Enhanced production of angiotensin II and excessive release of norepinephrine in the ischemic heart are major causes of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Mast cell-dependent mechanisms are pivotal in the local formation of angiotensin II and modulation of norepinephrine release in cardiac pathophysiology. Cardiac mast cells increase in number in myocardial ischemia and are located in close proximity to sympathetic neurons expressing angiotensin AT1- and histamine H3-receptors. Once activated, cardiac mast cells release a host of potent pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines, chemokines, preformed mediators (e.g., histamine) and proteases (e.g., renin). In myocardial ischemia, angiotensin II (formed locally from mast cell-derived renin) and histamine (also released from local mast cells) respectively activate AT1- and H3-receptors on sympathetic nerve endings. Stimulation of angiotensin AT1-receptors is arrhythmogenic whereas H3-receptor activation is cardioprotective. It is likely that in ischemia/reperfusion the balance may be tipped toward the deleterious effects of mast cell renin, as demonstrated in mast cell-deficient mice, lacking mast cell renin and histamine in the heart. In these mice, no ventricular fibrillation occurs at reperfusion following ischemia, as opposed to wild-type hearts which all fibrillate. Preventing mast cell degranulation in the heart and inhibiting the activation of a local reninangiotensin system, hence abolishing its detrimental effects on cardiac rhythmicity, appears to be more significant than the loss of histamine-induced cardioprotection. This suggests that therapeutic targets in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, and potentially congestive heart failure and hypertension, should include prevention of mast cell degranulation, mast cell renin inhibition, local ACE inhibition, ANG II antagonism and H3-receptor activation.
arrhythmias; cardiac renin-angiotensin system; histamine H3-receptors; mast-cell renin; myocardial ischemia-reperfusion; norepinephrine; sensory and sympathetic nerve endings; sodium-proton exchanger
Having identified renin in cardiac mast cells, we assessed whether its release leads to cardiac dysfunction. In Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts, mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80 released Ang I–forming activity. This activity was blocked by the selective renin inhibitor BILA2157, indicating that renin was responsible for Ang I formation. Local generation of cardiac Ang II from mast cell–derived renin also elicited norepinephrine release from isolated sympathetic nerve terminals. This action was mediated by Ang II-type 1 (AT1) receptors. In 2 models of ischemia/reperfusion using Langendorff-perfused guinea pig and mouse hearts, a significant coronary spillover of renin and norepinephrine was observed. In both models, this was accompanied by ventricular fibrillation. Mast cell stabilization with cromolyn or lodoxamide markedly reduced active renin overflow and attenuated both norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Similar cardioprotection was observed in guinea pig hearts treated with BILA2157 or the AT1 receptor antagonist EXP3174. Renin overflow and arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion were much less prominent in hearts of mast cell–deficient mice than in control hearts. Thus, mast cell–derived renin is pivotal for activating a cardiac renin-angiotensin system leading to excessive norepinephrine release in ischemia/reperfusion. Mast cell–derived renin may be a useful therapeutic target for hyperadrenergic dysfunctions, such as arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, myocardial ischemia, and congestive heart failure.
Acute administration of ethanol can reduce cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. Previous studies demonstrated that the acute cytoprotective effect of ethanol on the myocardium is mediated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). We recently identified aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an PKCε substrate, whose activation is necessary and sufficient to confer cardioprotection in vivo. ALDH2 metabolizes cytotoxic reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which accumulate during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Here, we used a combination of PKCε knockout mice and a direct activator of ALDH2, Alda-44, to further investigate the interplay between PKCε and ALDH2 in cardioprotection. We report that ethanol preconditioning requires PKCε, whereas direct activation of ALDH2 reduces infarct size in both wild type and PKCε knockout hearts. Our data suggest that ALDH2 is downstream of PKCε in ethanol preconditioning and that direct activation of ALDH2 can circumvent the requirement of PKCε to induce cytoprotection. We also report that in addition to ALDH2 activation, Alda-44 prevents 4-HNE induced inactivation of ALDH2 by reducing the formation of 4-HNE-ALDH2 protein adducts. Thus, Alda-44 promotes metabolism of cytotoxic reactive aldehydes that accumulate in ischemic myocardium. Taken together, our findings suggest that direct activation of ALDH2 may represent a method of harnessing the cardioprotective effect of ethanol without the side effects associated with alcohol consumption.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) inhibits Ca2+‐loading during ischemia which contributes to cardioprotection by inhibiting mechanical injury due to hypercontracture and biochemical injury through mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pores during reperfusion. However, whether remote‐IPC reduced Ca2+‐loading during ischemia and its subsequent involvement in inhibiting MPT pore formation during reperfusion has not been directly shown. We have developed a cellular model of remote IPC to look at the impact of remote conditioning on Ca2+‐regulation and MPT pore opening during simulated ischemia and reperfusion, using fluorescence microscopy. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from control rat hearts, hearts preconditioned with three cycles of ischemia/reperfusion or naïve myocytes remotely conditioned with effluent collected from preconditioned hearts. Both conventional‐IPC and remote‐IPC reduced the loss of Ca2+‐homeostasis and contractile function following reenergization of metabolically inhibited cells and protected myocytes against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, only conventional‐IPC reduced the Ca2+‐loading during metabolic inhibition and this was independent of any change in sarcKATP channel activity but was associated with a reduction in Na+‐loading, reflecting a decrease in Na/H exchanger activity. Remote‐IPC delayed opening of the MPT pores in response to ROS, which was dependent on PKCε and NOS‐signaling. These data show that remote‐IPC inhibits MPT pore opening to a similar degree as conventional IPC, however, the contribution of MPT pore inhibition to protection against reperfusion injury is independent of Ca2+‐loading in remote IPC. We suggest that inhibition of the MPT pore and not Ca2+‐loading is the common link in cardioprotection between conventional and remote IPC.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides a similar level of protection against ischemia–reperfusion injury to that of conventional‐IPC. This study shows that unlike conventional‐IPC, this was independent of any reduction in Na or Ca2+‐loading during the simulated ischemic event but results from a direct PKCε‐dependent inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.
