DC-SIGN, a type II membrane-spanning C-type lectin that is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells (DC), captures and promotes human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) infection of CD4+ T cells in trans. To better understand the mechanism of DC-SIGN-mediated virus transmission, we generated and functionally evaluated a panel of seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DC-SIGN family molecules. Six of the MAbs reacted with myeloid-lineage DC, whereas one MAb preferentially bound DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN, a homolog of DC-SIGN. Characterization of hematopoietic cells also revealed that stimulation of monocytes with interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13 was sufficient to induce expression of DC-SIGN. All DC-SIGN-reactive MAbs competed with intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3) for adhesion to DC-SIGN and blocked HIV-1 transmission to T cells that was mediated by THP-1 cells expressing DC-SIGN. Similar but less efficient MAb blocking of DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission was observed, indicating that HIV-1 transmission to target cells via DC may not be dependent solely on DC-SIGN. Attempts to neutralize DC-SIGN capture and transmission of HIV-1 with soluble ICAM-3 prophylaxis were limited in success, with a maximal inhibition of 60%. In addition, disrupting DC-SIGN/ICAM-3 interactions between cells with MAbs did not impair DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Finally, forced expression of ICAM-3 on target cells did not increase their susceptibility to HIV-1 transmission mediated by DC-SIGN. While these findings do not discount the role of intercellular contact in facilitating HIV-1 transmission, our in vitro data indicate that DC-SIGN interactions with ICAM-3 do not promote DC-SIGN-mediated virus transmission.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a microorganism that frequently causes serious infections in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. We studied whether the specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin R1 (Sign-R1) receptor, involved in the uptake of capsular polysaccharides (caps-PS) by antigen-presenting cells, is necessary for the antibody response to pneumococcal caps-PS and phosphorylcholine (PC). The antibody response to caps-PS and PC was evaluated after vaccination with soluble caps-PS (Pneumovax) and after vaccination with heat-killed S. pneumoniae. The role of Sign-R1 was investigated by using Sign-R1 knockout mice and anti-Sign-R1 monoclonal antibodies. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody response to PC and caps-PS (serotypes 3 and 14) was not affected by anti-Sign-R1 monoclonal antibodies. The IgM antibody response in Sign-R1 knockout mice was comparable to the antibody response in wild-type mice. The IgG antibody response to serotype 3, but not to serotype 14, tended to be lower in Sign-R1 knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, we found that Sign-R1 is not involved in the IgM antibody production to PC and caps-PS serotype 3 or 14 and the IgG immune response to PC and caps-PS serotype 14. There is no direct relation between capture and uptake of caps-PS serotype 14 by Sign-R1 and the initiation of the anti-caps-PS antibody production in mice.
DC-SIGN, a type II membrane protein with a C-type lectin binding domain that is highly expressed on mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) and certain macrophages in vivo, binds to ICAM-3, ICAM-2, and human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV). Virus captured by DC-SIGN can be presented to T cells, resulting in efficient virus infection, perhaps representing a mechanism by which virus can be ferried via normal DC trafficking from mucosal tissues to lymphoid organs in vivo. To develop reagents needed to characterize the expression and in vivo functions of DC-SIGN, we cloned, expressed, and analyzed rhesus macaque, pigtailed macaque, and murine DC-SIGN and made a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to human DC-SIGN. Rhesus and pigtailed macaque DC-SIGN proteins were highly similar to human DC-SIGN and bound and transmitted HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and SIV to receptor-positive cells. In contrast, while competent to bind virus, murine DC-SIGN did not transmit virus to receptor-positive cells under the conditions tested. Thus, mere binding of virus to a C-type lectin does not necessarily mean that transmission will occur. The murine and macaque DC-SIGN molecules all bound ICAM-3. We mapped the determinants recognized by a panel of 16 MAbs to the repeat region, the lectin binding domain, and the extreme C terminus of DC-SIGN. One MAb was specific for DC-SIGN, failing to cross-react with DC-SIGNR. Most MAbs cross-reacted with rhesus and pigtailed macaque DC-SIGN, although none recognized murine DC-SIGN. Fifteen of the MAbs recognized DC-SIGN on DCs, with MAbs to the repeat region generally reacting most strongly. We conclude that rhesus and pigtailed macaque DC-SIGN proteins are structurally and functionally similar to human DC-SIGN and that the reagents that we have developed will make it possible to study the expression and function of this molecule in vivo.
