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1.  Utilization of DXA Bone Mineral Densitometry in Ontario 
Executive Summary
Issue
Systematic reviews and analyses of administrative data were performed to determine the appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD) assessments using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the associated trends in wrist and hip fractures in Ontario.
Background
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Bone Mineral Density Assessment
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers measure bone density based on differential absorption of 2 x-ray beams by bone and soft tissues. It is the gold standard for detecting and diagnosing osteoporosis, a systemic disease characterized by low bone density and altered bone structure, resulting in low bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The test is fast (approximately 10 minutes) and accurate (exceeds 90% at the hip), with low radiation (1/3 to 1/5 of that from a chest x-ray). DXA densitometers are licensed as Class 3 medical devices in Canada. The World Health Organization has established criteria for osteoporosis and osteopenia based on DXA BMD measurements: osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that is >2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD for normal young adults (i.e. T-score <–2.5), while osteopenia is defined as BMD that is more than 1 standard deviation but less than 2.5 standard deviation below the mean for normal young adults (i.e. T-score< –1 & ≥–2.5). DXA densitometry is presently an insured health service in Ontario.
Clinical Need
 
Burden of Disease
The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) found that 16% of Canadian women and 6.6% of Canadian men have osteoporosis based on the WHO criteria, with prevalence increasing with age. Osteopenia was found in 49.6% of Canadian women and 39% of Canadian men. In Ontario, it is estimated that nearly 530,000 Ontarians have some degrees of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis-related fragility fractures occur most often in the wrist, femur and pelvis. These fractures, particularly those in the hip, are associated with increased mortality, and decreased functional capacity and quality of life. A Canadian study showed that at 1 year after a hip fracture, the mortality rate was 20%. Another 20% required institutional care, 40% were unable to walk independently, and there was lower health-related quality of life due to attributes such as pain, decreased mobility and decreased ability to self-care. The cost of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in Canada was estimated to be $1.3 billion in 1993.
Guidelines for Bone Mineral Density Testing
With 2 exceptions, almost all guidelines address only women. None of the guidelines recommend blanket population-based BMD testing. Instead, all guidelines recommend BMD testing in people at risk of osteoporosis, predominantly women aged 65 years or older. For women under 65 years of age, BMD testing is recommended only if one major or two minor risk factors for osteoporosis exist. Osteoporosis Canada did not restrict its recommendations to women, and thus their guidelines apply to both sexes. Major risk factors are age greater than or equal to 65 years, a history of previous fractures, family history (especially parental history) of fracture, and medication or disease conditions that affect bone metabolism (such as long-term glucocorticoid therapy). Minor risk factors include low body mass index, low calcium intake, alcohol consumption, and smoking.
Current Funding for Bone Mineral Density Testing
The Ontario Health Insurance Program (OHIP) Schedule presently reimburses DXA BMD at the hip and spine. Measurements at both sites are required if feasible. Patients at low risk of accelerated bone loss are limited to one BMD test within any 24-month period, but there are no restrictions on people at high risk. The total fee including the professional and technical components for a test involving 2 or more sites is $106.00 (Cdn).
Method of Review
This review consisted of 2 parts. The first part was an analysis of Ontario administrative data relating to DXA BMD, wrist and hip fractures, and use of antiresorptive drugs in people aged 65 years and older. The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences extracted data from the OHIP claims database, the Canadian Institute for Health Information hospital discharge abstract database, the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, and the Ontario Drug Benefit database using OHIP and ICD-10 codes. The data was analyzed to examine the trends in DXA BMD use from 1992 to 2005, and to identify areas requiring improvement.
The second part included systematic reviews and analyses of evidence relating to issues identified in the analyses of utilization data. Altogether, 8 reviews and qualitative syntheses were performed, consisting of 28 published systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses, 34 randomized controlled trials, and 63 observational studies.
Findings of Utilization Analysis
Analysis of administrative data showed a 10-fold increase in the number of BMD tests in Ontario between 1993 and 2005.
OHIP claims for BMD tests are presently increasing at a rate of 6 to 7% per year. Approximately 500,000 tests were performed in 2005/06 with an age-adjusted rate of 8,600 tests per 100,000 population.
Women accounted for 90 % of all BMD tests performed in the province.
In 2005/06, there was a 2-fold variation in the rate of DXA BMD tests across local integrated health networks, but a 10-fold variation between the county with the highest rate (Toronto) and that with the lowest rate (Kenora). The analysis also showed that:
With the increased use of BMD, there was a concomitant increase in the use of antiresorptive drugs (as shown in people 65 years and older) and a decrease in the rate of hip fractures in people age 50 years and older.
Repeat BMD made up approximately 41% of all tests. Most of the people (>90%) who had annual BMD tests in a 2-year or 3-year period were coded as being at high risk for osteoporosis.
18% (20,865) of the people who had a repeat BMD within a 24-month period and 34% (98,058) of the people who had one BMD test in a 3-year period were under 65 years, had no fracture in the year, and coded as low-risk.
Only 19% of people age greater than 65 years underwent BMD testing and 41% received osteoporosis treatment during the year following a fracture.
Men accounted for 24% of all hip fractures and 21 % of all wrist fractures, but only 10% of BMD tests. The rates of BMD tests and treatment in men after a fracture were only half of those in women.
In both men and women, the rate of hip and wrist fractures mainly increased after age 65 with the sharpest increase occurring after age 80 years.
Findings of Systematic Review and Analysis
Serial Bone Mineral Density Testing for People Not Receiving Osteoporosis Treatment
A systematic review showed that the mean rate of bone loss in people not receiving osteoporosis treatment (including postmenopausal women) is generally less than 1% per year. Higher rates of bone loss were reported for people with disease conditions or on medications that affect bone metabolism. In order to be considered a genuine biological change, the change in BMD between serial measurements must exceed the least significant change (variability) of the testing, ranging from 2.77% to 8% for precisions ranging from 1% to 3% respectively. Progression in BMD was analyzed, using different rates of baseline BMD values, rates of bone loss, precision, and BMD value for initiating treatment. The analyses showed that serial BMD measurements every 24 months (as per OHIP policy for low-risk individuals) is not necessary for people with no major risk factors for osteoporosis, provided that the baseline BMD is normal (T-score ≥ –1), and the rate of bone loss is less than or equal to 1% per year. The analyses showed that for someone with a normal baseline BMD and a rate of bone loss of less than 1% per year, the change in BMD is not likely to exceed least significant change (even for a 1% precision) in less than 3 years after the baseline test, and is not likely to drop to a BMD level that requires initiation of treatment in less than 16 years after the baseline test.