Ca2+‐Loading; ischemic preconditioning; MPT pore; remote ischemic preconditioning; sodium/hydrogen exchanger
Nitric oxide (NO) has been noted to produce ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-mediated cardioprotection. Caveolin is a negative regulator of NO, which inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by making caveolin-eNOS complex. The expression of caveolin is increased during diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of caveolin in attenuation of the cardioprotective effect of IPC during DM in rat.
Experimental DM was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg, i.p,) and animals were used for experiments four weeks later. Isolated heart was mounted on Langendorff's apparatus, and was subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. IPC was given by four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion with Kreb's-Henseleit solution (K-H). Extent of injury was measured in terms of infarct size by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) in coronary effluent. The cardiac release of NO was noted by measuring the level of nitrite in coronary effluent.
IPC- induced cardioprotection and release of NO was significantly decreased in diabetic rat heart. Pre-treatment of diabetic rat with daidzein (DDZ) a caveolin inhibitor (0.2 mg/Kg/s.c), for one week, significantly increased the release of NO and restored the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC. Also perfusion of sodium nitrite (10 μM/L), a precursor of NO, significantly restored the lost effect of IPC, similar to daidzein in diabetic rat. Administration of 5-hydroxy deaconate (5-HD), a mito KATP channel blocker, significantly abolished the observed IPC-induced cardioprotection in normal rat or daidzein and sodium nitrite perfused diabetic rat heart alone or in combination.
Thus, it is suggested that attenuation of the cardioprotection in diabetic heart may be due to decrease the IPC mediated release of NO in the diabetic myocardium, which may be due to up -regulation of caveolin and subsequently decreased activity of eNOS.
The volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is thought to be an endogenous mechanism against ischemia-reperfusion injury possibly through detoxification of toxic aldehydes. We investigated whether cardioprotection by isoflurane depends on activation of ALDH2.Anesthetized rats underwent 40 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion and were randomly assigned to the following groups: untreated controls, isoflurane preconditioning with and without an ALDH2 inhibitor, the direct activator of ALDH2 or a protein kinase C (PKCε) inhibitor. Pretreatment with isoflurane prior to ischemia reduced LDH and CK-MB levels and infarct size, while it increased phosphorylation of ALDH2, which could be blocked by the ALDH2 inhibitor, cyanamide. Isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and injury which were attenuated by isoflurane and forced the activation of ALDH2. In contrast, the effect of isoflurane-induced protection was almost abolished by knockdown of ALDH2. Activation of ALDH2 and cardioprotection by isoflurane were substantially blocked by the PKCε inhibitor. Activation of ALDH2 by mitochondrial PKCε plays an important role in the cardioprotection of isoflurane in myocardium I/R injury.
The aims of this study were to determine whether chronic oestrogen withdrawal influences the development of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in female hearts, to investigate the mechanism whereby IPC is impaired, and to assess whether direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) can mimic IPC in female hearts with chronic oestrogen depletion.