Dengue virus is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus that productively infects human dendritic cells (DCs) primarily at the immature stage of their differentiation. We now find that all four serotypes of dengue use DC-SIGN (CD209), a C-type lectin, to infect dendritic cells. THP-1 cells become susceptible to dengue infection after transfection of DC-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), or its homologue L-SIGN, whereas the infection of dendritic cells is blocked by anti–DC-SIGN antibodies and not by antibodies to other molecules on these cells. Viruses produced by dendritic cells are infectious for DC-SIGN– and L-SIGN–bearing THP-1 cells and other permissive cell lines. Therefore, DC-SIGN may be considered as a new target for designing therapies that block dengue infection.
receptor; flavivirus; lectin; antigen-presenting cells; virus receptor
The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR efficiently bind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains and can transmit bound virus to adjacent CD4-positive cells. DC-SIGN also binds efficiently to the Ebola virus glycoprotein, enhancing Ebola virus infection. DC-SIGN is thought to be responsible for the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to capture HIV and transmit it to T cells, thus promoting HIV dissemination in vitro and perhaps in vivo as well. To investigate DC-SIGN function and expression levels on DCs, we characterized a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the carbohydrate recognition domain of DC-SIGN. Using quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorter technology, we found that DC-SIGN is highly expressed on immature monocyte-derived DCs, with at least 100,000 copies and often in excess of 250,000 copies per DC. There was modest variation (three- to fourfold) in DC-SIGN expression levels between individuals and between DCs isolated from the same individual at different times. Several MAbs efficiently blocked virus binding to cell lines expressing human or rhesus DC-SIGN, preventing HIV and SIV transmission. Interactions with Ebola virus pseudotypes were also blocked efficiently. Despite their ability to block virus-DC-SIGN interactions on cell lines, these antibodies only inhibited transmission of virus from DCs by approximately 50% or less. These results indicate that factors other than DC-SIGN may play important roles in the ability of DCs to capture and transmit HIV.
The C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific ICAM 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)/CD209 efficiently binds several pathogens, including HIV-1. DC-SIGN is expressed on monocyte-derived DCs in culture, and importantly, it is able to sequester HIV-1 within cells and facilitate transmission of virus to CD4+ T cells. To investigate DC-SIGN function, we have generated new mAbs. We report in this study that these and prior anti-DC-SIGN mAbs primarily label macrophages in the medullary sinuses of noninflamed human lymph node. In contrast, expression is not detected on most DCs in the T cell area, except for occasional cells. We also noted that IL-4 alone can induce expression of DC-SIGN in CD14+ monocytes and circulating blood DCs. However, blockade of DC-SIGN with Abs and DC-SIGN small interfering RNA did not result in a major reduction in the capacity of these DCs to transfer HIV to T cells, confirming significant DC-SIGN-independent mechanisms. The blocking approaches did reduce HIV-1 transmission by DC-SIGN-transfected cells by >90%. DC-SIGN blockade also did not reduce the ability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation in the MLR. These results indicate that DC-SIGN has the potential to contribute to macrophage function in normal human lymph node, and that DCs do not require DC-SIGN to transmit HIV or to initiate T cell responses.
Interactions between the oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and dendritic cells (DCs) are poorly characterized. We show here that monocyte-derived DCs form syncytia and are infected upon coculture with HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We examined the role of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed in DCs, in HTLV-1-induced syncytium formation. DC-SIGN is known to bind with high affinity to various viral envelope glycoproteins, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus, as well as to the cellular receptors ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. After cocultivating DCs and HTLV-1-infected cells, we found that anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were able to decrease the number and size of HTLV-1-induced syncytia. Moreover, expression of the lectin in epithelial-cell lines dramatically enhanced the ability to fuse with HTLV-1-positive cells. Interestingly, in contrast to the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of HIV and other viruses, that of HTLV-1 does not bind directly to DC-SIGN. The facilitating role of the lectin in HTLV-1 syncytium formation is mediated by its interaction with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3, as demonstrated by use of MAbs directed against these adhesion molecules. Altogether, our results indicate that DC-SIGN facilitates HTLV-1 infection and fusion of DCs through an ICAM-dependent mechanism.
