The StyLTI restriction-modification system is common to most strains of the genus Salmonella, including Salmonella typhimurium. We report here the two-step cloning of the genes controlling the StyLTI system. The StyLTI methylase gene (mod) was cloned first. Then, the companion endonuclease gene (res) was introduced on a compatible vector. A strain of S. typhimurium sensitive to the coliphage lambda was constructed and used to select self-modifying recombinant phages from a Res- Mod+ S. typhimurium genomic library in the lambda EMBL4 cloning vector. The methylase gene of one of these phages was then subcloned in pBR328 and transferred into Escherichia coli. In the second step, the closely linked endonuclease and methylase genes were cloned together on a single DNA fragment inserted in pACYC184 and introduced into the Mod+ E. coli strain obtained in the first step. Attempts to transform Mod- E. coli or S. typhimurium strains with this Res+ Mod+ plasmid were unsuccessful, whereas transformation of Mod+ strains occurred at a normal frequency. This can be understood if the introduction of the StyLTI genes into naive hosts is lethal because of degradation of host DNA by restriction activity; in contrast to most restriction-modification systems, StyLTI could not be transferred into naive hosts without killing them. In addition, it was found that strains containing only the res gene are viable and lack restriction activity in the absence of the companion mod gene. This suggests that expression of the StyLTI endonuclease activity requires at least one polypeptide involved in the methylation activity, as is the case for types I and III restriction-modification systems but not for type II systems.
The genes encoding the restriction-modification system StyLTI of Salmonella typhimurium were inserted in vivo into the conjugative plasmid pULB21. This allowed us to transfer the StyLTI genes at a very high frequency and to monitor the fate of recipient cells after mating. Transfer of the StyLTI restriction and modification genes into a modificationless recipient was lethal and resulted in degradation of the cell's DNA. This indicates that, in contrast to any other known restriction-modification systems, StyLTI cannot be established after horizontal transfer into a naive host.
Bioinformatic analysis of the putative nuclease domain of the single polypeptide restriction–modification enzyme LlaGI reveals amino acid motifs characteristic of the Escherichia coli methylated DNA-specific Mrr endonuclease. Using mutagenesis, we examined the role of the conserved residues in both DNA translocation and cleavage. Mutations in those residues predicted to play a role in DNA hydrolysis produced enzymes that could translocate on DNA but were either unable to cleave the polynucleotide track or had reduced nuclease activity. Cleavage by LlaGI is not targeted to methylated DNA, suggesting that the conserved motifs in the Mrr domain are a conventional sub-family of the PD-(D/E)XK superfamily of DNA nucleases.
Expression of the site-specific adenine methylase HhaII (GmeANTC, where me is methyl) or PstI (CTGCmeAG) induced the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli. In contrast, expression of methylases indigenous to E. coli either did not induce SOS (EcoRI [GAmeATTC] or induced SOS to a lesser extent (dam [GmeATC]). Recognition of adenine-methylated DNA required the product of a previously undescribed gene, which we named mrr (methylated adenine recognition and restriction). We suggest that mrr encodes an endonuclease that cleaves DNA containing N6-methyladenine and that DNA double-strand breaks induce the SOS response. Cytosine methylases foreign to E. coli (MspI [meCCGG], HaeIII [GGmeCC], BamHI [GGATmeCC], HhaI [GmeCGC], BsuRI [GGmeCC], and M.Spr) also induced SOS, whereas one indigenous to E. coli (EcoRII [CmeCA/TGG]) did not. SOS induction by cytosine methylation required the rglB locus, which encodes an endonuclease that cleaves DNA containing 5-hydroxymethyl- or 5-methylcytosine (E. A. Raleigh and G. Wilson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:9070-9074, 1986).
Opioids can attenuate the peripheral chemoreceptor-mediated hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) by acting on central μ-type opioid receptors. Since the medullary raphe region (MRRs) expresses abundant μ-receptors and participates in modulating HVR, we tested the role of μ-receptors within the caudal, medial, and rostral MRR (cMRR, mMRR, and rMRR) in modulating the HVR. We recorded cardiorespiratory activities and their responses to isocapnic hypoxia in anesthetized rats before and after local microinjection of DAMGO into the MRR, and intravenous administration of DAMGO (100 μg/kg) alone or coupled with a previous local injection of CTAP. Microinjecting DAMGO into the cMRR or mMRR but not the rMRR significantly attenuated the HVR. However, systemic DAMGO-induced HVR attenuation was not significantly affected by pretreating the cMRR and mMRR with CTAP. Our data suggest that cMRR and mMRR μ-receptors are capable of depressing the HVR, while their contribution to the attenuated HVR by systemic DAMGO is limited.