Methods and results
We performed Sham-operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy on 16-week-old Sprague–Dawley female rats. Ovariectomized rats were randomized to subcutaneous implantation of 17β-estradiol (OxE) or placebo (OxP) pellets. Four weeks later, isolated, perfused hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischaemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion with or without three cycles of 5 min ischaemia/5 min reperfusion. The cardioprotective effect of IPC was completely lost in the OxP group. Western immunoblots revealed that in the OxP group, IPC failed to translocate PKCε to the membranous fraction and that phosphorylation of PKCε (Ser729) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) 1 (Ser241) was impaired. Oestrogen replacement restored the IPC effect, the translocation and phosphorylation of PKCε, and the phosphorylation of PDK1. In the OxP group, pre-treatment with a PKCε selective activator peptide (Ψ–εRACK) mimicked the IPC effect. Pre-treatment with a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor before IPC abrogated the translocation and phosphorylation of PKCε in the Sham group.
The cardioprotective effect of IPC is lost in female hearts with chronic oestrogen withdrawal and this is due, at least in part, to impaired translocation and phosphorylation of PKCε. Selective activation of PKCε-mediated signalling can fully restore the IPC effect in a manner analogous to oestrogen replacement.
Oestrogen; Gender; Myocardial infarction; Protein kinase C; Reperfusion injury
It is believed that the diabetic myocardium is refractory to cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mainly because of impaired insulin signaling to posphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt). However, human as well as animal studies have clearly showed that hearts of type 2 diabetic humans and animals may exhibit increased signaling through PI3K-Akt but yet are resistant to cardioprotection by IPC or ischemic post-conditioning. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether activation of insulin signaling prior to IPC is detrimental for cardioprotection and to assess the role of insulin receptors (IRs) and Akt in mediating this effect. Wild-type (WT) hearts, hearts lacking IRs or hearts expressing an active form of Akt (myrAkt1) were perfused ex vivo using a Langendorff preparation and were subjected to IPC (3 cycles of 5 min ischemia followed by 5 min reflow before 30 min no flow ischemia and then by 45 min reperfusion) in the presence or absence of 1 nmol/L insulin. Interestingly, whereas insulin was protective against I/R (30 min no flow ischemia and 45 min reperfusion), it completely abolished cardioprotection by IPC in WT hearts but not in mice lacking insulin receptors (IRs) in cardiomyocytes (CIRKO) or in all cardiac cells (TIRKO). The suppression of IPC-mediated cardioprotection was mediated through downstream signaling to Akt and Gsk3β. In addition, transgenic induction of Akt in the heart was sufficient to abrogate IPC even when insulin was absent, further confirming the involvement of Akt in insulin’s suppression of cardioprotection by IPC. These data provide evidence that excessive insulin signaling to Akt is detrimental for cardioprotection by IPC and could explain the failure of the diabetic myocardium to precondition.
insulin; cardioprotection; insulin signaling; ischemia; reperfusion
Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activation is an important component of cardiac signal transduction pathways, including the cardioprotective signaling cascade induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The sGCα subunit, which binds to the common sGCβ1 subunit, exists in two different isoforms, sGCα1 and sGCα2, but their relative physiological roles remain unknown. In the present study, we studied Langendorff-perfused isolated hearts of genetically engineered mice lacking functional sGCα1 (sGCα1KO mice), which is the predominant isoform in the heart. Our results show that the loss of sGCα1 has a positive inotropic and lusitropic effect on basal cardiac function, indicating an important role for sGCα1 in regulating basal myocardial contractility. Surprisingly, IPC led to a similar 35–40% reduction in infarct size and concomitant protein kinase Cε (PKCε) phosphorylation in both wild-type (WT) and sGCα1KO hearts subjected to 40 min of global ischemia and reperfusion. Inhibition of the activation of all sGC isoforms by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, 10 μmol/L) completely abolished the protection by IPC in WT and sGCα1KO hearts. NO-stimulated cGMP production was severely attenuated in sGCα1KO hearts compared to WT hearts, indicating that the sGCα2 isoform only produces minute amounts of cGMP after NO stimulation. Taken together, our results indicate that although sGCα1 importantly regulates cardiac contractility, it is not required for cardioprotection by IPC. Instead, our results suggest that possibly only minimal sGC activity, which in sGCα1KO hearts is provided by the sGCα2 isoform, is sufficient to transduce the cardioprotective signal induced by IPC via phosphorylation of PKCε.
Soluble guanylate cyclase; Ischemic preconditioning; Isolated heart; Contractility; Nitric oxide
Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) is critical for cardiac protection from ischaemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. PKCε substrates that mediate cytoprotection reside in the mitochondria. However, the mechanism enabling mitochondrial translocation and import of PKCε to enable phosphorylation of these substrates is not known. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a cytoprotective protein chaperone that participates in mitochondrial import of a number of proteins. Here, we investigated the role of HSP90 in mitochondrial import of PKCε.