Serial Bone Mineral Density Testing in People Receiving Osteoporosis Therapy
Seven published meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 recent RCTs on BMD monitoring during osteoporosis therapy showed that although higher increases in BMD were generally associated with reduced risk of fracture, the change in BMD only explained a small percentage of the fracture risk reduction.
Studies showed that some people with small or no increase in BMD during treatment experienced significant fracture risk reduction, indicating that other factors such as improved bone microarchitecture might have contributed to fracture risk reduction.
There is conflicting evidence relating to the role of BMD testing in improving patient compliance with osteoporosis therapy.
Even though BMD may not be a perfect surrogate for reduction in fracture risk when monitoring responses to osteoporosis therapy, experts advised that it is still the only reliable test available for this purpose.
A systematic review conducted by the Medical Advisory Secretariat showed that the magnitude of increases in BMD during osteoporosis drug therapy varied among medications. Although most of the studies yielded mean percentage increases in BMD from baseline that did not exceed the least significant change for a 2% precision after 1 year of treatment, there were some exceptions.
Bone Mineral Density Testing and Treatment After a Fragility Fracture
A review of 3 published pooled analyses of observational studies and 12 prospective population-based observational studies showed that the presence of any prevalent fracture increases the relative risk for future fractures by approximately 2-fold or more. A review of 10 systematic reviews of RCTs and 3 additional RCTs showed that therapy with antiresorptive drugs significantly reduced the risk of vertebral fractures by 40 to 50% in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and osteoporotic men, and 2 antiresorptive drugs also reduced the risk of nonvertebral fractures by 30 to 50%. Evidence from observational studies in Canada and other jurisdictions suggests that patients who had undergone BMD measurements, particularly if a diagnosis of osteoporosis is made, were more likely to be given pharmacologic bone-sparing therapy. Despite these findings, the rate of BMD investigation and osteoporosis treatment after a fracture remained low (<20%) in Ontario as well as in other jurisdictions.
Bone Mineral Density Testing in Men
There are presently no specific Canadian guidelines for BMD screening in men. A review of the literature suggests that risk factors for fracture and the rate of vertebral deformity are similar for men and women, but the mortality rate after a hip fracture is higher in men compared with women. Two bisphosphonates had been shown to reduce the risk of vertebral and hip fractures in men. However, BMD testing and osteoporosis treatment were proportionately low in Ontario men in general, and particularly after a fracture, even though men accounted for 25% of the hip and wrist fractures. The Ontario data also showed that the rates of wrist fracture and hip fracture in men rose sharply in the 75- to 80-year age group.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
The economic analysis focused on analyzing the economic impact of decreasing future hip fractures by increasing the rate of BMD testing in men and women age greater than or equal to 65 years following a hip or wrist fracture. A decision analysis showed the above strategy, especially when enhanced by improved reporting of BMD tests, to be cost-effective, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio ranging from $2,285 (Cdn) per fracture avoided (worst-case scenario) to $1,981 (Cdn) per fracture avoided (best-case scenario). A budget impact analysis estimated that shifting utilization of BMD testing from the low risk population to high risk populations within Ontario would result in a saving of $0.85 million to $1.5 million (Cdn) to the health system. The potential net saving was estimated at $1.2 million to $5 million (Cdn) when the downstream cost-avoidance due to prevention of future hip fractures was factored into the analysis.
Other Factors for Consideration
There is a lack of standardization for BMD testing in Ontario. Two different standards are presently being used and experts suggest that variability in results from different facilities may lead to unnecessary testing. There is also no requirement for standardized equipment, procedure or reporting format. The current reimbursement policy for BMD testing encourages serial testing in people at low risk of accelerated bone loss. This review showed that biannual testing is not necessary for all cases. The lack of a database to collect clinical data on BMD testing makes it difficult to evaluate the clinical profiles of patients tested and outcomes of the BMD tests. There are ministry initiatives in progress under the Osteoporosis Program to address the development of a mandatory standardized requisition form for BMD tests to facilitate data collection and clinical decision-making. Work is also underway for developing guidelines for BMD testing in men and in perimenopausal women.
Conclusion
Increased use of BMD in Ontario since 1996 appears to be associated with increased use of antiresorptive medication and a decrease in hip and wrist fractures.
Data suggest that as many as 20% (98,000) of the DXA BMD tests in Ontario in 2005/06 were performed in people aged less than 65 years, with no fracture in the current year, and coded as being at low risk for accelerated bone loss; this is not consistent with current guidelines. Even though some of these people might have been incorrectly coded as low-risk, the number of tests in people truly at low risk could still be substantial.
Approximately 4% (21,000) of the DXA BMD tests in 2005/06 were repeat BMDs in low-risk individuals within a 24-month period. Even though this is in compliance with current OHIP reimbursement policies, evidence showed that biannual serial BMD testing is not necessary in individuals without major risk factors for fractures, provided that the baseline BMD is normal (T-score < –1). In this population, BMD measurements may be repeated in 3 to 5 years after the baseline test to establish the rate of bone loss, and further serial BMD tests may not be necessary for another 7 to 10 years if the rate of bone loss is no more than 1% per year. Precision of the test needs to be considered when interpreting serial BMD results.
Although changes in BMD may not be the perfect surrogate for reduction in fracture risk as a measure of response to osteoporosis treatment, experts advised that it is presently the only reliable test for monitoring response to treatment and to help motivate patients to continue treatment. Patients should not discontinue treatment if there is no increase in BMD after the first year of treatment. Lack of response or bone loss during treatment should prompt the physician to examine whether the patient is taking the medication appropriately.
Men and women who have had a fragility fracture at the hip, spine, wrist or shoulder are at increased risk of having a future fracture, but this population is presently under investigated and under treated. Additional efforts have to be made to communicate to physicians (particularly orthopaedic surgeons and family physicians) and the public about the need for a BMD test after fracture, and for initiating treatment if low BMD is found.
Men had a disproportionately low rate of BMD tests and osteoporosis treatment, especially after a fracture. Evidence and fracture data showed that the risk of hip and wrist fractures in men rises sharply at age 70 years.
Some counties had BMD utilization rates that were only 10% of that of the county with the highest utilization. The reasons for low utilization need to be explored and addressed.
Initiatives such as aligning reimbursement policy with current guidelines, developing specific guidelines for BMD testing in men and perimenopausal women, improving BMD reports to assist in clinical decision making, developing a registry to track BMD tests, improving access to BMD tests in remote/rural counties, establishing mechanisms to alert family physicians of fractures, and educating physicians and the public, will improve the appropriate utilization of BMD tests, and further decrease the rate of fractures in Ontario. Some of these initiatives such as developing guidelines for perimenopausal women and men, and developing a standardized requisition form for BMD testing, are currently in progress under the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy.
