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1.  Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2013;44(2):559-567.
One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production.
PMCID: PMC3833161  PMID: 24294255
tannase; Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem; factors affecting tannase production; split plot design
2.  Statistical optimization for tannase production from Aspergillus niger under submerged fermentation 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2007;47(2):132-138.
Statistically based experimental design was employed for the optimization of fermentation conditions for maximum production of enzyme tannase from Aspergillus niger. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) falling under response surface methodology (RSM) was used. Based on the results of ‘one-at-a-time’ approach in submerged fermentation, the most influencing factors for tannase production from A. niger were concentrations of tannic acid and sodium nitrate, agitation rate and incubation period. Hence, to achieve the maximum yield of tannase, interaction of these factors was studied at optimum production pH of 5.0 by RSM. The optimum values of parameters obtained through RSM were 5% tannic acid, 0.8% sodium nitrate, 5.0 pH, 5 × 107 spores/50mL inoculum density, 150 rpm agitation and incubation period of 48 h which resulted in production of 19.7 UmL−1 of the enzyme. This activity was almost double as compared to the amount obtained by ‘one-at-a-time’ approach (9.8 UmL−1).
PMCID: PMC3450101  PMID: 23100655
Tannase; Response surface methodology; Aspergillus niger; Fermentation; Statistical analysis
3.  Catalytical Properties of Free and Immobilized Aspergillus niger Tannase 
Enzyme Research  2011;2011:768183.
A fungal tannase was produced, recovered, and immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. Catalytical properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with those of the free one. Tannase was produced intracellularly by the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 in a submerged fermentation system. Enzyme was recovered by cell disruption and the crude extract was partially purified. The catalytical properties of free and immobilized tannase were evaluated using tannic acid and methyl gallate as substrates. KM and Vmax values for free enzyme were very similar for both substrates. But, after immobilization, KM and Vmax values increased drastically using tannic acid as substrate. These results indicated that immobilized tannase is a better biocatalyst than free enzyme for applications on liquid systems with high tannin content, such as bioremediation of tannery or olive-mill wastewater.
PMCID: PMC3171769  PMID: 21918717
4.  Characterization And Application Of Tannase Produced By Aspergillus Niger ITCC 6514.07 On Pomegranate Rind 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2009;40(4):782-789.
Extracellular tannase and gallic acid were produced optimally under submerged fermentation at 37 0C, 72 h, pH 5.0, 10 %(v/v) inoculum and 4 %(w/v) of the agroresidue pomegranate rind (PR) powder by an Aspergillus niger isolate. Tannic acid (1 %) stimulated the enzyme production by 245.9 % while with 0.5 % glucose, increase was marginal. Tannase production was inhibited by gallic acid and nitrogen sources such as NH4NO3, NH4Cl, KNO3, asparatic acid, urea and EDTA. The partially purified enzyme showed temperature and pH optima of 35 0C and 6.2 respectively which shifted to 40 0C and 5.8 on immobilization in alginate beads. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Zn+2, Ca+, Mn+2, Mg+2, Ba+2and Ag+. The immobilized enzyme removed 68.8 % tannin from juice of aonla/myrobalan (Phyllanthus emblica), a tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and other essential nutrients. The enzymatic treatment of the juice with minimum reduction in vitamin C is encouraging as non enzymatic treatments of myrobalan juice results in vitamin C removal.
PMCID: PMC3768578  PMID: 24031425
tannase; pomegranate rind; myrobalan; Aspergillus niger
5.  Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(1):374-387.
Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C.
PMCID: PMC3768918  PMID: 24031644
Tannin acyl hydrolase; Agro residues; Penicillium atramentosum KM; Jamun leaves; SSF
6.  Statistical optimization of process parameters for the production of tannase by Aspergillus flavus under submerged fermentation 
3 Biotech  2013;4(2):159-166.
Production of tannase by Aspergillus flavus (MTCC 3783) using tamarind seed powder as substrate was studied in submerged fermentation. Plackett–Burman design was applied for the screening of 12 medium nutrients. From the results, the significant nutrients were identified as tannic acid, magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate and ammonium sulfate. Further the optimization of process parameters was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM has been applied for designing of experiments to evaluate the interactive effects through a full 31 factorial design. The optimum conditions were tannic acid concentration, 3.22 %; fermentation period, 96 h; temperature, 35.1 °C; and pH 5.4. Higher value of the regression coefficient (R2 = 0.9638) indicates excellent evaluation of experimental data by second-order polynomial regression model. The RSM revealed that a maximum tannase production of 139.3 U/ml was obtained at the optimum conditions.