Methods and results
Using an ex vivo perfused rat heart model of IR, we found that PKCε translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial fraction following IR. Immunogold electron microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation demonstrated that following IR, mitochondrial PKCε is localized within the mitochondria, on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 prevented IR-induced interaction between PKCε and the translocase of the outer membrane (Tom20), reduced mitochondrial import of PKCε, and increased necrotic cell death by ∼70%. Using a rational approach, we designed a 7-amino acid peptide activator of PKCε, derived from an HSP90 homologous sequence located in the C2 domain of PKCε (termed ψεHSP90). Treatment with this peptide (conjugated to the cell permeating TAT protein-derived peptide, TAT47–57) increased PKCε–HSP90 protein–protein interaction, enhanced mitochondrial translocation of PKCε, increased phosphorylation and activity of an intra-mitochondrial PKCε substrate, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and reduced cardiac injury in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial infarction.
Our results suggest that HSP90-mediated mitochondrial import of PKCε plays an important role in the protection of the myocardium from IR injury.
Protein kinase C epsilon; Mitochondria; Protein–protein interaction; Ischaemia reperfusion; Heat shock protein 90
Although protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the actual mechanism of that protection is unknown. We recently found that protection from IPC requires activation of adenosine receptors during early reperfusion. We, therefore, hypothesized PKC might act to increase the heart’s sensitivity to adenosine. IPC limited infarct size in isolated rabbit hearts subjected to 30-min regional ischemia/2-h reperfusion and IPC’s protection was blocked by the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine given during early reperfusion revealing involvement of PKC at reperfusion. Similarly chelerythrine infused in the early reperfusion period blocked the increased phosphorylation of the protective kinases Akt and ERK1/2 observed after IPC. Infusing phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, during early reperfusion mimicked IPC’s protection. As expected, the protection triggered by PMA at reperfusion was blocked by chelerythrine, but surprisingly it was also blocked by MRS1754, an adenosine A2b receptor–selective antagonist, suggesting that PKC was somehow facilitating signaling from the A2b receptors. NECA [5′-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine], a potent but not selective A2b receptor agonist, increased phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreating hearts with PMA or brief preconditioning ischemia had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or ERK1/2 per se, but markedly lowered the threshold for NECA to induce their phosphorylation. BAY 60-6583, a highly selective A2b agonist, also caused phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt. MRS1754 prevented phosphorylation induced by BAY 60-6583. BAY 60-6583 limited infarct size when given to ischemic hearts at reperfusion. These results suggest that activation of cardiac A2b receptors at reperfusion is protective, but because of the very low affinity of the receptors endogenous cardiac adenosine is unable to trigger their signaling. We propose that the key protective event in IPC occurs when PKC increases the heart’s sensitivity to adenosine so that endogenous adenosine can activate A2b-dependent signaling.
adenosine A2b receptors; BAY 60-6583; NECA; preconditioning; protein kinase C
Notch signaling is known to be activated following myocardial ischemia, but its role in cardioprotection provided by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IPost) remains unclear.
Lentiviral vectors were constructed to overexpress or knockdown N1ICD in H9c2 cardiomyocyte and rat heart exposed to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), IPC or IPost.
Notch1 signaling was activated during myocardial IPC and IPost, and could enhance cell viability and inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, activated Notch1 signaling stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced reactive oxygen species induced by IRI. The cardioprotection provided by activated Notch1 signaling resembled that of IPC and IPost, which was related to Stat3 activation and regulation of apoptosis related proteins. Furthermore, in langendorff heart perfusion model, activated Notch1 signaling restored cardiac function, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release and limited infarct size after myocardial ischemia. Conclusions: Notch1 signaling is activated and mediates cardioprotection provided by IPC and Ipost. Notch1 signaling may represent a potential new pharmacologic mimic for cardioprotection of ischemic heart disease.
Notch signaling; Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Stat3, Ischemic preconditioning; Ischemic postconditioning
Background: Preconditioning might protect the myocardium against ischemia/ reperfusion injury by reducing infarct size and preventing arrhythmias. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α2-agonist used for sedoanalgesia in daily anesthetic practice. The cardioprotective effects of DEX on infarct size and on the incidence of arrhythmias observed after regional ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo have not been reported.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether DEX exhibits a preconditioning effect and reduces infarct size and the incidence and duration of arrhythmias in a regional cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model in rats.
Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and mechanically ventilated (0.9 mL/100 g at 60 strokes/min) through a cannula inserted into the trachea after tracheotomy. Cardiac ischemia was then produced by ligating the left main coronary artery for 30 minutes, followed by a reperfusion period of 120 minutes. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored and echocardiograms (ECGs) were performed. Arrhythmia was scored based on incidence and duration. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups. The ischemic preconditioning (IPC) group underwent 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion before the 30-minute ischemia/120-minute reperfusion period. In the DEX group, intraperitoneal (IP) DEX 1 mL (100 μg/kg) was administered 30 minutes before the ischemia/ reperfusion period. In the control group, IP saline 1 mL was administered 30 minutes before the ischemia/reperfusion period. After reperfusion, the heart was excised, demarcated with saline and ethanol to identify the occluded and nonoccluded myocardium, and cut into slices ~2 mm thick, that were then stained and placed between 2 glass plates. The risk zone and the infarct zone were compared between groups. The investigator assessing the infarcts was blinded to the study group.