PMCID: PMC3379167  PMID: 23074491
2.  High prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients within 10 years of onset of ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review 
Clinical Rheumatology  2012;31(11):1529-1535.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a common complication of AS, with a prevalence range of 19 to 62 %. Many studies have shown decreased BMD in AS with long disease duration, but only a few studies investigated BMD in early AS. The prevalence of decreased BMD in early disease stages of AS has not yet been clearly described, and for that reason, we reviewed the literature which describes the prevalence of decreased BMD in AS patients with a short disease duration (<10 years). In this review, we included articles which used the modified New York criteria for the diagnosis of AS, included patients with a disease duration of less than 10 years, and used the WHO criteria for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Decreased BMD was defined as a T score < −1.0, including both osteopenia and osteoporosis. For this review, only articles that acquired BMD data of lumbar spine and femoral neck by DXA were used. The literature search provided us 35 articles of which 7 matched all our criteria, and they will be further outlined in this review. The overall prevalence of decreased BMD of the articles reviewed is 54 % (n = 229/424) for lumbar spine and 51 % (n = 224/443) for femoral neck. The prevalence of osteopenia vs. osteoporosis for lumbar spine is 39 vs. 16 % and for femoral neck, 38 vs. 13 %. This review showed a high total prevalence of 51–54 % decreased BMD and 13–16 % osteoporosis in AS with a short disease duration. This high prevalence was not to be expected in a relatively young and predominantly male population. Further research is needed to determine the clinical relevance of this low BMD by investigating the relation between low BMD and vertebral and nonvertebral fractures at this early stage in AS.
doi:10.1007/s10067-012-2018-0
PMCID: PMC3483100  PMID: 22706444
Ankylosing spondylitis; Bone mineral density; Osteopenia; Osteoporosis; Vertebral fractures
3.  Prevalence of low bone mineral density among HIV patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy in resource limited setting of western India 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19567.
Introduction
Bone mineral density (BMD) assessment in HIV patients is sparsely done in resource limited settings.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study of BMD amongst HIV patients following up in our clinic from 1 June to 1 December 2013 by performing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advanced DXA System, GE Healthcare) of lumbar spine and hip. Patients on long term (≥12 months), virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included. Patients who were ART naïve were included as control population. Virologic failures were excluded. Low BMD was defined by WHO T-score criteria (normal: T score ≥−1;osteopenia: T score between −1 and −2.5 SD; osteoporosis: T score ≤−2.5 SD). Baseline risk factors associated with low BMD like age, low BMI, lipoatrophy, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, current alcohol intake, steroid exposure and menopause were recorded. ART-related factors associated with low BMD like ART duration, exposure to tenofovir and exposure to protease inhibitors (PI) were studied.
Results
A total of 536 patients (66% males, 496 ART experienced and 40 ART naïve) were included in this analysis. Median age was 42 years, mean BMI 23.35 kg/m2 and median CD4 count 146 cells/mm3. All ART experienced patients had plasma viral load<400 copies/ml.
Prevalence of low BMD amongst ART naive and ART experienced patients was 67% (osteopenia: 70.4%, osteoporosis: 29.6%) and 80.4% (osteopenia: 63.4%, osteoporosis: 36.6%), respectively (p=0.05). Mean T scores at lumbar spine and hip for ART naive and ART experienced patients were −1.37 and −0.9 versus −1.56 and −1.48 (p=0.05), respectively. Age, low BMI, current smoking, menopause, baseline CD4 count and exposure to ART were factors significantly associated with low overall BMD on univariate regression analysis. On multivariable logistic regression analysis age (p<0.001), low BMI (p<0.001), current smoking (0.05) and menopause (0.03) were associated with low BMD. BMI decrease of 1 kg/m2 and baseline CD4 decline of 50 cells/mm3 lead to 14% and 4% increased probability of low BMD, respectively. Choice of antiretroviral use (tenofovir vs non-tenofovir, PI vs No PI) did not influence loss of BMD.
Conclusions
Extremely high prevalence of accelerated BMD loss amongst ART naïve and ART experienced patients in our cohort is a matter of deep concern due to its association with pathological fractures. Bone mineral loss was seen irrespective of ART used. Association of low BMD with low baseline CD4 count strengthens the case for early ART.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19567
PMCID: PMC4224871  PMID: 25394074
4.  Relationship between body mass index and bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients referred for DXA 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19569.
Introduction
Reduced bone mass density (BMD) is a frequent observation in HIV-infected persons. Relationship between body mass index (BMI), weight, height and BMD was reported for many populations. In particular, BMI has been found to be inversely related to the risk of osteoporosis.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional, monocentric study where all HIV-infected patients referred to first DXA scan in clinical routine during 2010–2013 were included. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined by T- score <−1 and <−2.5, respectively. Patients were categorized according to WHO BMI classification: underweight <18.5 kg/m2; normal weight 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; over weight 25–29.9 kg/m2; obese >30 kg/m2. Statistical analysis was carried using logistic regression.
Results
A total of 918 patients were included: median age 49 years (IQR, 44–55); 59.4% male; 93% Caucasian. Median anthrometric characteristics were: 68 kg (IQR, 59–78); 1.7 m (IQR, 1.6–1.75); 23.5 kg/m2 (IQR, 21.4–26.2). Underweight was found in 5%, normal weight in 61%, overweight in 26% and obesity in 8% of patients. According to T-scores, 110 (11.2%) patients were osteoporotic and 502 (54.7%) had osteopenia. In the femoral neck area, the prevalence of osteoporosis was slightly lower (5.7%) than lumbar spine site (9.2%). Agreements between sites of T-scores for the diagnosis of osteoporosis were 26 and 172 and 346 for osteopenia and normal BMD values, respectively. T-scores at femoral neck or lumbar spine positively correlated with BMI (p<0.001) (Figure 1). Among predictors of osteopenia/osteoporosis, univariable analysis showed: older age (p<0.0001); lower weight (p<0.0001); increasing height (p<0.002). Patients underweight had a higher risk of osteopenia (p=0.02) as well as of osteoporosis (p=0.003). Patients with BMI above normal had a reduced risk of low BMD (osteopenia p<0.0001; osteoporosis p<0.03). Controlling for calendar year, gender, ethnicity, and age, BMI was confirmed as risk factor if below normal (AdjOR of osteopenia 2.42 [95% CI 1.16–5.07] p=0.02; AdjOR of osteoporosis 3.22 [95% CI 1.60–6.49] p=0.001).