High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin is a widely used therapeutic preparation of highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. It is administered at high doses (1–2 grams per kilogram) for the suppression of autoantibody-triggered inflammation in a variety of clinical settings1. This anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin is triggered by a minor population of IgG crystallizable fragments (Fcs), with glycans terminating in α2,6 sialic acids (sFc) that target myeloid regulatory cells expressing the lectin dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN; also known as CD209)2–4. Here, to characterize this response in detail, we generated humanized DC-SIGN mice (hDC-SIGN), and demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin can be recapitulated by the transfer of bone-marrow-derived sFc-treated hDC-SIGN+ macrophages or dendritic cells into naive recipients. Furthermore, sFc administration results in the production of IL-33, which, in turn, induces expansion of IL-4-producing basophils that promote increased expression of the inhibitory Fc receptor FcγRIIB on effector macrophages. Systemic administration of the TH2 cytokines IL-33 or IL-4 upregulates FcγRIIB on macrophages, and suppresses serum-induced arthritis. Consistent with these results, transfer of IL-33-treated basophils suppressed induced arthritic inflammation. This novel DC-SIGN–TH2 pathway initiated by an endogenous ligand, sFc, pro-vides an intrinsic mechanism for maintaining immune homeostasis that could be manipulated to provide therapeutic benefit in auto-immune diseases.
Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were derived against acetone-treated whole cells of the newly recognized Vibrio cholerae O139 serogroup which is causing epidemics of cholera-like disease in India and Bangladesh. Four MAbs specifically recognized the lipopolysaccharide antigens of V. cholerae O139. MAbs ICL9 and ICL13 were of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype, ICL11 was of the IgG3 isotype, and ICL12 was of the Ig2b isotype. A fifth MAb, ICL10, of the IgG2b isotype cross-reacted with V. cholerae O91. All five MAbs recognized V. cholerae O139 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, slide agglutination test, motility inhibition test, and indirect immunofluorescence test. During a 1-month evaluation of these MAbs in our clinical laboratory, all 86 cases diagnosed as V. cholerae O139 by a rabbit polyclonal antiserum were also detected by these MAbs, establishing their utility as highly sensitive and specific diagnostic reagents. With these MAbs, it should now be possible to screen for the V. cholerae O139 serogroup in epidemic and endemic diarrhea cases and in environmental and food samples.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells encountered by human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) following mucosal infection. Because these cells efficiently capture and transmit virus to T cells, they may play a major role in mediating HIV and SIV infection. Recently, a C-type lectin protein present on DCs, DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), was shown to efficiently bind and present HIV and SIV to CD4+, coreceptor-positive cells in trans. However, the significance of DC-SIGN for virus transmission and pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. Because SIV infection of macaques may represent the best model to study the importance of DC-SIGN in HIV infection, we cloned and characterized pig-tailed macaque DC-SIGN and generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against it. We demonstrate that, like human DC-SIGN, pig-tailed macaque DC-SIGN (ptDC-SIGN) is expressed on DCs and macrophages but not on monocytes, T cells, or B cells. Moderate levels of ptDC-SIGN expression were detected on the surface of DCs, and low-level expression was found on macrophages. Additionally, we show that ptDC-SIGN efficiently binds and transmits replication-competent SIVmne variants to CD4+, coreceptor-positive cells. Moreover, transmission of virus between pig-tailed macaque DCs and CD4+ T cells is largely ptDC-SIGN dependent. Interestingly, MAbs directed against ptDC-SIGN vary in the capacity to block transmission of different SIVmne variants. These data demonstrate that ptDC-SIGN plays a central role in transmitting virus from macaque DCs to T cells, and they suggest that SIVmne variants may differ in their interactions with ptDC-SIGN. Thus, SIVmne infection of pig-tailed macaques may provide an opportunity to investigate the significance of DC-SIGN in primate lentiviral infections.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an avian coronavirus, is a cause of great economic loss in the poultry industry. The virus mainly infects respiratory epithelium, but can be also detected in other organs. The functional receptor for the virus has not been found and field strains of IBV do not infect conventional cell lines. Recently, it has been shown that the C-type lectins DC-SIGN/L-SIGN can promote entry of several coronaviruses. Here we examine whether DC-SIGN/L-SIGN are entry determinants for IBV. We show that by introducing human DC-SIGN/L-SIGN into non-permissive cells, infection by the IBV is dramatically increased. DC-SIGN mediated infection was inhibited by mannan and anti-lectin antibodies, and was independent of sialic acid levels on the cell. Enhancement of IBV infection also occurred for different serotypes of IBV. Our findings demonstrated that even in the absence of avian-specific receptor, DC-SIGN-like lectins are capable of mediating efficient IBV infection.