Results: Twenty-one adult (aged 4-6 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 280 to 360 g were included in the study; 7 rats were assigned to each group. BP, HR, and ECG readings were not significantly different between groups and did not change during the study. Arrythmias occurred during ischemia and reperfusion in all groups. The duration of the arrhythmias was significantly shorter and the arrhythmia score was significantly lower in the IPC group (all, P<0.05), compared with the control group; however, they were not significantly different in the DEX group. During the ischemic period, duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular premature contractions (VPC) in the DEX group was significantly longer than that observed in the IPC group (all, P<0.05). The duration of VPC was also significantly shorter than that observed in the control group (both, P<0.05). Duration of VT during the reperfusion period in the DEX group was significantly longer than that observed in both IPC and control groups (both, P<0.05). The mean (SD) percentage of damage was significantly lower in the IPC group (44.1% [2.0%]) and the DEX group (26.7% [2.0%]) compared with the control group (69.0% [3.0%]; both, P<0.05). The percentage of damage in the DEX group was also significantly lower compared with the IPC group (P<0.05).
Conclusions: This small, experimental in vivo study found that DEX was associated with reduced infarct size in ischemia/reperfusion injury in regional ischemia in this rat model but had no effect on the incidence of arrhythmias. Future studies are needed to clarify these findings.
dexmedetomidine; preconditioning; cardiac ischemia/reperfusion
Because ouabain activates several pathways that are critical to cardioprotective mechanisms such as ischemic preconditioning, we tested if this digitalis compound could protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase/c-Src receptor complex.
Methods and Results
In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, a short (4 min) administration of ouabain 10 μM followed by an 8-minute washout before 30 minutes of global ischemia and reperfusion improved cardiac function, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release and reduced infarct size by 40%. Western blot analysis revealed that ouabain activated the cardioprotective phospholipase Cγ1/protein kinase Cε (PLC-γ1/PKCε) pathway. Pre-treatment of the hearts with the Src kinase family inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolol[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) blocked not only ouabain-induced activation of PLC-γ1/PKCε pathway, but also cardiac protection. This protection was also blocked by a PKCε translocation inhibitor peptide (PKCε TIP).
Short exposure to a low concentration of ouabain protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. This effect of ouabain on the heart is most likely due to the activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase/c-Src receptor complex and subsequent stimulation of key mediators of preconditioning, namely PLC-γ1 and PKCε.
Although recent studies indicate that renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects the kidney from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the precise protective mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated whether early IPC could upregulate hypoxia inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and could reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after renal I/R and whether pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production would abolish these protective effects.
Kidneys of Wistar rats were subjected to 60 min of warm ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion (I/R group), or to 2 preceding cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion (IPC group), or to intravenously injection of NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg) 5 min before IPC (L-NAME+IPC group). The results of these experimental groups were compared to those of a sham-operated group. Sodium reabsorption rate, creatinine clearance, plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, tissues concentrations of malonedialdehyde (MDA), HIF-1α and nitrite/nitrate were determined. In addition, Western blot analyses were performed to identify the amounts of Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and ER stress parameters.
IPC decreased cytolysis, lipid peroxidation and improved renal function. Parallely, IPC enhanced Akt phosphorylation, eNOS, nitrite/nitrate and HIF-1α levels as compared to I/R group. Moreover, our results showed that IPC increased the relative amounts of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and decreased those of RNA activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) as judged to I/R group. However, pre treatment with L-NAME abolished these beneficial effects of IPC against renal I/R insults.
These findings suggest that early IPC protects kidney against renal I/R injury via reducing oxidative and ER stresses. These effects are associated with phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS activation and NO production contributing thus to HIF-1α stabilization. The beneficial impact of IPC was abolished when NO production is inhibited before IPC application.
kidney; ischemia-reperfusion; ischemic preconditioning; Akt; eNOS, HIF1-α; ER stress
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a potent form of endogenous protection. However, IPC-induced cardioprotective effect is significantly blunted in insulin resistance-related diseases and the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of glucose metabolism in IPC-reduced reperfusion injury.
Normal or streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats subjected to 2 cycles of 5 min ischemia/5 min reperfusion prior to myocardial ischemia (30 min)/reperfusion (3 h). Myocardial glucose uptake was determined by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) scan and gamma-counter biodistribution assay.