Conclusions
Our findings indicate that almost 66% of HIV-infected patients have subnormal bone mass. Further, as in other patient populations, in the HIV infection also low BMI is an important risk factor for osteopenia/osteoporosis. This finding highlights the compelling need for standardized screening actions, particularly in patients weighting below normal.
doi:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19569
PMCID: PMC4224848  PMID: 25394076
5.  Prospective study of bone mineral density changes in aging men with or at risk for HIV infection 
AIDS (London, England)  2010;24(15):2337-2345.
Objective
To investigate rates and predictors of change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of aging men with or at risk for HIV infection.
Design
Prospective cohort study among 230 HIV-infected and 159 HIV-uninfected men aged ≥49 years.
Methods
Longitudinal analyses of annual change in BMD at the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine.
Results
At baseline 46% of men had normal BMD, 42% had osteopenia, and 12% had osteoporosis. Of those men with normal BMD, 14% progressed to osteopenia and 86% continued to have normal BMD. Of the men initially with osteopenia, 12% progressed to osteoporosis, and 83% continued to have osteopenia. Osteopenia incidence per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) was 2.6 for HIV-uninfected men and 7.2 for HIV-infected men; osteoporosis incidence was 2.2/100 PYAR among men with osteopenia, regardless of HIV status. In multivariable analysis of annual change in BMD at the femoral neck, we found a significant interaction between heroin use and AIDS diagnosis, such that the greatest bone loss occurred with both AIDS and heroin use (adjusted predicted mean annual bone loss 0.0196 gm/cm2). Hepatitis C virus seropositivity was also associated with femoral neck bone loss (p=.04). The interaction between AIDS and heroin use also was associated with bone loss at the total hip, as was current methadone use (p<.01).
Conclusions
We found an association of heroin use and AIDS with BMD change, suggesting that heroin users with AIDS may be at particular risk for bone loss.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833d7da7
PMCID: PMC2936812  PMID: 20683316
osteopenia; osteoporosis; bone mineral density; HIV; men; aging
6.  Hand cortical bone mass and its associations with radiographic joint damage and fractures in 50–70 year old female patients with rheumatoid arthritis: cross sectional Oslo-Truro-Amsterdam (OSTRA) collaborative study 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2004;63(10):1331-1334.
Methods: Demographic, clinical data, and imaging data on hand radiographs and Genants vertebral deformity score on spine radiographs were collected from 135 women with RA of ⩾5 years, recruited from three European rheumatology clinics. Metacarpal hand BMD was measured by digital hand x ray radiogrammetry (DXR), and hip and lumbar spine BMD by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations between hand BMD and radiographic joint damage, and hand BMD and fractures.
Results: Hand BMD was strongly and independently associated with radiographic hand joint damage in a linear regression model adjusted for age, centre, BMI, disease duration, RF, 18 deformed joint count, ESR, and femoral neck BMD. In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for relevant variables, hand BMD and femoral neck BMD, but not spine BMD, were independently associated with vertebral deformities and with non-vertebral fractures.
Conclusion: BMD measured by DXR on conventional hand radiographs in patients with RA may potentially be used as an indicator of joint damage and of vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk.
doi:10.1136/ard.2003.015065
PMCID: PMC1754746  PMID: 15361395
7.  Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients 
Background
Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined.
Results
Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80.
Conclusions
The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life. Furthermore, the peripheral assessment of BMD in the calcaneus via DXA is a feasible approach to quantify bone loss in the lower extremity in bone sarcoma patients and may serve as an alternative procedure, when the established assessment of femoral BMD is not practicable due to endoprosthetic replacements.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-287
PMCID: PMC3022904  PMID: 21190557
8.  Hand bone mineral density is associated with both total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with RA 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)  2009;49(3):513-519.
Objective. RA is associated with localized bone loss in the hands, as well as generalized osteoporosis. We evaluated the relationship between hand digital X-ray radiogrammetry BMD (DXR-BMD) and total hip and lumbar spine BMD.
Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 138 post-menopausal women with RA. The DXR-BMD was calculated based on digitized hand radiographs. Measurements of the total hip and lumbar spine BMD were performed by a DXA-BMD (BMDa) scan. Patient and physician questionnaires and laboratory samples supplied information on relevant covariates. Separate multivariate linear regression models were constructed to determine the cross-sectional relationship between hand DXR-BMD (independent variable) and total hip or lumbar spine BMD (dependent variables).
Results. The cohort comprised women with a median age of 61 years and RA disease duration of 13 years. Seventy-six per cent were either RF and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) positive and most had moderate disease activity [median disease activity score-28 joint count (DAS28) 3.7]. Hand DXR-BMD was significantly associated with total hip BMD (β = 0.61; P < 0.0001) and lumbar spine BMD (β = 0.62; P < 0.0008) in adjusted models.
Conclusions. This study suggests that hand DXR-BMD is associated with both the total hip and lumbar spine BMD among post-menopausal women with RA. The relationship between bone loss in the hands and generalized osteoporosis should be further explored in longitudinal studies of patients with RA.
doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep385
PMCID: PMC2820263  PMID: 20026562
Rheumatoid arthritis; Osteoporosis; Bone mineral density; Digital X-ray radiogrammetry; Hand bone loss
9.  Prevalence and correlates of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in India 
Background:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a syndrome of progressive airflow limitation caused by the abnormal inflammatory reaction of the airway and lung parenchyma. Osteoporosis is one of the major extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD. The, prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD patients in Indian population is unknown.
Objectives:
To study the prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD and to define various risk factors associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in COPD.
Materials and Methods:
The study was done in the department of Pulmonary Medicine of a tertiary care hospital. All the diagnosed cases of COPD according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines were included in this study. The present study was a prospective study in for a period of 1 year. A brief history of the patients was taken, especially regarding duration of illness, number of exacerbations in the past 3 years, smoking in pack years, and history of steroid use (both systemic and inhaled steroids) after which cumulative dose of steroids was calculated. Spirometry was done in all these patients to stage the severity of COPD according to GOLD criteria. DEXA scan of the lumbar spine was done using bone densitometer to determine osteoporosis. A world Health Organization (WHO) criterion for definition of osteoporosis was applied and patients with T-score of > –2.5 standard deviation (SD) were diagnosed to have osteoporosis, –1 SD to –2.5 SD were diagnosed to have osteopenia and < –1 SD as normal. Statistical analysis for association of COPD with osteoporosis was done using chi-square test. Risk factors for osteoporosis were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results:
A total of 102 COPD patients were included in the study. Among these, 68 patients (66.6%) had osteoporosis and 20 patients (19.6%) had osteopenia. Majority (64.7%) of the patients who had osteoporosis had stage III and stage IV COPD disease. It was observed that as the severity grade of COPD increased, the risk of osteoporosis also increased. The bone mineral density (BMD) showed a significant difference among different stages of COPD. As the severity of the stage of COPD increased, BMD decreased. It was also observed that patients with lower body mass index (BMI) had higher prevalence of osteoporosis (37.3%) as compared to overweight patients. On univariate analysis, it was observed that risk factors for osteoporosis were female sex, higher number of exacerbations, BMI, and severity of COPD. After using multivariate logistic regression analysis, stage IV COPD (odds ratio (OR): 34.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59–1,000, P < 0.02), number of acute exacerbations >3 (OR: 30.3, 95% CI: 4.74–200, P < 0.01), and steroid cumulative dose >1,000 mg (OR: 7.35, 95% CI: 0.92–58.5, P < 0.04) were observed to be significant risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD patients.