PMCID: PMC3964252
Tannase; Response surface methodology; Plackett–Burman design; Submerged fermentation
7.  Application of immobilized tannase from Aspergillus niger for the removal of tannin from myrobalan juice 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2010;50(Suppl 1):46-51.
Tannase produced optimally on an agroresidue by an Aspergillus niger isolate under submerged fermentation immobilized on sodium alginate beads with 93.6% efficiency was applied for tannin removal from myrobalan/aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) juice. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized enzyme were found to be 5.4 and 40°C while the corresponding values of the soluble enzyme were 5.8 and 35°C. Maximum tannin removal of 73.6% was obtained at 40°C and 150 rpm in 180 min with 36.6 U/ml of immobilized enzyme while the same amount of the soluble enzyme removed 45.2% of tannin at 37°C and 150 rpm in the same time period. The immobilized beads could be used repeatedly till 7th cycle with 77% efficiency. When preserved at 6°C the beads retained 71.7% of enzyme activity after 60 days. Reduction in vitamin C content, which is responsible for antioxidant property of the fruit, was minimum at only 2% during the treatment.
PMCID: PMC3396397  PMID: 22815571
Aspergillus niger; Immobilized tannase; Myrobalan; Submerged fermentation; Sodium alginate
8.  Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase 
Enzyme Research  2011;2011:823619.
Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme.
PMCID: PMC3175710  PMID: 21941633
9.  Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture*  
The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices.
PMCID: PMC1997233  PMID: 17910122
Tannase; Gallic acid; Polyurethane matrix support; Solid state culture; Aspergillus niger Aa-20
10.  Production of cellulose by Aspergillus niger under submerged and solid state fermentation using coir waste as a substrate 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(3):1119-1127.
Aspergillus niger was used for cellulase production in submerged (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The maximum production of cellulase was obtained after 72 h of incubation in SSF and 96 h in Smf. The CMCase and FPase activities recorded in SSF were 8.89 and 3.56 U per g of dry mycelial bran (DBM), respectively. Where as in Smf the CMase & FPase activities were found to be 3.29 and 2.3 U per ml culture broth, respectively. The productivity of extracellular cellulase in SSF was 14.6 fold higher than in SmF. The physical and nutritional parameters of fermentation like pH, temperature, substrate, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized. The optimal conditions for maximum biosynthesis of cellulase by A. niger were shown to be at pH 6, temperature 30 °C. The additives like lactose, peptone and coir waste as substrate increased the productivity both in SmF and SSF. The moisture ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was observed for optimum production of cellulase in SSF.
PMCID: PMC3768773  PMID: 24031730
Aspergillus niger; coir waste; cellulase; submerged fermentation; solid-state fermentation
11.  Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:392615.
Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.
PMCID: PMC3928852
12.  Cellulolytic enzymes on lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2008;47(4):323-328.
The production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger on lignocellulosic substrates groundnut fodder, wheat bran, rice bran and sawdust in solid state fermentation in a laboratory scale was compared. Czapek Dox liquid broth amended with cellulose (0.5%) was used to moisten lignocellulosic solid supports for cultivation of Aspergillus niger. The production of filter paperase, carboxymethyl cellulase and -glucosidase were monitored at daily intervals for 5 days. The peak production of the enzymes occurred within 3 days of incubation. Among solid supports used in the study, wheat bran was the best solid matrix followed by groundnut fodder in production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid state fermentation. Groundnut fodder supported significant production of FPase (2.09 FPU/g), CMCase (1.36 U/g) and -glucosidase activity (0.0117 U/g) in solid state fermentation. Considerable secretion of protein (5.10 mg/g) on groundnut fodder at peak time interval 1st day of incubation was recorded.