IPC exerted significant cardioprotection and markedly improved myocardial glucose uptake 1 h after reperfusion (P<0.01) as evidenced by PET images and gamma-counter biodistribution assay in ischemia/reperfused rats. Meanwhile, myocardial translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane together with myocardial Akt and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly enhanced in preconditioned hearts. Intramyocardial injection of GLUT4 siRNA markedly decreased GLUT4 expression and blocked the cardioprotection of IPC as evidence by increased myocardial infarct size. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin significantly inhibited activation of Akt and AMPK, reduced GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake and ultimately, depressed IPC-induced cardioprotection. Furthermore, IPC-afforded antiapoptotic effect was markedly blunted in STZ-treated diabetic rats. Exogenous insulin supplementation significantly improved glucose uptake via co-activation of myocardial AMPK and Akt and alleviated ischemia/reperfusion injury as evidenced by reduced myocardial apoptosis and infarction size in STZ-treated rats (P<0.05).
The present study firstly examined the role of myocardial glucose metabolism during reperfusion in IPC using direct genetic modulation in vivo. Augmented glucose uptake via co-activation of myocardial AMPK and Akt in reperfused myocardium is essential to IPC-alleviated reperfusion injury. This intrinsic metabolic modulation and cardioprotective capacity are present in STZ-treated hearts and can be triggered by insulin.
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is emerging as a key enzyme involved in cytoprotection in the heart. ALDH2 mediates both the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and the bioactivation of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO). In addition, chronic nitrate treatment results in ALDH2 inhibition and contributes to nitrate tolerance. Our lab recently identified ALDH2 to be a key mediator of endogenous cytoprotection. We reported that ALDH2 is phosphorylated and activated by the survival kinase protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) and found a strong inverse correlation between ALDH2 activity and infarct size. We also identified a small molecule ALDH2 activator (Alda-1) which reduces myocardial infarct size induced by ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. In this review, we discuss evidence that ALDH2 is a key mediator of endogenous survival signaling in the heart, suggest possible cardioprotective mechanisms mediated by ALDH2, and discuss potential clinical implications of these findings.
This study examined the hypothesis that acute hyperglycemia (HG) blocks ischemic preconditioning (IPC) by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation. Brief HG of approximately 400 mg/dL was induced in C57BL/6 mice via intraperitoneal injection of 20% dextrose (2 g/kg). All mice underwent 40 min LAD occlusion and 60 min reperfusion. The IPC protocol was 2 cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion prior to index ischemia. Results. In control mice, infarct size (IF) was 51.7 ± 2.0 (% risk region). Preconditioning reduced IF by 50% to 25.8 ± 3.2 (P < 0.05 versus control). In HG mice, IF was significantly exacerbated to 58.1 ± 2.3. However, the effect of IPC completely disappeared in HG mice. Normalization of blood glucose with insulin 5 min before IPC recovered the cardioprotective effect. Administration of CCPA before index ischemia mimicked IPC effect. The cardioprotective effect of CCPA, not its chronotropic effect, completely disappeared in HG mice. Phosphorylation of cardiac tissue Akt before index ischemia was enhanced by IPC or CCPA but was significantly inhibited by HG in both groups. Normalization of glucose with insulin reversed the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by HG. Conclusion. HG abolishes the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation. Normalization of blood glucose with insulin suffices to recover the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning.