brainstem; carotid body; breathing
The mrr gene of Escherichia coli K-12 is involved in the acceptance of foreign DNA which is modified. The introduction of plasmids carrying the HincII, HpaI, and TaqI R and M genes is severely restricted in E. coli strains that are Mrr+. A 2-kb EcoRI fragment from the plasmid pBg3 (B. Sain and N. E. Murray, Mol. Gen. Genet. 180:35-46, 1980) was cloned. The resulting plasmid restores Mrr function to mrr strains of E. coli. The boundaries of the mrr gene were determined from an analysis of subclones, and plasmids with a functional mrr gene produce a polypeptide of 33.5 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of the entire fragment was determined; in addition to mrr, it includes two open reading frames, one of which encodes part of the hsdR. By using Southern blot analysis, E. coli RR1 and HB101 were found to lack the region containing mrr. The acceptance of various cloned methylases in E. coli containing the cloned mrr gene was tested. Plasmid constructs containing the AccI, CviRI, HincII, Hinfl (HhaII), HpaI, NlaIII, PstI, and TaqI N6-adenine methylases and SssI and HhaI C5-cytosine methylases were found to be restricted. Plasmid constructs containing 16 other adenine methylases and 12 cytosine methylases were not restricted. No simple consensus sequence causing restriction has been determined. The Mrr protein has been overproduced, an antibody has been prepared, and the expression of mrr under various conditions has been examined. The use of mrr strains of E. coli is suggested for the cloning of N6-adenine and C5-cytosine methyl-containing DNA.
Mrr superfamily of homologous genes in microbial genomes restricts modified DNA in vivo. However, their biochemical properties in vitro have remained obscure. Here, we report the experimental characterization of MspJI, a remote homolog of Escherichia coli’s Mrr and show it is a DNA modification-dependent restriction endonuclease. Our results suggest MspJI recognizes mCNNR (R = G/A) sites and cleaves DNA at fixed distances (N12/N16) away from the modified cytosine at the 3′ side (or N9/N13 from R). Besides 5-methylcytosine, MspJI also recognizes 5-hydroxymethylcytosine but is blocked by 5-glucosylhydroxymethylcytosine. Several other close homologs of MspJI show similar modification-dependent endonuclease activity and display substrate preferences different from MspJI. A unique feature of these modification-dependent enzymes is that they are able to extract small DNA fragments containing modified sites on genomic DNA, for example ∼32 bp around symmetrically methylated CG sites and ∼31 bp around methylated CNG sites. The digested fragments can be directly selected for high-throughput sequencing to map the location of the modification on the genomic DNA. The MspJI enzyme family, with their different recognition specificities and cleavage properties, provides a basis on which many future methods can build to decode the epigenomes of different organisms.
We have constructed derivatives of Escherichia coli that can be used for the rapid identification of recombinant plasmids encoding DNA restriction enzymes and methyltransferases. The induction of the DNA-damage inducible SOS response by the Mcr and Mrr systems, in the presence of methylated DNA, is used to select plasmids encoding DNA methyltransferases. The strains of E. coli that we have constructed are temperature-sensitive for the Mcr and Mrr systems and have been further modified to include a lacZ gene fused to the damage-inducible dinD locus of E. coli. The detection of recombinant plasmids encoding DNA methyltransferases and restriction enzymes is a simple, one step procedure that is based on the induction at the restrictive temperature of the lacZ gene. Transformants encoding DNA methyltransferase genes are detected on LB agar plates supplemented with X-gal as blue colonies. Using this method, we have cloned a variety of DNA methyltransferase genes from diverse species such as Neisseria, Haemophilus, Treponema, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Saccharopolyspora.
Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes) that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression). In Haemophilus influenzae, the random switching of the modA gene controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a “phasevarion”), via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable mod genes are also present in Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggesting that phasevarions may occur in these important human pathogens. Phylogenetic studies on phase-variable mod genes associated with type III restriction modification (R-M) systems revealed that these organisms have two distinct mod genes—modA and modB. There are also distinct alleles of modA (abundant: modA11, 12, 13; minor: modA4, 15, 18) and modB (modB1, 2). These alleles differ only in their DNA recognition domain. ModA11 was only found in N. meningitidis and modA13 only in N. gonorrhoeae. The recognition site for the modA13 methyltransferase in N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 was identified as 5′-AGAAA-3′. Mutant strains lacking the modA11, 12 or 13 genes were made in N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae and their phenotype analyzed in comparison to a corresponding mod ON wild-type strain. Microarray analysis revealed that in all three modA alleles multiple genes were either upregulated or downregulated, some of which were virulence-associated. For example, in N. meningitidis MC58 (modA11), differentially expressed genes included those encoding the candidate vaccine antigens lactoferrin binding proteins A and B. Functional studies using N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 and the clinical isolate O1G1370 confirmed that modA13 ON and OFF strains have distinct phenotypes in antimicrobial resistance, in a primary human cervical epithelial cell model of infection, and in biofilm formation. This study, in conjunction with our previous work in H. influenzae, indicates that phasevarions may be a common strategy used by host-adapted bacterial pathogens to randomly switch between “differentiated” cell types.
The pathogenic Neisseria are bacterial pathogens that cause meningitis and gonorrhoea. They have adapted to life exclusively in humans and have developed unique strategies to colonize the host and to evade the immune response. Central among these strategies are genetic switches that randomly turn genes on and off. In most cases, the genes controlled by these switches, contingency genes, are required for making bacterial surface structures. Recently we described a new class of contingency gene that methylates DNA. Rather than affecting the synthesis of a single surface structure, on/off switching of this DNA-methyltransferase gene leads to random switching of multiple genes. In this study, we have shown that this mechanism exists in all pathogenic Neisseria, and alters expression of multiple genes in all cases we examined. The two distinct populations of bacteria generated by this process had different behavior in model systems of colonization and infection. Understanding this process is key to understanding these human pathogens, and to developing strategies for treatment and prevention of the diseases they cause.
The mechanism by which a double-stranded DNA break is produced following collision of two translocating Type I Restriction–Modification enzymes is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the related Type ISP Restriction–Modification enzymes LlaGI and LlaBIII can cooperate to cleave DNA following convergent translocation and collision. When one of these enzymes is a mutant protein that lacks endonuclease activity, DNA cleavage of the 3′-5′ strand relative to the wild-type enzyme still occurs, with the same kinetics and at the same collision loci as for a reaction between two wild-type enzymes. The DNA nicking activity of the wild-type enzyme is still activated by a protein variant entirely lacking the Mrr nuclease domain and by a helicase mutant that cannot translocate. However, the helicase mutant cannot cleave the DNA despite the presence of an intact nuclease domain. Cleavage by the wild-type enzyme is not activated by unrelated protein roadblocks. We suggest that the nuclease activity of the Type ISP enzymes is activated following collision with another Type ISP enzyme and requires adenosine triphosphate binding/hydrolysis but, surprisingly, does not require interaction between the nuclease domains. Following the initial rapid endonuclease activity, additional DNA cleavage events then occur more slowly, leading to further processing of the initial double-stranded DNA break.
Phase variation is important in bacterial pathogenesis, since it generates antigenic variation for the evasion of immune responses and provides a strategy for quick adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, a Helicobacter pylori clone, designated MOD525, was identified that displayed phase-variable lacZ expression. The clone contained a transcriptional lacZ fusion in a putative type III DNA methyltransferase gene (mod, a homolog of the gene JHP1296 of strain J99), organized in an operon-like structure with a putative type III restriction endonuclease gene (res, a homolog of the gene JHP1297), located directly upstream of it. This putative type III restriction-modification system was common in H. pylori, as it was present in 15 out of 16 clinical isolates. Phase variation of the mod gene occurred at the transcriptional level both in clone MOD525 and in the parental H. pylori strain 1061. Further analysis showed that the res gene also displayed transcriptional phase variation and that it was cotranscribed with the mod gene. A homopolymeric cytosine tract (C tract) was present in the 5′ coding region of the res gene. Length variation of this C tract caused the res open reading frame (ORF) to shift in and out of frame, switching the res gene on and off at the translational level. Surprisingly, the presence of an intact res ORF was positively correlated with active transcription of the downstream mod gene. Moreover, the C tract was required for the occurrence of transcriptional phase variation. Our finding that translation and transcription are linked during phase variation through slipped-strand mispairing is new for H. pylori.