PMCID: PMC3450032  PMID: 23100685
Cellulolytic enzymes; Lignocellulosic substrates; Wheat bran; Groundnut fodder; Rice bran; Sawdust; Solid state fermentation; Aspergillus niger
13.  Quantification of the fractal nature of mycelial aggregation in Aspergillus niger submerged cultures 
Fractal geometry estimates have proven useful in studying the growth strategies of fungi in response to different environments on soil or on agar substrates, but their use in mycelia grown submerged is still rare. In the present study, the effects of certain important fermentation parameters, such as the spore inoculum level, phosphate and manganese concentrations in the medium, on mycelial morphology of the citric acid producer Aspergillus niger were determined by fractal geometry. The value of employing fractal geometry to describe mycelial structures was examined in comparison with information from other descriptors including classic morphological parameters derived from image analysis.
Fractal analysis of distinct morphological forms produced by fermentation conditions that influence fungal morphology and acid production, showed that the two fractal dimensions DBS (box surface dimension) and DBM (box mass dimension) are very sensitive indexes, capable of describing morphological differences. The two box-counting methods applied (one applied to the whole mass of the mycelial particles and the other applied to their surface only) enabled evaluation of fractal dimensions for mycelial particles in this analysis in the region of DBS = 1.20–1.70 and DBM = 1.20–2.70. The global structure of sufficiently branched mycelia was described by a single fractal dimension D, which did not exceed 1.30. Such simple structures are true mass fractals (DBS = DBM = D) and they could be young mycelia or dispersed forms of growth produced by very dense spore inocula (108–109 spores/ml) or by addition of manganese in the medium. Mycelial clumps and pellets were effectively discriminated by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension values were plotted together with classic morphological parameters derived from image analysis for comparisons. Their sensitivity to treatment was analogous to the sensitivity of classic morphological parameters suggesting that they could be equally used as morphological descriptors.
Starting from a spore, the mycelium develops as a mass fractal and, depending on culture conditions, it either turns to a surface fractal or remains a mass fractal. Since fractal dimensions give a measure of the degree of complexity and the mass filling properties of an object, it may be possible that a large number of morphological parameters which contribute to the overall complexity of the particles, could be replaced by these indexes effectively.
PMCID: PMC1382250  PMID: 16472407
14.  Enhanced production of elastase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410: optimization of cultivation conditions using response surface methodology 
Sequential methodology based on the application of three types of experimental designs was used to optimize the fermentation conditions for elastase production from mutant strain ZJUEL31410 of Bacillus licheniformis in shaking flask cultures. The optimal cultivation conditions stimulating the maximal elastase production consist of 220 r/min shaking speed, 25 h fermentation time, 5% (v/v) inoculums volume, 25 ml medium volume in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask and 18 h seed age. Under the optimized conditions, the predicted maximal elastase activity was 495 U/ml. The application of response surface methodology resulted in a significant enhancement in elastase production. The effects of other factors such as elastin and the growth factor (corn steep flour) on elastase production and cell growth were also investigated in the current study. The elastin had no significant effect on enzyme-improved production. It is still not clear whether the elastin plays a role as a nitrogen source or not. Corn steep flour was verified to be the best and required factor for elastase production and cell growth by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410.
PMCID: PMC2064957  PMID: 17973347
Elastase; Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410; Cultivation condition; Fractional factorial design (FFD); Response surface methodology
15.  Purification and Characterization of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Produced by Mixed Solid State Fermentation of Wheat Bran and Marigold Flower by Penicillium notatum NCIM 923 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:596380.
Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Penicillium notatum NCIM 923 in mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower in the ratio 4 : 1 was purified from the cell-free extract broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. Tannase was purified by 19.89-fold with yield of 11.77%. The specific activity of crude tannase was found to be 1.31 U/mg protein while that of purified tannase was 22.48 U/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme is dimeric with one major band of molecular mass 97 kDa and a very light band of molecular mass 43 kDa. Temperature of 35 to 40°C and pH 5 were optimum for tannase activity. The enzyme retained more than 60% of its stability at 60°C and 40% stability at pH 3 and 8, respectively. Km was found to be 0.33 × 10−2 M and Vmax = 40 U/mg. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature, it could find potential use in the food processing industry.