Ischemia-reperfusion is a major cause of acute kidney injury and inflammation has been well-established as a detrimental process in the pathogenesis of kidney ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). The kidney has the ability to be preconditioned by a non-lethal period of ischemia, rendering the kidney refractory to further ischemia-induced dysfunction (ischemic preconditioning: IPC). Regulatory T (Treg) cells are lymphocytes that suppress immune responses. We hypothesized that IPC is partially mediated by Treg cells. To test this, a model of delayed IPC was used by subjecting mice to 24 min of bilateral renal IRI or sham surgery on day 0, then 28 min IRI on day 7 (IPC = IRI/IRI; non-IPC = Sham/IRI). IPC significantly inhibited the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages, tubular necrosis and loss of kidney function induced by IRI. The initial 24 min IRI caused a significant increase in kidney CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ and CD4+CD25+IL-10+ Treg cells at 7 days of reperfusion. Use of a Treg cell-depleting antibody (PC61) in preconditioned mice reversed the effect of IPC on kidney neutrophil accumulation and partially inhibited the functional and histological protection of IPC. Adoptive transfer of Treg cells, prior to IR, in naïve mice, mimicked the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of IPC on the kidney. These results demonstrate that suppression of inflammation and a significant fraction of kidney protection, imparted by delayed IPC, is mediated by Treg cells.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a protective phenomenon in which brief ischemia renders the myocardium resistant to subsequent ischemic insults. Here, we used A2BAR gene knock-out (A2BKO)/β-galactosidase reporter gene knock-in mice and the A2BAR antagonist ATL-801 to investigate the potential involvement of the A2BAR in IPC, focusing on the acute phase of protection. Cardioprotection provided by acute IPC elicited by two 3-min occlusion/3-min reperfusion cycles was readily apparent in an isolated, Langendorff-perfused mouse heart model in studies using hearts from A2BKO mice. IPC equivalently improved the recovery of contractile function following 20 min of global ischemia and 45 min of reperfusion in both WT and A2BKO hearts by ~30–40%, and equivalently decreased the release of cardiac tropinin I during the reperfusion period (from 5,969±925 to 1,595±674 ng/g and 4,376±739 to 2,278±462 ng/g using WT and A2BKO hearts, respectively). Similarly, the infarct size-reducing capacity of acute IPC in an in vivo model of infarction was fully manifest in experiments using A2BKO mice, as well as in experiments using rats pretreated with ATL-801. We did observe, however, a marked reduction in infarct size in rats following administration of the selective A2BAR agonist BAY 60-658 (~25% reduction at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg). While supportive of its concept as a cardioprotective receptor, these experiments indicate that the mechanism of the early phase of IPC is not dependent on signaling by the A2BAR. We present the idea that the A2BAR may contribute to the later stages of IPC dependent on the induction of stress-responsive genes.
We applied a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach to obtain novel mechanistic insights in PKCε-mediated cardioprotection. Mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins from control and transgenic hearts with constitutively active or dominant negative PKCε were analyzed using difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Among the differentially expressed proteins were creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and the cytosolic isoforms of aspartate amino transferase and malate dehydrogenase, the two enzymatic components of the malate aspartate shuttle, which is required for the import of reducing equivalents from glycolysis across the inner mitochondrial membrane. These enzymatic changes appeared to be dependent on PKCε activity, as they were not observed in mice expressing inactive PKCε. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy confirmed a pronounced effect of PKCε activity on cardiac glucose and energy metabolism: normoxic hearts with constitutively active PKCε had significantly lower concentrations of glucose, lactate, glutamine and creatine, but higher levels of choline, glutamate and total adenosine nucleotides. Moreover, the depletion of cardiac energy metabolites was slower during ischemia/reperfusion injury and glucose metabolism recovered faster upon reperfusion in transgenic hearts with active PKCε. Notably, inhibition of PKCε resulted in compensatory phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of PKCδ. Taken together, our findings are the first evidence that PKCε activity modulates cardiac glucose metabolism and provide a possible explanation for the synergistic effect of PKCδ and PKCε in cardioprotection.
proteomics; metabolism; cardioprotection; protein kinase C
The response of the myocardium to an ischaemic insult is regulated by two highly homologous protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, δ and εPKC. Here, we determined the spatial and temporal relationships between these two isozymes in the context of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) to better understand their roles in cardioprotection.
Methods and results
Using an ex vivo rat model of myocardial infarction, we found that short bouts of ischaemia and reperfusion prior to the prolonged ischaemic event (IPC) diminished δPKC translocation by 3.8-fold and increased εPKC accumulation at mitochondria by 16-fold during reperfusion. In addition, total cellular levels of δPKC decreased by 60 ± 2.7% in response to IPC, whereas the levels of εPKC did not significantly change. Prolonged ischaemia induced a 48 ± 11% decline in the ATP-dependent proteasomal activity and increased the accumulation of misfolded proteins during reperfusion by 192 ± 32%; both of these events were completely prevented by IPC. Pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome or selective inhibition of εPKC during IPC restored δPKC levels at the mitochondria while decreasing εPKC levels, resulting in a loss of IPC-induced protection from I/R. Importantly, increased myocardial injury was the result, in part, of restoring a δPKC-mediated I/R pro-apoptotic phenotype by decreasing pro-survival signalling and increasing cytochrome c release into the cytosol.
Taken together, our findings indicate that IPC prevents I/R injury at reperfusion by protecting ATP-dependent 26S proteasomal function. This decreases the accumulation of the pro-apoptotic kinase, δPKC, at cardiac mitochondria, resulting in the accumulation of the pro-survival kinase, εPKC.
Cardioprotection; Ischaemia/reperfusion; Apoptosis; Proteasome; PKC; Ischaemic preconditioning
Recent studies indicate that the innate immune system is not only triggered by exogenous pathogens and pollutants, but also by endogenous danger signals released during ischemia and necrosis. As triggers for the innate immune NLRP3 inflammasome protein complex appear to overlap with those for cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC), we explored the possibility that the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in IPC and acute I/R injury of the heart.