Conclusions:
In the present study, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 66.6% and another 19.6% had osteopenia. As the severity of COPD increased, the risk of osteoporosis increased. GOLD stage III and stage IV patient had significantly lower BMD as compared to stage I and stage II of COPD disease. Stage IV COPD disease, use of oral or parenteral glucocorticoids, and repeated number of exacerbations were found to be independent risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD patients. Thus, high clinical suspicion and early diagnosis and treatment is required in the evaluation of osteoporosis in COPD patients so that the quality of life can be improved in these patients.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.135759
PMCID: PMC4129592  PMID: 25125807
COPD; correlates; DEXA scan; osteoporosis; repeated exacerbations; risk factors
10.  Osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis - prevalence, risk factors and methods of assessment 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R108.
Introduction
Osteoporosis can be a complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but diagnosing spinal osteoporosis can be difficult since pathologic new bone formation interferes with the assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of the current study were to investigate prevalence and risk factors for reduced BMD in a Swedish cohort of AS patients, and to examine how progressive ankylosis influences BMD with the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine in different projections.
Methods
Methods of assessment were questionnaires, back mobility tests, blood samples, lateral spine radiographs for syndesmophyte grading (mSASSS), DXA of the hip, radius and lumbar spine in anteroposterior (AP) and lateral projections with estimation of volumetric BMD (vBMD).
Results
AS patients (modified New York criteria), 87 women and 117 men, mean age 50 ± 13 years and disease duration 15 ± 11 years were included. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria 21% osteoporosis and 44% osteopenia was diagnosed in patients > = 50 years. Under age 50 BMD below expected range for age was found in 5%. Interestingly lateral lumbar DXA showed significantly lower BMD and revealed significantly more cases with osteoporosis as compared with AP DXA. Lumbar vBMD was not different between sexes, but women had significantly more lumbar osteoporosis measured with AP DXA (P < 0.001). Men had significantly higher mSASSS (P < 0.001). Low BMD was associated with high age, disease duration, mSASSS, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), inflammatory parameters and low body mass index (BMI). Increasing mSASSS correlated significantly with decreasing lateral and volumetric lumbar BMD, while AP lumbar BMD showed tendency to increase.
Conclusions
Osteoporosis and osteopenia is common in AS and associated with high disease burden. Lateral and volumetric lumbar DXA are more sensitive than AP DXA in detecting osteoporosis and are less affected by syndesmophyte formation.
doi:10.1186/ar3833
PMCID: PMC3446485  PMID: 22569245
11.  Bone mineral density in patients with recently diagnosed, active rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2007;66(11):1508-1512.
Objectives
Osteoporosis is a well‐known extra‐articular phenomenon in patients with uncontrolled, long‐standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, the extent of osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and the disease‐related and demographic factors that are associated with osteoporosis and reduced BMD were examined in patients with recently diagnosed, active RA.
Methods
BMD of the total hip and the lumbar spine was measured using dual‐energy x ray absorptiometry in 381 patients with recently diagnosed active RA, who had never been treated with DMARDs or corticosteroids. Osteoporosis was defined as a T score ⩽−2.5 SD and reduced BMD as Z score ⩽−1 SD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to detect associations of osteoporosis and reduced BMD with disease activity, functional disability, joint damage (Sharp–van der Heijde score) and demographic factors.
Results
Osteoporosis and reduced BMD were found in the spine and/or the hip in 11% and 25%, respectively, of the patients. Longer symptom duration and presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) were the only RA‐specific markers for osteoporosis and reduced BMD. Further, postmenopausal status in women, a low body mass index, familial osteoporosis, and, remarkably, male gender, were independently associated with osteoporosis and reduced BMD.
Conclusion
In patients with recently diagnosed active RA who had never been treated with DMARDs or corticosteroids, BMD seems to be well‐preserved and predominantly related to demographic factors. Longer symptom duration and a positive RF, but not higher disease activity or more joint damage, were related to osteoporosis and reduced BMD.
doi:10.1136/ard.2007.070839
PMCID: PMC2111640  PMID: 17456523
early rheumatoid arthritis; bone mineral density; osteoporosis
12.  Age-Related Changes in the Prevalence of Osteoporosis according to Gender and Skeletal Site: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2013;28(3):180-191.
Background
The incidence of osteoporosis and its related fractures are expected to increase significantly in the rapidly aging Korean population. Reliable data on the prevalence of this disease is essential for treatment planning. However, sparse data on Korean patients is available.
Methods
We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization T-score criteria. We analyzed the BMD data of 17,208 people (men, 7,837; women, 9,368).
Results
The adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis was 7.8% in men versus 37.0% in women. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of osteopenia between genders (men, 47.0%; women, 48.7%). The prevalence of osteoporosis in men in their 50s was 4.0%, in their 60s was 7.2%, in their 70s was 15.1%, and in their 80s was 26.7%. The figures in women were 15.2%, 36.5%, 62.7%, and 85.8%, respectively. The age group with the maximal BMD differed between genders. In the men, 20s had the highest value in all the skeletal sites. However, in the women, the maximal BMD in the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and the total hip was observed in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, respectively. The onset age of osteoporosis differed between genders. Osteoporosis in the femoral neck began at 55 years in the women and at 60 years in the men.
Conclusion
The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea was significantly high. In addition, the age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis differed according to gender and skeletal site.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2013.28.3.180
PMCID: PMC3811701  PMID: 24396677
Bone density; Prevalence; Bone diseases, metabolic; Osteoporosis
13.  Bone Mineral Density Changes in Patients with Recent-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Background:
Osteoporosis and related fragility fractures are one of the most common complications seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and dramatically affect quality of life.
Objective:
To evaluate changes in bone mineral density in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis (<1 year) and its correlation if any with a modified DAS-28 score and simple erosion narrowing score (SENS).