Coronavirus; infectious bronchitis virus; receptor; infectivity; lectin; DC-SIGN
A mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic (anti-id) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, called MAb2, was raised against a mouse monoclonal anti-cholera toxin (anti-CT) antibody (MAb1). The MAb2 was shown, by competition with CT for MAb1, to bear the internal image of an epitope of CT. MAb2 immunization of rats was performed via the intraperitoneal, intragastric, and intrajejunal routes and compared with immunization of rats with either a control, isotype- and allotype-matched MAb or with CT via the same routes. Both serum IgG and bile IgA anti-CT Ab3's were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in anti-id MAb2-immunized rats, although their titers were lower than those in CT-immunized rats. No anti-CT antibodies were detected in sera and bile of rats immunized with the control MAb. When tested for degree of gut protection against a CT challenge, rats immunized with MAb2 by the intrajejunal route showed a rather high degree of protection, which was only slightly lower than that of rats immunized with CT via the same route; all rats but one immunized with the control MAb were unprotected. There was, however, no correlation between serum or bile anti-CT titers and degree of gut protection in MAb2-immunized rats. Their serum anti-CT Ab3's were purified by adsorption and elution from a CT immunosorbent and resembled anti-CT MAb1 in their unique reactivity with MAb2. This constitutes to our knowledge the second report of protection against a pathogen by anti-id immunization via the enteric route.
A biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which uses monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of group C rotaviruses was developed. An assay in which plates were coated with three pooled MAbs and biotinylated polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) (polyclonal antibody [PAb]) was used as the detector (MAb capture-PAb detector) was found to be the most sensitive and specific of the assays when it was compared with assays in which plates were coated with polyclonal antiserum and detection was done with either biotinylated polyclonal antiserum (PAb capture-PAb detector) or biotinylated pooled MAbs (PAb capture-MAb detector). The MAb capture-PAb detector ELISA detected 83% of samples confirmed to be positive for group C rotaviruses, whereas the PAb capture-PAb detector assay detected 63% of positive samples and the PAb capture-MAb detector assay detected 65% of positive samples. All three procedures detected both of the bovine and the two human group C rotaviruses, but none of the three procedures detected fecal samples containing group A and B rotaviruses or fecal samples negative for group C rotaviruses used in this study. The sensitivity of the MAb capture-PAb detector ELISA was determined by serially diluting fecal group C rotaviruses; antigens were detected in maximal positive dilution ranges of 1:1,000 to 1:3,000 for the samples tested. On the basis of the cell culture immunofluorescence assay infectivity titer of semipurified cell culture-passaged Cowden group C rotavirus, the sensitivity of the MAb capture-PAb detection ELISA for detection of homologous group C rotavirus was 53 fluorescent focus units per ml. Epitope mapping by use of the biotinylated MAbs in competition assay suggested that our MAbs may bind to three different but overlapping epitopes. These results suggest that the MAb capture-PAb detector ELISA can be used to study the epidemiology of group C rotaviruses in humans and animals.
This study aims to develop new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse and human podoplanin. Rats were immunized with synthetic peptides, corresponding to amino acids 38–51 of mouse podoplanin or human podoplanin which is 100% homologous to the same site of monkey podoplanin; anti-mouse podoplanin mAb PMab-1 (IgG2a) and anti-human mAb NZ-1.2 (IgG2a) were established. In immunocytochemistry, the mouse melanoma B16-F10 and mouse podoplanin (mPDPN)-expressed CHO transfectant were stained by PMab-1; human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and human podoplanin (hPDPN)-expressed squamous cell carcinoma HSC3 transfectant, were stained by NZ-1.2. Western-blot analysis detected an about 40-kDa protein in CHO-mPDPN and B16-F10 by PMab-1, and in HSC3-hPDPN and LEC by NZ-1.2. In frozen sections, PMab-1 reacted with mouse kidney, pulmonary alveoli, pulmonary pleura, and salivary gland myoepithelial cells while NZ-1.2 reacted to the human salivary gland myoepithelial cells. The immunostaining of paraffin-embedded sections also showed the reaction of PMab-1 or NZ-1.2 to the mouse or monkey kidney glomerulus, pulmonary alveoli, and lung lymphatic vessels. These results indicate that the two novel rat mAbs to the mouse and human/monkey podoplanin are useful for Western-blot and immunostaining of somatic tissues on paraffin-embedded sections as well as frozen sections.
