, processes and structures are destroyed. There develops collective symptoms of despair, passivity, silence, loss of values and ethical mores, amotivation, dependency on external assistance, but also resilience and post-traumatic growth.
Considering the severity of family and community level adverse effects and implication for resettlement, rehabilitation, and development programmes; interventions for healing of memories, psychosocial regeneration of the family and community structures and processes are essential.
25-29% of North American family medicine residency programs utilize a pharmacist to teach residents. Little is known about the impact that these pharmacist educators have on residency training. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of residents, residency directors and pharmacists within Canadian family medicine residency programs that employ a pharmacist educator to better understand the impact of the role.
Recruitment from three cohorts (residents, residency directors, pharmacists) within family medicine residency programs across Canada for one-on-one semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis of anonymized transcript data.
11 residents, 6 residency directors and 17 pharmacist educators participated in interviews. Data themes were: (1) strong value of the teaching with respect to improved resident knowledge, confidence and patient care delivery; (2) lack of a formal pharmacotherapy curriculum; (3) desire for expansion of pharmacist teaching; (4) impact of teaching on collaboration; (5) impact of teaching on residency program faculty; and (6) lack of criticism of the role.
The pharmacist educator role is valued within residency programs across Canada and the role has a positive impact on several important aspects of family medicine resident training. Suggestions for improvement focused on expanding the teaching role and on implementing a formal curriculum for pharmacist educators to follow.
Addressing the underrepresentation of indigenous health professionals is recognised internationally as being integral to overcoming indigenous health inequities. This literature review aims to identify 'best practice' for recruitment of indigenous secondary school students into tertiary health programmes with particular relevance to recruitment of Māori within a New Zealand context.
A Kaupapa Māori Research (KMR) methodological approach was utilised to review literature and categorise content via: country; population group; health profession ffocus; research methods; evidence of effectiveness; and discussion of barriers. Recruitment activities are described within five broad contexts associated with the recruitment pipeline: Early Exposure, Transitioning, Retention/Completion, Professional Workforce Development, and Across the total pipeline.
A total of 70 articles were included. There is a lack of published literature specific to Māori recruitment and a limited, but growing, body of literature focused on other indigenous and underrepresented minority populations.
The literature is primarily descriptive in nature with few articles providing evidence of effectiveness. However, the literature clearly frames recruitment activity as occurring across a pipeline that extends from secondary through to tertiary education contexts and in some instances vocational (post-graduate) training. Early exposure activities encourage students to achieve success in appropriate school subjects, address deficiencies in careers advice and offer tertiary enrichment opportunities. Support for students to transition into and within health professional programmes is required including bridging/foundation programmes, admission policies/quotas and institutional mission statements demonstrating a commitment to achieving equity. Retention/completion support includes academic and pastoral interventions and institutional changes to ensure safer environments for indigenous students. Overall, recruitment should reflect a comprehensive, integrated pipeline approach that includes secondary, tertiary, community and workforce stakeholders.
Although the current literature is less able to identify 'best practice', six broad principles to achieve success for indigenous health workforce development include: 1) Framing initiatives within indigenous worldviews 2) Demonstrating a tangible institutional commitment to equity 3) Framing interventions to address barriers to indigenous health workforce development 4) Incorporating a comprehensive pipeline model 5) Increasing family and community engagement and 6) Incorporating quality data tracking and evaluation. Achieving equity in health workforce representation should remain both a political and ethical priority.
Māori; Indigenous; Under-represented Ethnic Minority; Recruitment; Health workforce development; Transitioning; Tertiary retention/completion
The Canadian Hypertension Education Program, Blood Pressure Canada, Canadian Hypertension Society, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Diabetes Association, College of Family Physicians of Canada, Canadian Pharmacists Association and the Canadian Council of Cardiovascular Nurses call on Canadian health care professionals to redouble efforts to help patients achieve treatment targets (blood pressure less than 130 mmHg systolic and less than 80 mmHg diastolic) in people with diabetes. Treatment of high blood pressure in people with diabetes results in large reductions in death and disability within a short period of time and needs to be a therapeutic priority. Achieving blood pressure targets requires sustained lifestyle modification, and three or more drugs including a diuretic are often required. Antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes is one of the few medical treatments estimated to reduce overall health costs. The cost of treatment is less than the cost of complications prevented. Blood pressure needs to be assessed at all visits and home blood pressure assessment is encouraged. Management strategies need to include assessment and management of cardiovascular risks including smoking, unhealthy eating, physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia as well as dysglycemia. The risks and benefits of acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease are uncertain in people with hypertension and diabetes. Intensive individualized lifestyle modification is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and other vascular risks in people with diabetes.
Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Myocardial infarction prevention; Stroke
There were 59,500 Children in out-of-home care in England in 2008. Research into this population points to poor health and quality of life outcomes over the transition to adult independence. This undesirable outcome applies to mental health, education and employment. This lack of wellbeing for the individual is a burden for health and social care services, suggesting limitations in the current policy approaches regarding the transitional pathway from care to adult independence. Although the precise reasons for these poor outcomes are unclear long term outcomes from national birth cohorts suggest that mental health could be a key predictor for subsequent psychosocial adjustment.
Researching the wellbeing of children in out-of-home care has proven difficult due to the range and complexity of the factors leading to being placed in care and the different methods used internationally for recording information. This paper delineates the estimated prevalence of mental health problems for adolescents in the care system, organisational factors, influencing service provision, and pathways through the transition from adolescence to independent young adult life. The extent to which being taken into care as a child moderates adult wellbeing outcomes remains unknown. Whether the care system enhances, reduces or has a null effect on wellbeing and specifically mental health cannot be determined from the current literature. Nonetheless a substantial proportion of young people display resilience and experience successful quality of life outcomes including mental capital. A current and retrospective study of young people transitioning to adult life is proposed to identify factors that have promoted successful outcomes and which would be used to inform policy developments and future longitudinal studies.
Objectives To provide counterevidence to existing literature on healer shopping in Africa through a systematic analysis of illness practices by Ghanaians with diabetes; to outline approaches towards improving patient centred health care and policy development regarding diabetes in Ghana.
Design Longitudinal qualitative study with individual interviews, group interviews, and ethnographies.
Settings Two urban towns (Accra, Tema) and two rural towns (Nkoranza and Kintampo) in Ghana.
Participants 26 urban people and 41 rural people with diabetes with diverse profiles (sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, diabetes status).
Results Six focus groups, 20 interviews, and three ethnographical studies were conducted to explore experiences and illness practices. Analysis identified four kinds of illness practice: biomedical management, spiritual action, cure seeking (passive and active), and medical inaction. Most participants privileged biomedicine over other health systems and emphasised biomedical management as ideal self care practice. However, the psychosocial impact of diabetes and the high cost of biomedical care drove cure seeking and medical inaction. Cure seeking constituted healer shopping between biomedicine, ethnomedicine, and faith healing; medical inaction constituted passive disengagement from medical management and active engagement with faith healing. Crucially, although spiritual causal theories of diabetes existed, they were secondary to dietary, lifestyle, and physiological theories and did not constitute the primary motivation for cure seeking. Cure seeking within unregulated ethnomedical systems and non-pharmacological faith healing systems exacerbated the complications of diabetes.
Conclusions To minimise inappropriate healer shopping and maximise committed biomedical and regulated ethnomedical management for Ghanaians with diabetes, the greatest challenges lie in providing affordable pharmaceutical drugs, standardised ethnomedical drugs, recommended foods, and psychosocial support. For health systems, the greatest challenges lie in correcting structural deficiencies that impinge on biomedical practices, regulating ethnomedical diabetes treatment, and foregrounding faith healer practices within diabetes policy discussions.
The United Kingdom has recruited nurses from countries with a reported surplus in their nursing workforce, such as India and the Philippines. However, little is known about the decision to emigrate made by nurses from these countries. One theory suggests that individuals weigh the benefits and costs of migration: the push and pull factors. This paper challenges the restricted economic focus of this predominant theory and compares the diverse motivations of nurses from different countries as well as those of nurses with previous migratory experience and first-time migrants.
This research was undertaken in a National Health Service acute trust in London by means of a qualitative interpretative approach. Data were collected through face-to-face longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews with internationally recruited nurses from India (n = 6) and the Philippines (n = 15); and analysis of their narratives was used to generate data about their expectations and experiences. Data were analysed by means of a framework approach that allowed for intra-case and cross-case analysis.
From an individual perspective, nurses in this study reported economic reasons as the main trigger for migration in the first instance. Yet this doesn't entirely explain the decision to move from previous migratory destinations (e.g. Saudi Arabia) where economic needs are already fulfilled. In these cases migration is influenced by professional and social aspirations that highlight the influence of the cultural environment – specifically some religious and gender-related issues. Family support and support from migratory networks in the country of origin and destination were also important elements conducive to and supportive of migration. Nurses from India report coming to the United Kingdom to stay, while Filipina nurses come as temporary migrants sending remittances to support their families in the Philippines.
This study shows the diverse motivations of nurses from different countries and with different migratory backgrounds and provides evidence that factors other than economic factors influence nurses' decision to emigrate. This information can help developing countries increase retention of this essential and often scarce resource and can also help the United Kingdom's National Health Service to improve the experience of internationally recruited nurses and therefore increase their retention in the United Kingdom.