Methods:
This study included 30 patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis fulfilling the new American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All were subjected to a complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, liver function tests, renal function tests, rheumatoid factor, and plain x-rays of the hands and feet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DEXA was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) of the left proximal femur, lumbar spine (L1–L4), and lower distal radius at the time of recruitment.
Results:
In the RA patients, 13.3% had osteoporosis, 50% had osteopenia, and 36.7% had normal BMD. The most common site of osteoporosis was the lumbar spine (four patients, 13.3%) followed by the femur (two patients, 6.6%), and forearm (only one patient, 3.3%). There was a significantly higher percentage of osteoporosis among RA males than females and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Osteoporosis was more common in patients treated with corticosteroids and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) than in patients treated with only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (P = 0.004). Higher disease activity (DAS-28) was found in RA patients with osteoporosis compared to RA patients with normal BMD or osteopenia, but the difference was not statistically significant. Osteoporotic RA patients were found to have a higher SENS score for radiological damage than nonosteoporotic ones.
Conclusion:
BMD changes do occur in patients with early RA, and are not necessarily correlated with disease activity (DAS-28). However, a significant negative correlation was found between BMD and the score of radiological damage (SENS). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry is an important investigation to assess BMD in early RA patients.
doi:10.4137/CMAMD.S7773
PMCID: PMC3201106  PMID: 22084606
BMD; recent onset; rheumatoid arthritis
14.  Controlled HIV Viral Replication, Not Liver Disease Severity Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in HIV/HCV Co-Infection 
Journal of hepatology  2011;55(4):770-776.
Objective
To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in persons co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis C.
Methods
HIV/HCV co-infected study participants (n=179) were recruited into a prospective cohort and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) within 1 year of a liver biopsy. Fibrosis staging was evaluated according to the METAVIR system. Osteoporosis was defined as a T-score ≤ −2.5. Z-scores at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were used as the primary outcome variables to assess the association between degree of liver disease, HIV-related variables, and BMD.
Results
The population was 65% male, 85% Black with mean age 50.3 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis at either at the total hip, femoral neck, or lumbar spine was 28%, with 5% having osteoporosis of the total hip, 6% at the femoral neck, 25% at the spine. The mean Z-scores (standard deviation) were −0.42 (1.01) at the total hip, −0.16 (1.05) at the femoral neck, and −0.82 (1.55) at the lumbar spine. In multivariable models, controlled HIV replication (HIV RNA < 400 copies/mL vs ≥400 copies/mL) was associated with lower Z-scores (mean ± standard error) at the total hip (−0.44±0.17, p=0.01), femoral neck (−0.59±0.18, p=0.001), and the spine (−0.98±0.27, p=0.0005). There was no association between degree of liver fibrosis and Z-score.
Conclusion
Osteoporosis was very common in this population of predominately African-American HIV/HCV co-infected patients, particularly at the spine. Lower BMD was associated with controlled HIV replication, but not liver disease severity.
doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2011.01.035
PMCID: PMC3113457  PMID: 21338640
hepatitis C; bone mineral density; hepatic fibrosis; HIV
15.  Low bone mineral density is related to male gender and decreased functional capacity in early spondylarthropathies 
Clinical Rheumatology  2010;30(4):497-503.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with spondylarthropathies (SpA) at an early stage of disease. In this cross-sectional study, the BMD of lumbar spine and hips was measured in 130 consecutive early SpA patients. The outcome measure BMD was defined as (1) osteoporosis, (2) osteopenia, and (3) normal bone density. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relations between the following variables: age, gender, disease duration, diagnosis, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), extra-spinal manifestations and medication, with outcome measure low BMD (osteopenia and/or osteoporosis). The SpA population had a median time since diagnosis of 6.6 months and a disease duration of 6.3 years. In total, 9% of the early SpA patients had osteoporosis, 38% osteopenia, and 53% normal BMD. On univariate analyses, male gender, diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, increased CRP, high BASFI, and high BASMI were significantly associated with low BMD. Factors showing a relation with low BMD in the multivariate model were male gender (OR 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73–10.09), high BASMI (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14–2.07), and high BASFI (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00–1.39). In early SpA patients, a high frequency (47%) of low BMD in femur as well as in lumbar spine was found. Low BMD was associated with male gender and decreased functional capacity. These findings emphasize the need for more alertness for osteoporosis and osteopenia in spondylarthropathy patients at an early stage of the disease.
doi:10.1007/s10067-010-1538-8
PMCID: PMC3062761  PMID: 20697764
Ankylosing spondylitis; Bone mineral density; Osteoporosis; Spondylarthropathies
16.  Does digital X-ray radiogrammetry have a role in identifying patients at increased risk for joint destruction in early rheumatoid arthritis? 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(5):R219.
Introduction
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hand bone mineral density (BMD) loss analyzed with digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a predictor for progression of joint damage.
Methods
In 379 patients with early RA, baseline and one-year hand BMD was measured with DXR and the hand bone loss (HBL) was analyzed using the smallest detectable change (HBLsdc) and tertiles (HBLtertiles). Joint damage in hands and feet were scored according to the Sharp van der Heijde (SHS) method at baseline and at one, two, five and eight years. At the same time-points Disease Activity Score (DAS28) was calculated and functional disability assessed. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) were analyzed at baseline.
Results
Sixty-six percent of the patients had hand BMD loss in the first year of RA determined by HBLsdc and 65% by HBLtertiles. Radiographic progression after two, five and eight years was associated with hand bone loss defined by HBLsdc. By HBLtertiles there were significant associations at all time-points except at eight years. The change in DXR at one year (ChDXR1yr) correlated significantly and inversely with the change in SHS (ChSHS) at two, five and eight years. Multivariate analysis showed that only change in SHS during the first year and the presence of anti-CCP were independent predictors of long-term progressive joint damage. If radiographic scores were not included, DXR-BMD loss was an independent predictor. Patients with great bone loss by HBLtertiles had significantly more often high disease activity after two years. However, neither bone loss by HBLsdc or HBLtertiles nor by ChDXR1yr was an independent predictor of remission after two, five and eight years.
Conclusions
This study confirms previous reports of an association of decrease in DXR-BMD during the first disease year with progression of radiographic joint damage over an extended period of time. This association was independent in a regression model only when radiological findings were excluded suggesting a possible predictive role of DXR-BMD in clinical practice when radiographic evaluation is not available. However, further studies are required before this can be established.
doi:10.1186/ar4058
PMCID: PMC4060357  PMID: 23068060
17.  Bone Mineral Density as a Predictor of Atherosclerosis and Arterial Wall Stiffness in Obese African-American Women 
Cardiorenal Medicine  2012;2(4):328-334.