PMCID: PMC3848197  PMID: 24350277
16.  Production of Tumor-Inhibitory L-Asparaginase by Submerged Growth of Serratia marcescens1 
Applied Microbiology  1969;18(4):550-554.
Production of a tumor-inhibitory asparaginase by submerged fermentation with Serratia marcescens ATCC 60 was studied to ascertain optimal nutritional conditions for large-scale production leading to enzyme purification studies. Five strains of S. marcescens were screened in shake-flask studies and were found to produce 0.8 to 3.7 IU/ml 48 hr after inoculation. The requirements for asparaginase production with S. marcescens ATCC 60, the high producing strain, included the following: 4% autolyzed yeast extract medium (initial pH 5.0), an incubation temperature of 26 C, and limited aeration for a zero level of dissolved oxygen during the fermentation. Addition of various carbohydrates to the fermentation medium did not enhance yields. The peak cell population in the fermentation medium and the maximal asparaginase yields occurred simultaneously. Highest enzyme yields were found when the pH of the fermentation cycle rose to approximately 8.5. Yields of 4 IU of asparaginase/ml of cell suspension have been obtained consistently in 40 to 42 hr from 10-liter volumes (500 ml/4-liter bottle) produced on a reciprocating shaker. Scale-up to a 60-liter fermentor yielded 3.1 IU/ml in 35 hr.
PMCID: PMC378033  PMID: 4905034
17.  Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Protease Production by a Fungal Species 
Studies were carried out on a paddy soil fungal isolate identified to be a strain of Aspergillus niger from Manipal. The parameters that largely impact enzyme production viz., fermentation time, impeller speed, pH, temperature and nutrient supplements were studied. Optimization of production parameters for production of protease was done by the single-parameter mode. Casein served as substrate and proteolytic activity was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method at 660 nm. A maximum yield of 71.3 mg tyrosine/g casein substrate was produced in 96 h on a soluble starch medium at pH 4 in shake flask experiments. Production was carried out on a 3-liter fermenter and 40.7 mg of tyrosine was liberated/g of substrate. The enzyme was extracted with 50% ammonium sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed two bands having mw 45.7 kDa and 38.5 kDa, respectively. The enzyme activity was found to be 147.84 U/ml.
PMCID: PMC2929773  PMID: 20838518
Enzyme production and optimization; fungal protease; tyrosine production
18.  Production of β-Glucosidase from a Newly Isolated Aspergillus Species Using Response Surface Methodology 
A newly isolated fungus Aspergillus niger SOI017 was shown to be a good producer of β-glucosidase from all isolated fungal strains. Fermentation condition (pH, cellobiose concentration, yeast extract concentration, and ammonium sulfate concentration) was optimized for producing the enzyme in shake flask cultures. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of 4 fermentation parameters (yeast extract concentration, cellobiose concentration, ammonium sulfate concentration, and pH) on β-glucosidase enzyme production. Production of β-glucosidase was most sensitive to the culture medium, especially the nitrogen source yeast extract. The optimized medium for producing maximum β-glucosidase specific activity consisted of 0.275% yeast extract, 1.125% cellobiose, and 2.6% ammonium sulfate at a pH value of 3.
PMCID: PMC3118286  PMID: 21716658
19.  Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(1):394-409.
Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.
PMCID: PMC3768945  PMID: 24031646
Orange peel; citric acid; Aspergillus niger; solid-state fermentation
20.  Stereospecific Biohydroxylations of Protected Carboxylic Acids with Cunninghamella blakesleeana 
Cunninghamella blakesleeana DSM 1906 was found to be an efficient biocatalyst for the biotransformation of cycloalkylcarboxylic acids into hydroxy and oxo derivatives. When cultivated in submerged culture, the fungus grew in pellets. In comparison with malt extract-glucose-peptone-yeast extract medium (medium E), Czapek-Dox medium was found to reduce pellet size. Cycloalkylcarboxylic acids were protected against microbial degradation by chemical transformation into 2-cycloalkyl-1,3-benzoxazoles. The transformations of protected cyclopentyl-, cyclohexyl-, cycloheptyl-, and cyclooctylcarboxylic acids by C. blakesleeana were investigated. The biotransformations were performed in medium E by using an aerated, stirred-tank bioreactor. The transformation of 2-cyclopentyl-1,3-benzoxazole yielded (1S,3S)-3-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclopentan-1-ol as the main product. The main by-product was (1R)-3-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclopentan-1-one, and 2-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclopentan-1-ol was also obtained in small amounts. During the experiment, the enantiomeric excess of the main product increased up to 64%. 2-Cyclohexyl-1,3-benzoxazole was hydroxylated to 4-(benz-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-ol. 2-Cycloheptyl-1,3-benzoxazole and 2-cyclooctyl-1,3-benzoxazole were transformed into several alcohols and ketones, all in low yields (2 to 19%).