podoplanin; monoclonal antibody; PMab-1; NZ-1.2
The role of pneumococcal (Pnc) surface adhesin A (PsaA) in the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) to host cells is not well defined. We examined the effect of anti-PsaA antibodies in an inhibition of adherence assay using Detroit 562 nasopharyngeal human epithelial cells. Rabbit polyclonal (Pab) anti-recombinant PsaA (rPsaA) sera, a purified mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) (MAb 6F62G8E12), and 22 healthy adult sera with known anti-PsaA IgG levels (obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit Pnc adherence to confluent monolayers (measured as percent reduction in CFU counts compared to those of uninhibited controls). Pnc adherence was dependent on capsular phenotype (no or low adherence for opaque strains). With an inoculum of 104 to 105 bacteria/well, the mean ± standard deviation count in controls was 163 ± 32 CFU/well for transparent strains. Low adherence was observed for a PsaA-minus mutant even at higher inoculum doses. Mean percent inhibitions of adherence with Pab and MAb were 54 and 50%, respectively. Adult sera showed inhibition in a dose-response fashion with a range of 98 to 8%, depending on the serum anti-PsaA antibody concentration. Absorption of Pab with rPsaA restored Pnc adherence to control levels. Absorption of sera with a PsaA-minus mutant did not result in a significant decrease (P >0.05) of inhibition of adherence activity. Additionally, nearly 100% of Pnc adherence was inhibited by lipidated rPsaA at 2.5 μg/ml. Our data support the argument that PsaA is an adhesin that mediates Pnc adherence to human nasopharyngeal cells. This functional assay may be useful in evaluating antibodies elicited in response to PsaA vaccination.
The carbohydrate-recognition domain of the SIGN-R1 receptor from M. musculus has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A native data set has been collected to 1.87 Å resolution.
SIGN-R1, or CD209b, is a mouse C-type lectin receptor that is expressed at high levels on macrophages in lymphoid tissues, especially within the marginal zone of the spleen. SIGN-R1 can bind and mediate the uptake of various microbial polysaccharides, including dextrans, lipopolysaccharides and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. It has been shown that SIGN-R1 mediates the clearance of encapsulated pneumococcus, complement fixation via binding C1q independent of antibody and innate resistance to pneumococcal infection. Recently, SIGN-R1 has also been demonstrated to bind sialylated antibody and mediate its activity to suppress autoimmunity. The carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of SIGN-R1 has been cloned and overexpressed in a soluble secretory form in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The CRD protein of SIGN-R1 was purified from CHO cell-culture supernatant and concentrated for crystallization using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of 2 M ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M bis-tris pH 5.5. Single crystals, which belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 146.72, b = 92.77, c = 77.06 Å, β = 121.66°, allowed the collection of a full X-ray data set to a maximum resolution of 1.87 Å.
SIGN-R1; carbohydrate-recognition domains; C-type lectin receptors
Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the most effective therapy for KD to reduce the prevalence of coronary artery lesion (CAL) formation. Recently, the α2, 6 sialylated IgG was reported to interact with a lectin receptor, specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin homolog-related 1 (SIGN-R1) in mice and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) in human, and to trigger an anti-inflammatory cascade. This study was conducted to investigate whether the polymorphism of DC-SIGN (CD209) promoter −336 A/G (rs4804803) is responsible for susceptibility and CAL formation in KD patients using Custom TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. A total of 521 subjects (278 KD patients and 243 controls) were investigated to identify an SNP of rs4804803, and they were studied and showed a significant association between the genotypes and allele frequency of rs4804803 in control subjects and KD patients (P = 0.004 under the dominant model). However, the promoter variant of DC-SIGN gene was not associated with the occurrence of IVIG resistance, CAL formation in KD. The G allele of DC-SIGN promoter −336 (rs4804803) is a risk allele in the development of KD.