The overexpression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to the widely used antimycotic agent fluconazole and other toxic compounds in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. The zinc cluster transcription factor Mrr1 controls MDR1 expression in response to inducing chemicals, and gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 are responsible for the constitutive MDR1 upregulation in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. To understand how Mrr1 activity is regulated, we identified functional domains of this transcription factor. A hybrid protein consisting of the N-terminal 106 amino acids of Mrr1 and the transcriptional activation domain of Gal4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutively induced MDR1 expression, demonstrating that the DNA binding domain is sufficient to target Mrr1 to the MDR1 promoter. Using a series of C-terminal truncations and systematic internal deletions, we could show that Mrr1 contains multiple activation and inhibitory domains. One activation domain (AD1) is located in the C terminus of Mrr1. When fused to the tetracycline repressor TetR, this distal activation domain induced gene expression from a TetR-dependent promoter. The deletion of an inhibitory region (ID1) located near the distal activation domain resulted in constitutive activity of Mrr1. The additional removal of AD1 abolished the constitutive activity, but the truncated Mrr1 still could activate the MDR1 promoter in response to the inducer benomyl. These results demonstrate that the activity of Mrr1 is regulated in multiple ways and provide insights into the function of an important mediator of drug resistance in C. albicans.
The Type ISP Restriction–Modification (RM) enzyme LlaBIII is encoded on plasmid pJW566 and can protect Lactococcus lactis strains against bacteriophage infections in milk fermentations. It is a single polypeptide RM enzyme comprising Mrr endonuclease, DNA helicase, adenine methyltransferase and target-recognition domains. LlaBIII shares >95% amino acid sequence homology across its first three protein domains with the Type ISP enzyme LlaGI. Here, we determine the recognition sequence of LlaBIII (5′-TnAGCC-3′, where the adenine complementary to the underlined base is methylated), and characterize its enzyme activities. LlaBIII shares key enzymatic features with LlaGI; namely, adenosine triphosphate-dependent DNA translocation (∼309 bp/s at 25°C) and a requirement for DNA cleavage of two recognition sites in an inverted head-to-head repeat. However, LlaBIII requires K+ ions to prevent non-specific DNA cleavage, conditions which affect the translocation and cleavage properties of LlaGI. By identifying the locations of the non-specific dsDNA breaks introduced by LlaGI or LlaBIII under different buffer conditions, we validate that the Type ISP RM enzymes use a common translocation–collision mechanism to trigger endonuclease activity. In their favoured in vitro buffer, both LlaGI and LlaBIII produce a normal distribution of random cleavage loci centred midway between the sites. In contrast, LlaGI in K+ ions produces a far more distributive cleavage profile.
LlaGI is a single polypeptide restriction–modification enzyme encoded on the naturally-occurring plasmid pEW104 isolated from Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris W10. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the enzyme contains domains characteristic of an mrr endonuclease, a superfamily 2 DNA helicase and a γ-family adenine methyltransferase. LlaGI was expressed and purified from a recombinant clone and its properties characterised. An asymmetric recognition sequence was identified, 5′-CTnGAyG-3′ (where n is A, G, C or T and y is C or T). Methylation of the recognition site occurred on only one strand (the non-degenerate dA residue of 5′-CrTCnAG-3′ being methylated at the N6 position). Double strand DNA breaks at distant, random sites were only observed when two head-to-head oriented, unmethylated copies of the site were present; single sites or pairs in tail-to-tail or head-to-tail repeat only supported a DNA nicking activity. dsDNA nuclease activity was dependent upon the presence of ATP or dATP. Our results are consistent with a directional long-range communication mechanism that is necessitated by the partial site methylation. In the accompanying manuscript [Smith et al. (2009) The single polypeptide restriction–modification enzyme LlaGI is a self-contained molecular motor that translocates DNA loops], we demonstrate that this communication is via 1-dimensional DNA loop translocation. On the basis of this data and that in the third accompanying manuscript [Smith et al. (2009) An Mrr-family nuclease motif in the single polypeptide restriction–modification enzyme LlaGI], we propose that LlaGI is the prototype of a new sub-classification of Restriction-Modification enzymes, named Type I SP (for Single Polypeptide).