Bone demineralization is associated with higher cardiovascular event rates, possibly due to vascular calcification and accelerated atherosclerosis. African-Americans have less bone loss and less calcium content within atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether loss of bone mass is related to atherosclerosis has not been examined in African-Americans. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible associations between bone mineral density (BMD), carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT), and arterial stiffness. We studied 100 obese African-American women (BMI: 26.6 ± 6.2; age: 63 ± 14 years) referred for BMD estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. BMD (g/cm2) was obtained at the lumbar spine (L1–L4), femoral neck, and total hip. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by the heart rate-corrected augmentation index (AI@75) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) using applanation tonometry. CIMT was measured by vascular ultrasound. Mean CIMT, AI@75, and PWV were 0.72 ± 0.14 mm, 28.8 ± 9.0%, and 8.9 ± 1.6 m/s, respectively. Mean BMD values at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and hip were 0.96 ± 0.19, 0.80 ± 0.16, and 0.91 ± 0.17 g/cm2. Older subjects had higher CIMT (r = 0.61, p < 0.001) and AI@75 (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between AI@75 and CIMT (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with AI@75 (lumbar: r = −0.22, p = 0.03; femoral neck: r = −0.24, p = 0.01; hip: r = −0.21, p = 0.03). BMD was unrelated to CIMT (lumbar: r = −0.09, p = 0.42; femoral neck: r = −0.15, p = 0.17; hip: r = −0.13, p = 0.23). On multivariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.02), and lumbar BMD (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.30) were independent predictors of increased AI@75 after adjusting for age, height, and cardiovascular risk factors. These findings were unchanged upon substitution of femoral neck BMD (p = 0.05, R2 = 0.28) into the model. There was a trend with hip BMD (p = 0.06, R2 = 0.28) in the regression model. Age-matched comparison between normal BMD (n = 25) and osteoporotic patients (n = 34) demonstrated a significant difference in AI@75 (26.6 ± 8.9 vs. 31.6 ± 9.1%, p = 0.04). In summary, women with lower BMD had increased arterial stiffness. There was no relationship between BMD and atherosclerosis. In conclusion, age, hypertension, and BMD are independent predictors of higher arterial stiffness. Vascular changes are related to bone mineral loss, suggesting lower BMD may increase cardiovascular risk in African-Americans.
doi:10.1159/000345461
PMCID: PMC3551407  PMID: 23381741
Bone mineral density; Osteoporosis; Atherosclerosis; Wave reflection; Aortic stiffness
18.  Usefulness of bone densitometry in postmenopausal women with clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures 
Methods: Women with vertebral fracture diagnosed over a 10 year period were recruited from our database. The following were excluded: (a) patients with high energy trauma; (b) patients with malignancies; (c) patients with a metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis. All postmenopausal women were included in whom BMD had been evaluated at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x ray absorptiometry during the six months after the diagnosis. Patients with a potential cause of osteoporosis other than age and menopause were not considered. A total of 215 patients were identified.
Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 65.9 (6.9) years. BMD at the lumbar spine was 0.725 (0.128) g/cm2 and the T score was -2.94 (1.22); BMD at the femoral neck was 0.598 (0.095) g/cm2 and the T score was -2.22 (0.89). The BMD of the patients was significantly lower than that of the general population at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck. When the lowest value of the two analysed zones was considered, six patients (3%) showed a normal BMD, 51 (23.5%) osteopenia, and 158 (73.5%) osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck increased with age; it was 25% in patients under 60, 35% in patients aged 60–70, and 60% in patients over 70.
Conclusion: These results indicate that bone densitometry is not required in postmenopausal women with clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures if it is performed only to confirm the existence of a low BMD.
doi:10.1136/ard.61.1.73
PMCID: PMC1753873  PMID: 11779765
19.  Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(10):1-12.
Background
Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures.
Methods and Findings
This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures. A total of 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. This study has a power of 90% to detect 3% differences in BMD between the two groups. The women in this study were vitamin D replete, with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 77 nmol/l at baseline. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by −1.28% and −1.22% (p = 0.84) (difference of −0.06%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.67% to 0.54%) at the lumbar spine and −0.69% and −0.88% (p = 0.51) (difference of 0.19%; 95% CI −0.37% to 0.75%) at the total hip in the vitamin K and placebo groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period. Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by 10-fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels (bone formation marker). However, C-telopeptide levels (bone resorption marker) were not significantly different between the two groups. Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0.02). Vitamin K supplements were well-tolerated over the 4-y period. There were no significant differences in adverse effects or health-related quality of life between the two groups. The study was not powered to examine fractures or cancers, and their numbers were small.
Conclusions
Daily 5 mg of vitamin K1 supplementation for 2 to 4 y does not protect against age-related decline in BMD, but may protect against fractures and cancers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. More studies are needed to further examine the effect of vitamin K on fractures and cancers.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT00150969) and Current Controlled Trials (#ISRCTN61708241)
Angela Cheung and colleagues investigate whether vitamin K1 can prevent bone loss among postmenopausal women with osteopenia.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease in which the bones gradually become less dense and more likely to break. In the US, 10 million people have osteoporosis and 18 million have osteopenia, a milder condition that precedes osteoporosis. In both conditions, insufficient new bone is made and/or too much old bone is absorbed. Although bone appears solid and unchanging, very little bone in the human body is more than 10 y old. Old bone is continually absorbed and new bone built using calcium, phosphorous, and proteins. Because the sex hormones control calcium and phosphorous deposition in the bones and thus bone strength, the leading cause of osteoporosis in women is reduced estrogen levels after menopause. In men, an age-related decline in testosterone levels can cause osteoporosis. Most people discover they have osteoporosis only when they break a bone, but the condition can be diagnosed and monitored using bone mineral density (BMD) scans. Treatments can slow down or reverse bone loss (antiresorptive therapies) and some (bone formation therapies) can even make bone and build bone tissue.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although regular exercise and a healthy diet can help to keep bones strong, other ways of preventing osteoporosis are badly needed. Recently, the lay media has promoted vitamin K supplements as a way to reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women. Vitamin K (which is found mainly in leafy green vegetables) is required for a chemical modification of proteins called carboxylation. This modification is essential for the activity of three bone-building proteins. In addition, there is some evidence that low bone density and fractures are associated with a low vitamin K intake. However, little is known about the long-term benefits or harms of vitamin K supplements. In this study, the researchers investigate whether a high-dose daily vitamin K supplement can safely reduce bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia in a randomized controlled trial called the “Evaluation of the Clinical Use of Vitamin K Supplementation in Post-Menopausal Women With Osteopenia” (ECKO) trial.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
In the study, 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to receive 5mg of vitamin K1 (the type of vitamin K in North American food; the recommended daily adult intake of vitamin K1 is about 0.1 mg) or an inactive tablet (placebo) daily for 2 y; 261 of the women continued their treatment for 2 y to gather information about the long-term effects of vitamin K1 supplementation. All the women had regular bone density scans of their lower back and hips and were examined for fractures and for changes in bone turnover. After 2 y and after 4 y, lower back and hip bone density measurements had decreased by similar amounts in both treatment groups. The women who took vitamin K1 had 10-fold higher amounts of vitamin K1 in their blood than the women who took placebo and lower amounts of a bone formation marker; the levels of a bone resorption marker were similar in both groups. Over the 4-y period, fewer women in the vitamin K group had fractures (nine versus 20 women in the placebo group), and fewer had cancer (three versus 12). Finally, vitamin K supplementation was well tolerated over the 4-y period and adverse health effects were similar in the two treatment groups.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that a high daily dose of vitamin K1 provides no protection against the age-related decline in bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, but that vitamin K1 supplementation may protect against fractures and cancers in these women. The apparent contradiction between the effects of vitamin K1 on bone density and on fractures could mean that vitamin K1 supplements strengthen bone by changing factors other than bone density, e.g., by changing its fine structure rather than making it denser. However, because so few study participants had fractures, the difference in the fracture rate between the two treatment groups might have occurred by chance. Larger studies are therefore needed to examine the effect of vitamin K1 on fractures (and on cancer) and, until these are done, high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation should not be recommended for the prevention of osteoporosis.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196.