Baseline cardiac performance and acute I/R injury were investigated in isolated, Langendorff-perfused hearts from wild-type (WT), ASC−/− and NLRP3−/− mice. Deletion of NLRP3 inflammasome components ASC−/− or NLRP3−/− did not affect baseline performance. The deletions exacerbated I/R-induced mechanical dysfunction, but were without effect on I/R-induced cell death. When subjected to IPC, WT and ASC−/− hearts were protected against I/R injury (improved function and less cell death). However, IPC did not protect NLRP3−/− hearts against I/R injury. NLRP3−/− hearts had significantly decreased cardiac IL-6 levels with a trend towards lower IL-1β levels at end reperfusion, suggesting abrogation of IPC through diminished IL-6 and/or IL-1β signaling. Subsequent experiments showed that neutralising IL-6 using an antibody against IL-6 abrogated IPC in WT hearts. However, inhibition of the IL-1r receptor with the IL-1 receptor inhibitor Anakinra (100 mg/L) did not abrogate IPC in WT hearts. Analysis of survival kinases after IPC demonstrated decreased STAT3 expression in NLRP3−/− hearts when compared to WT hearts.
The data suggest that the innate immune NLRP3 protein, in an NLRP3-inflammasome-independent fashion, is an integral component of IPC in the isolated heart, possibly through an IL-6/STAT3 dependent mechanism.
Although functional coupling between protein kinase Cε (PKCε) and mitochondria has been implicated in the genesis of cardioprotection, the signal transduction mechanisms that enable this link and the identities of the mitochondrial proteins modulated by PKCε remain unknown. Based on recent evidence that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore may be involved in ischemia/reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that protein-protein interactions between PKCε and mitochondrial pore components may serve as a signaling mechanism to modulate pore function and thus engender cardioprotection. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-based affinity pull-down from mouse cardiac mitochondria revealed interaction of PKCε with components of the pore, namely voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), and hexokinase II (HKII). VDAC1, ANT1, and HKII were present in the PKCε complex at ≈2%, ≈0.2%, and ≈1% of their total expression, respectively. Moreover, in vitro studies demonstrated that PKCε can directly bind and phosphorylate VDAC1. Incubation of isolated cardiac mitochondria with recombinant PKCε resulted in a significant inhibition of Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling, an index of pore opening. Furthermore, cardiac-specific expression of active PKCε in mice, which is cardioprotective, greatly increased interaction of PKCε with the pore components and inhibited Ca2+-induced pore opening. In contrast, cardiac expression of kinase-inactive PKCε did not affect pore opening. Finally, administration of the pore opener atractyloside significantly attenuated the infarct-sparing effect of PKCε transgenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PKCε forms physical interactions with components of the cardiac mitochondrial pore. This in turn inhibits the pathological function of the pore and contributes to PKCε-induced cardioprotection.
mitochondria; signal transduction; permeability transition pore; cardioprotection
To examine the protective role of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in rat hearts using 99mTc-glucarate (GLA) and a stationary SPECT imager, FastSPECT.
Twenty-four rats with 30 min myocardial ischaemia and 150 min reperfusion (IR) were studied as follows. The IPC group (n = 6) underwent IPC (five cycles of 4 min ligation of the left coronary artery and reflow) before IR. The control group (n = 7) was treated by IR without IPC. The SPT group (n = 6) was subjected to IPC and an adenosine antagonist, 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (SPT). The vehicle group (n = 5) received IPC and SPT carrier vehicle. GLA was delivered intravenously 30 min post-reperfusion, and 2-h dynamic cardiac images were acquired by FastSPECT.
GLA showed ‘hot-spot’ accumulation in the ischaemic area-at-risk (IAR) and exhibited lower retention (% 5 min peak) in the IPC and vehicle groups (33.8 ± 2.6 vs. 35.7 ± 9.2, P>0.05) than in the control and SPT groups (63.1 ± 5.3 vs. 54.8 ± 4.8, P>0.05). The infarct size (% IAR) was larger in the control and SPT groups (48.2 ± 6.3 vs. 41.7 ± 6.3, P>0.05) than that in the IPC and vehicle groups (21.0 ±1.9 vs. 19.1 ± 4.6, P>0.05). In terms of the ex-vivo IAR-to-normal radioactivity ratio, there was a statistical difference between the control and IPC groups (7.4 ± 0.9 vs. 3.0 ± 0.4), as well as the SPT and vehicle groups (7.4 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.5).
IPC offers cardioprotection and relates to the activation of adenosine receptors in rat hearts. FastSPECT GLA imaging is not only useful in detecting early ischaemia–reperfusion injury, but also valuable in evaluating cardioprotection.
heart; ischaemic preconditioning; rat; small-animal SPECT; 99mTc-glucarate