A new E. coli strain has been constructed that contains the dinD1::LacZ+ fusion and is deficient in methylation-dependent restriction systems (McrA-, McrBC-, Mrr-). This strain has been used to clone restriction endonuclease genes directly into E. coli. When E. coli cells are not fully protected by the cognate methylase, the restriction enzyme damages the DNA in vivo and induces the SOS response. The SOS-induced cells form blue colonies on indicator plates containing X-gal. Using this method the genes coding for the thermostable restriction enzymes Taql (5'TCGA3') and Tth111l (5'GACNNNGTC3') have been successfully cloned in E. coli. The new strain will be useful to clone other genes involved in DNA metabolism.
We screened Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella boydii, and many isolates of Escherichia coli for DNA sequences homologous to those encoding each of two unrelated type I restriction and modification systems (EcoK and EcoA). Both K- and A-related hsd genes were identified, but never both in the same strain. S. typhimurium encodes three restriction and modification systems, but its DNA hybridized only to the K-specific probe which we know to identify the StySB system. No homology to either probe was detected in the majority of E. coli strains, but in C. freundii, we identified homology to the A-specific probe. We cloned this region of the C. freundii genome and showed that it encoded a functional, A-related restriction system whose specificity differs from those of known type I enzymes. Sequences immediately flanking the hsd K genes of E. coli K-12 and the hsd A genes of E. coli 15T- were shown to be homologous, indicating similar or even identical positions in their respective chromosomes. E. coli C has no known restriction system, and the organization of its chromosome is consistent with deletion of the three hsd genes and their neighbor, mcrB.
Using an in vivo plasmid transformation method, we have determined the DNA sequences recognized by the KpnAI, StySEAI, StySENI and StySGI R-M systems from Klebsiella oxytoca strain M5a1, Salmonella eastbourne, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella gelsenkirchen, respectively. These type I restriction-modification systems were originally identified using traditional phage assay, and described here is the plasmid transformation test and computer program used to determine their DNA recognition sequences. For this test, we constructed two sets of plasmids, pL and pE, that contain phage lambda and Escherichia coli K-12 chromosomal DNA fragments, respectively. Further, using the methylation sensitivities of various known type II restriction enzymes, we identified the target adenines for methylation (listed in bold italics below as A or T in case of the complementary strand). The recognition sequence and methylation sites are GAA(6N)TGCC (KpnAI), ACA(6N)TYCA (StySEAI), CGA(6N)TACC (StySENI) and TAAC(7N)RTCG (StySGI). These DNA recognition sequences all have a typical type I bipartite pattern and represent three novel specificities and one isoschizomer (StySENI). For confirmation, oligonucleotides containing each of the predicted sequences were synthesized, cloned into plasmid pMECA and transformed into each strain, resulting in a large reduction in efficiency of transformation (EOT).
Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes) that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression). In Haemophilus influenzae and pathogenic Neisseria, the random switching of the modA gene, associated with a phase-variable type III restriction modification (R-M) system, controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a “phasevarion”), via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable type III R-M systems are also found in Helicobacter pylori, suggesting that phasevarions may also exist in this key human pathogen. Phylogenetic studies on the phase-variable type III modH gene revealed that there are 17 distinct alleles in H. pylori, which differ only in their DNA recognition domain. One of the most commonly found alleles was modH5 (16% of isolates). Microarray analysis comparing the wild-type P12modH5 ON strain to a P12ΔmodH5 mutant revealed that six genes were either up- or down-regulated, and some were virulence-associated. These included flaA, which encodes a flagella protein important in motility and hopG, an outer membrane protein essential for colonization and associated with gastric cancer. This study provides the first evidence of this epigenetic mechanism of gene expression in H. pylori. Characterisation of H. pylori modH phasevarions to define stable immunological targets will be essential for vaccine development and may also contribute to understanding H. pylori pathogenesis.
Phase variably expressed (randomly switching) methyltransferases associated with type III restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. We have previously shown that a phase variable methyltransferase (Mod) associated with a type III R-M system in Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd coordinates the random switching of expression of multiple genes, and constitutes a phase variable regulon—‘phasevarion’. We have now identified the recognition site for the Mod methyltransferase in H. influenzae strain Rd as 5′-CGAAT-3′. This is the same recognition site as the previously described HinfIII system. A survey of 59 H. influenzae strains indicated significant sequence heterogeneity in the central, variable region of the mod gene associated with target site recognition. Intra- and inter-strain transformation experiments using Mod methylated or non-methylated plasmids, and a methylation site assay demonstrated that the sequence heterogeneity seen in the region encoding target site specificity does correlate to distinct target sites. Mutations were identified within the res gene in several strains surveyed indicating that Res is not functional. These data suggest that evolution of this type III R-M system into an epigenetic mechanism for controlling gene expression has, in some strains, resulted in loss of the DNA restriction function.