PMCID: PMC1388905  PMID: 16535367
21.  Biotechnological production of citric acid 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2010;41(4):862-875.
This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.
PMCID: PMC3769771  PMID: 24031566
citric acid; fermentation; review; Aspergillus niger
22.  The carbon starvation response of Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation: Insights from the transcriptome and secretome 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:380.
Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications. To survive life-threatening starvation conditions, carbon from endogenous resources becomes mobilized to fuel maintenance and self-propagation. Key to understand the underlying cellular processes is the system-wide analysis of fungal starvation responses in a temporal and spatial resolution. The knowledge deduced is important for the development of optimized industrial production processes.
This study describes the physiological, morphological and genome-wide transcriptional changes caused by prolonged carbon starvation during submerged batch cultivation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioreactor cultivation supported highly reproducible growth conditions and monitoring of physiological parameters. Changes in hyphal growth and morphology were analyzed at distinct cultivation phases using automated image analysis. The Affymetrix GeneChip platform was used to establish genome-wide transcriptional profiles for three selected time points during prolonged carbon starvation. Compared to the exponential growth transcriptome, about 50% (7,292) of all genes displayed differential gene expression during at least one of the starvation time points. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology, Pfam domain and KEGG pathway annotations uncovered autophagy and asexual reproduction as major global transcriptional trends. Induced transcription of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes was accompanied by increased secretion of hydrolases including chitinases, glucanases, proteases and phospholipases as identified by mass spectrometry.
This study is the first system-wide analysis of the carbon starvation response in a filamentous fungus. Morphological, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses identified key events important for fungal survival and their chronology. The dataset obtained forms a comprehensive framework for further elucidation of the interrelation and interplay of the individual cellular events involved.
PMCID: PMC3527191  PMID: 22873931
23.  Growth and Pigmentation of Epicoccum nigrum in Submerged Culture 
Applied Microbiology  1969;17(6):847-852.
Growth and pigmentation of Epicoccum nigrum was studied in submerged culture in various media. Red pigmentation of the mycelium and of fermentation broth was obtained only in a medium containing glucose and yeast autolysate. This pigmentation occurred at the time of maximal production of carotenoids. Observations on the submerged culture of this organism in flasks and in fermentors are described, and the details of a standardized procedure for the production of carotenoid pigments are given.
PMCID: PMC377824  PMID: 16349848
24.  Extracellular lipase of Aspergillus niger NRRL3; production, partial purification and properties 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2009;49(1):77-83.
Four strains of Aspergillus niger were screened for lipase production. Each was cultivated on four different media differing in their contents of mineral components and sources of carbon and nitrogen. Aspergillus niger NRRL3 produced maximal activity (325U/ml) when grown in 3% peptone, 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05% KCl, 0.2% K2HPO4 and 1% olive oil:glucose (0.5:0.5). A. niger NRRL3 lipase was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. The majority of lipase activity (48%) was located in fraction IV precipitated at 50–60% of saturation with a 18-fold enzyme purification. The optimal pH of the partial purified lipase preparation for the hydrolysis of emulsified olive oil was 7.2 and the optimum temperature was 60°C. At 70°C, the enzyme retained more than 90% of its activity. Enzyme activity was inhibited by Hg2+ and K+, whereas Ca2+ and Mn2+ greatly stimulated its activity. Additionally, the formed lipase was stored for one month without any loss in the activity.
PMCID: PMC3450051  PMID: 23100754
Lipase; Aspergillus niger; Culture conditions
25.  Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;44(4):1097-1104.
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer.
PMCID: PMC3958174  PMID: 24688498
hyaluronic acid; cashew apple juice; submerged fermentation

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