Dendritic cells (DCs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes in trans. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN, expressed on DCs, binds to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and confers upon some cell lines the capacity to enhance trans-infection. Using a short hairpin RNA approach, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN is not required for efficient trans-enhancement by DCs. In addition, the DC-SIGN ligand mannan and an anti-DC-SIGN antibody did not inhibit DC-mediated enhancement. HIV-1 particles were internalized and were protected from protease treatment following binding to DCs, but not from binding to DC-SIGN-expressing Raji cells. Thus, DC-SIGN is not required for DC-mediated trans-enhancement of HIV infectivity.
Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were partially characterized and tested for their ability to inhibit penetration of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells by sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. By indirect fluorescent-antibody assays, all MAbs reacted with acetone-fixed sporozoites, but only two MAbs, EbS9 (immunoglobulin G1) and EbS11 (immunoglobulin G2a), localized specifically on the plasmalemma of live sporozoites. Two of the five MAbs also reacted with acetone-fixed first-generation merozoites of E. bovis; however, none of the MAbs reacted with live merozoites. Treatment of live sporozoites with EbS9 or EbS11 resulted in 79 and 73% decreases, respectively, in sporozoite penetration of MDBK cells. No significant differences in cell penetration occurred in MDBK cells inoculated with sporozoites that had been treated with the other three MAbs. Both EbS9 and EbS11 reacted in Western blots (immunoblots) of sporozoites with the same 20,000-relative-molecular-weight protein. The antigens against which these neutralizing MAbs react might be useful in immunizing against bovine coccidiosis.
By the use of a rat IgG monoclonal antibody (mab), a mouse mab and human serum containing an IgM mab, all of which react with isolated human myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) on immunoblots and bind only to proteins with relative mobilities identical to MAG and dMAG on immunoblots of homogenates of adult human spinal cord, we demonstrated the following: in homogenates of central nervous system tissue from human fetuses of gestational ages that antedate myelination, the anti- MAG antibodies react only with proteins with molecular weights of 250,000 or larger. During myelination the molecular weights of proteins with which the anti-MAG antibodies react shift towards the lower molecular weights found in adult myelin. Amongst those central nervous system regions examined, the shift towards the low molecular weights occurred earliest in the region that is first to become myelinated and latest in the one that is the last to myelinate. Once myelination is completed, the antibodies react only with proteins with relative mobilities identical to those of MAG and dMAG. These developmental changes in molecular weights of "MAG-related proteins" may prove useful as an index of chemical processes on the basis of which myelination occurs.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the fusion protein (F), attachment protein (G), and nucleoprotein (N) of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus were evaluated for use as detector antibodies in immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM capture enzyme immunoassays. MAb assays were tested against assays using polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) with serum specimens from patients with and without evidence of recent RS virus infection. Assays developed with N MAbs were comparable to or better than PAb assays for detecting specific IgG and IgM antibodies but were somewhat less sensitive for IgA. F MAb assays were less sensitive for IgG and IgM antibodies but identified specific IgA in some specimens negative by N MAb assay. G MAb assays were insensitive for IgG and IgM antibodies but did detect about 50% of the IgA antibodies identified by the PAb assay. The basis for the low sensitivity of the G MAb assays is unclear, since many of these specimens were positive for IgG antibodies to G by Western immunoblot. The sensitivity of MAb assays varied with patient age: N MAb assays detected specific antibody responses to RS virus in all immunoglobulin classes in both adults and infants less than 1 year of age, F MAb assays detected specific IgG responses in adults and IgA responses in both adults and infants, and G MAb assays only detected IgA responses in adults. A mixture of N and F MAbs was complementary overall, identifying 54 of 55 (IgG), 51 of 52 (IgA), and 16 of 17 (IgM) serum specimens positive by PAb assay. These MAb assays were also specific with specimens tested from persons without a history of recent RS virus infection. The availability of these MAb-based assays offers other laboratories the opportunity to have long-term, standardized reagents and tests for serological diagnosis of RS virus infection.