Current genetic and molecular evidence places all the known type I restriction and modification systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica into one of four discrete families: type IA, IB, IC or ID. StySBLI is the founder member of the ID family. Similarities of coding sequences have identified restriction systems in E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae as probable members of the type ID family. We present complementation tests that confirm the allocation of EcoR9I and KpnAI to the ID family. An alignment of the amino acid sequences of the HsdS subunits of StySBLI and EcoR9I identify two variable regions, each predicted to be a target recognition domain (TRD). Consistent with two TRDs, StySBLI was shown to recognise a bipartite target sequence, but one in which the adenine residues that are the substrates for methylation are separated by only 6 bp. Implications of family relationships are discussed and evidence is presented that extends the family affiliations identified in enteric bacteria to a wide range of other genera.
Phase variable restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a range of pathogenic bacteria. In some it has been demonstrated that the random switching of the mod (DNA methyltransferase) gene mediates the coordinated expression of multiple genes and constitutes a phasevarion (phase variable regulon). ModA of Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae contain a highly variable, DNA recognition domain (DRD) that defines the target sequence that is modified by methylation and is used to define modA alleles. 18 distinct modA alleles have been identified in H. influenzae and the pathogenic Neisseria. To determine the origin of DRD variability, the 18 modA DRDs were used to search the available databases for similar sequences. Significant matches were identified between several modA alleles and mod gene from distinct bacterial species, indicating one source of the DRD variability was via horizontal gene transfer. Comparison of DRD sequences revealed significant mosaicism, indicating exchange between the Neisseria and H. influenzae modA alleles. Regions of high inter- and intra-allele similarity indicate that some modA alleles had undergone recombination more frequently than others, generating further diversity. Furthermore, the DRD from some modA alleles, such as modA12, have been transferred en bloc to replace the DRD from different modA alleles.
The restriction systems McrA and McrB of Escherichia coli K-12 are known to attack DNA containing modified cytosine. In strains lacking both activities, however, we observed that DNA methylated at CG dinucleotides (as is mammalian DNA) was still significantly restricted. We show that this substantial barrier to the acceptance of 5-methylcytosine-containing DNA is attributable to a hitherto unknown activity of the Mrr restriction system. Strikingly, the multiple systems used by this gut inhabitant to determine the fate of invading DNA will all limit genetic exchange with its mammalian host(s), reinforcing the idea that one role of DNA methylation is to serve as a "molecular passport" (E. A. Raleigh, R. Trimarchi, and H. Revel, Genetics 122:279-296, 1989).
Constitutive overexpression of the MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to fluconazole and other toxic compounds in clinical Candida albicans strains, but the mechanism of MDR1 upregulation has not been resolved. By genome-wide gene expression analysis we have identified a zinc cluster transcription factor, designated as MRR1 (multidrug resistance regulator), that was coordinately upregulated with MDR1 in drug-resistant, clinical C. albicans isolates. Inactivation of MRR1 in two such drug-resistant isolates abolished both MDR1 expression and multidrug resistance. Sequence analysis of the MRR1 alleles of two matched drug-sensitive and drug-resistant C. albicans isolate pairs showed that the resistant isolates had become homozygous for MRR1 alleles that contained single nucleotide substitutions, resulting in a P683S exchange in one isolate and a G997V substitution in the other isolate. Introduction of these mutated alleles into a drug-susceptible C. albicans strain resulted in constitutive MDR1 overexpression and multidrug resistance. By comparing the transcriptional profiles of drug-resistant C. albicans isolates and mrr1Δ mutants derived from them and of C. albicans strains carrying wild-type and mutated MRR1 alleles, we defined the target genes that are controlled by Mrr1p. Many of the Mrr1p target genes encode oxidoreductases, whose upregulation in fluconazole-resistant isolates may help to prevent cell damage resulting from the generation of toxic molecules in the presence of fluconazole and thereby contribute to drug resistance. The identification of MRR1 as the central regulator of the MDR1 efflux pump and the elucidation of the mutations that have occurred in fluconazole-resistant, clinical C. albicans isolates and result in constitutive activity of this trancription factor provide detailed insights into the molecular basis of multidrug resistance in this important human fungal pathogen.