To better understand the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission at mucosal surfaces, we examined the expressions of the HIV adhesion molecule, dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), its closely related homologue DC-SIGNR, and HIV coreceptors by distinct DC populations in the intestinal and genital tracts of humans and rhesus macaques. We also developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR. In the Peyer's patches, DC-SIGN expression was detected in the interfollicular regions and in clusters of cells in the subepithelial dome regions. DC-SIGN expression was not found on plasmacytoid DCs. DC-SIGNR expression was restricted to endothelial cells in approximately one-third of the capillaries in the terminal ileum. In the vaginal epithelium, Langerhans' cells did not express DC-SIGN, whereas subepithelial DCs in the lamina propria expressed moderate levels of DC-SIGN. Finally, the rectum contained cells that expressed high levels of DC-SIGN throughout the entire thickness of the mucosa, while solitary lymphoid nodules within the rectum showed very little staining for DC-SIGN. Triple-color analysis of rectal tissue indicated that CCR5+ CD4+ DC-SIGN+ DCs were localized just beneath the luminal epithelium. These findings suggest that DC-SIGN+ DCs could play a role in the transmission of primate lentiviruses in the ileum and the rectum whereas accessibility to DC-SIGN+ cells is limited in an intact vaginal mucosa. Finally, we identified a MAb that blocked simian immunodeficiency virus interactions with rhesus macaque DC-SIGN. This and other specific MAbs may be used to assess the relevance of DC-SIGN in virus transmission in vivo.
A hybridoma (clone CRND-8) that produced agglutinating monoclonal antibody (MAb) against Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D was established by using a soluble capsular polysaccharide-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate for immunization. The isotype was immunoglobulin M(kappa). Specificity was determined by cell slide agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In both tests, the MAb reacted to serotypes D and A-D but not to serotypes A, B, and C. Furthermore, the specificity of the MAb determined by ELISA was the same as that of polyclonal antibody factor serum (PAb factor) 8, which showed high-level reactivity with serotypes D and A-D. These results supported the deduced specificity of the PAb-based antigenic factor 8. A total of 15 isolates of serotypes D and A-D but no serotype A isolates reacted with the MAb in cell slide agglutination tests. CRND-8 MAb can be used in place of PAb factor 8 for serotyping C. neoformans isolates and for the analysis of the antigen 8 epitope.
Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a heterodimeric protein that is aberrantly overexpressed in diverse human carcinomas and certain hematologic malignancies. The transmembrane MUC1-C subunit confers tumorigenicity and is a target for anti-cancer drug development. In this regard, the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain interacts with multiple effectors that have been linked to transformation. Here we report on the generation of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD). This IgG1 MAb, designated anti-MUC1-CD, reacts with the NYGQLDIFP epitope. We show that anti-MUC1-CD is useful in immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation experiments. In addition, anti-MUC1-CD can be used to detect expression of the MUC1-C subunit in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. The MUC1-C inhibitor has entered Phase I evaluation for patients with refractory solid tumors. The present results indicate that the anti-MUC1-CD antibody could be useful as a biomarker to identify patients with tumors that may be responsive to MUC1-C inhibitors.
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells play a critical role in the development of glomerulonephritis, which is a common cause of chronic kidney disease. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), an immune-regulating molecule of the C-type lectin family, is mainly expressed on DCs and mediates DC adhesion and migration, inflammation, activation of primary T cells. DC-SIGN triggers immune responses and is involved in the immune escape of pathogens and tumours. In addition, ligation of DC-SIGN on DCs actively primes DCs to induce Tregs. Under certain conditions, DC-SIGN signalling may result in inhibition of DC maturation, by promoting regulatory T cell (Treg) function and affecting Th1/Th2 bias.
A rat model of nephrotoxic nephritis was used to investigate the therapeutic effects of an anti-lectin-epidermal growth factor (EGF) antibody on glomerulonephritis. DCs were induced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The expression of DC surface antigens were detected using flow cytometry; the levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA and qPCR, respectively; the capability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation was examined by mixed lymphocyte reaction; PsL-EGFmAb targeting to DC-SIGN on DCs was identified by immunoprecipitation.
Anti-Lectin-EGF antibody significantly reduced global crescent formation, tubulointerstitial injury and improved renal function impairment through inhibiting DC maturation and modulating Foxp3 expression and the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in kidney. Binding of anti-Lectin-EGF antibody to DC-SIGN on human DCs inhibited DC maturation, increased IL-10 production from DCs and enhanced CD4+CD25+ Treg functions.
Our results suggest that treatment with anti-Lectin-EGF antibody modulates DCs to suppressive DCs and enhances Treg functions, contributing to the attenuation of renal injury in a rat model of nephrotoxic nephritis.
DC-SIGN; Dendritic cells; Regulatory T cells; Glomerulonephritis