The Candida albicans MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily that is constitutively overexpressed in many fluconazole-resistant strains. Although MDR1 overexpression is a major cause of resistance to this widely used antifungal agent and other metabolic inhibitors, so far the molecular basis of MDR1 upregulation in resistant strains has remained elusive. By comparing the transcription profiles of MDR1 overexpressing, clinical C. albicans isolates and matched, drug-susceptible isolates from the same patients, we identified a transcription factor, termed multidrug resistance regulator 1 (MRR1), which was upregulated in all resistant isolates and turned out to be a central regulator of MDR1 expression. Resistant isolates contained point mutations in MRR1, which rendered the transcription factor constitutively active. Introduction of these mutated alleles into a susceptible strain caused MDR1 overexpression und multidrug resistance. Inactivation of MRR1 in clinical isolates abolished MDR1 expression and affected fluconazole resistance even more strongly than deletion of the MDR1 efflux pump itself, indicating that additional Mrr1p target genes, which were identified by genome-wide gene expression analysis, contribute to fluconazole resistance. These findings provide detailed insights into the molecular basis of multidrug resistance in one of the most important human fungal pathogens.
The type I restriction and modification (R-M) enzyme from Salmonella enterica serovar kaduna ( Sty SKI) recognises the DNA sequence 5'-CGAT(N)7GTTA, an unusual target for a type I R-M system in that it comprises two tetranucleotide components. The amino target recognition domain (TRD) of Sty SKI recognises 5'-CGAT and shows 36% amino acid identity with the carboxy TRD of Eco R124I which recognises the complementary, but degenerate, sequence 5'-RTCG. Current models predict that the amino and carboxy TRDs of the specificity subunit are in inverted orientations within a structure with 2-fold rotational symmetry. The complementary target sequences recognised by the amino TRD of Sty SKI and the carboxy TRD of Eco R124I are consistent with the predicted inverted positions of the TRDs. Amino TRDs of similar amino acid sequence have been shown to recognise the same nucleotide sequence. The similarity reported here, the first example of one between amino and carboxy TRDs, while consistent with a conserved mechanism of target recognition, offers additional flexibility in the evolution of sequence specificity by increasing the potential diversity of DNA targets for a given number of TRDs. Sty SKI identifies the first member of the IB family in Salmonella species.
In the mitochondrion, essential genetic elements for replication and transcription are mostly housed within a shortsegment of its DNA located between tRNAPhe and tRNAPro genes, which is called mitochondrial regulatoryregion (mrr). RNAs are known to be transcribed from mrr, thestructures and the functions of which are yet to be fullycharacterized.We detected ca. 1.3 kb H-strand transcripts of mrr (mrrH-RNAs),and 0.2 kb L-strand transcripts of mrr (mrrL-RNAs) in varioushuman cultured cells and tissues using double stranded mrrDNAprobes. The steady state levels of mrrL-RNAs were generally highin cultured cells, while they varied among tissues. On the otherhand, the levels of mrrH-RNAs varied among tissues and amongcultured cells. A tendency was observed in these cells andtissues that a high level of mrrL-RNA is associated with cellproliferation, and a high level of mrrH-RNA withdifferentiation. Several cDNA clones to 1.3 kb mrrH-RNA were obtained from humanskeletal muscle polyadenylated RNAs. The 5′ terminus of the 1.3 kb RNA was determined to be at nucleotide position 15953 whichis immediately downstream of tRNAThr sequence.Polyadenylation site for most of the clones was demonstrated tobe at nucleotide position 576 which is immediately upstream oftRNAPhe sequence. The longest cDNA insert obtained was 1177 bps long spanning from nucleotide positions 15969 to 576 which could code for a peptide of 76 amino acids. The cDNAs isolatedhere are the first cDNA clones reported to human mrrH-RNAs.These results, together with previous results, furthersubstantiate that polyadenylated mrrH- and mrrL-RNAs are commonly present at varying levels among human tissues andcells. The 3′ end sequences of the cloned mrrH-cDNA provideswith insights into the mechanisms of transcription termination.The cDNA clones will provide tools to further the study of thefunction of mrr RNAs.
cDNA; differentiation; gene expression; growth; humancells; human tissues; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial RNA; polyadenylated RNA