The US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases provides detailed information about osteoporosis (in English and Spanish) and links to other resources, including an interactive web tool called Check Up On Your Bones
MedlinePlus provides links to additional information about osteoporosis (in English and Spanish)
The MedlinePlus Encyclopedia has a page about vitamin K
The UK Food Standards Agency provides information about vitamin K
Full details about the ECKO trial are available on the ClinicalTrials.gov Web site
The Canadian Task Force for Preventive Health Care provides recommendations on the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women
Osteoporosis Canada provides information on current topics related to osteoporosis
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050196
PMCID: PMC2566998  PMID: 18922041
20.  Osteoporosis and osteopenia in adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis: prevalence and associated factors 
Thorax  2000;55(9):798-804.
BACKGROUND—Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have many risk factors for reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in a large cross section of patients and to identify risk factors.
METHODS—All patients attending the regional centre were invited to participate in the study. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and for total body with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Multiple indices of disease severity were investigated, and liver and thyroid function, blood calcium, phosphate, 25-OH vitamin D, follicle stimulating and luteinising hormone, oestradiol, and testosterone levels were measured. Patients completed a four day prospective dietary diary. Exercise was assessed by a seven day activity recall questionnaire. Sexual development and treatment histories were obtained. The relationship between all these variables and BMD measurements was analysed.
RESULTS—Sixty six percent of 114 patients assessed had osteopenia or osteoporosis. The Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) clinical score (higher score = less severe disease) correlated significantly with BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and with total body BMD (p<0.001). There was a predicted increase of 0.0032 g/cm2 in lumbar spine BMD for every unit increase in the SK score. Oral steroid use was significantly associated with reduced BMD at the lumbar spine (p = 0.017) and femoral neck (p = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS—Osteopenia and osteoporosis are common findings in a heterogeneous population of adults with CF. Patients at most risk are those with severe disease and those who have used corticosteroids.


doi:10.1136/thorax.55.9.798
PMCID: PMC1745849  PMID: 10950902
21.  The effect of breast-feeding duration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women: a population-based study 
Introduction
In the present study, we investigated the effects of breast-feeding time on bone mineral density (BMD) later in life.
Material and methods
The current study was based on a retrospective analysis of 586 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.8 years, who were screened for osteoporosis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).They were classified into 4 groups with respect to the duration of their breast-feeding as never (group 1), 1-24 months (group 2), 25-60 months (group 3), or > 60 months (group 4). Bone mineral density results for the femur neck and lumbar spine were classified into 3 groups according to WHO criteria as normal (T score > –1.0 SD), osteopenia (T score –1.0 to –2.5 SD), and osteoporosis (T score < –2.5 SD). Patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis (T score < –1.0 SD) were considered as having low bone mass (LBM).
Results
We found a correlation between duration of lactation and femur BMD or spine BMD in the study population (r = 0.116, p < 0.005; r = –0.151, p = 0.001, respectively). Significant differences were found between femur BMD and spine BMD of groups in one-way ANOVA analysis (p = 0.025, p = 0.005, respectively). Additionally, when compared with the other three groups, group 4 was older and had longer duration of menopause (p < 0.01). In logistic regression analysis, age and body mass index were found as independent risk factors of LBM [odds ratio: 1.084 (95% CI 1.031-1.141); odds ratio: 0.896 (95% CI 0.859-0.935)], while duration of lactation was not found as an independent predictor of LBM.
Conclusions
In this study, we have found that changes of bone metabolism during lactation had no effect on postmenopausal BMD measured by DXA. Consequently, it can be suggested that long breast-feeding duration is not a risk factor for low bone mass later in life.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.23416
PMCID: PMC3258757  PMID: 22295033
breast-feeding time; bone mineral density; postmenopausal women
22.  Bone density in patients with late onset Pompe disease 
Background
Pompe disease is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by α-glycosidase deficiency, which leads to lysosomal glycogen accumulation in many different tissues. The infantile form is the most severe with a rapidly fatal outcome, while the late onset form has a greater phenotypic variability, characterized by skeletal muscle dysfunction and early respiratory involvement. Bone mineral density (BMD) has been recently reported to be reduced in many patients with both forms of the disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is now available with an undefined, impact on BMD in patients with late onset disease.
Objectives
The present study aimed to investigate BMD in patients with late onset form of Pompe disease before and after ERT initiation.
Patients and Methods
Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was examined in four newly diagnosed patients with late onset Pompe disease and in four adults under ERT before and after ERT initiation with a treatment duration of 18 to 36 months.
Results
The initial DEXA showed normal total body BMD z-score in all the patients, while L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD was reduced in three and two patients, respectively. After ERT administration, two patients had an improvement in L2-L4 lumbar spine and one patient in femoral neck BMD z-score with values within normal range.
Conclusions
The results suggested that regional BMD may moderately reduce in some patients with the late onset form of Pompe disease, although profound osteopenia was not observed. The improvement of measurements in L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD z-score in some patients with low pre-treatment values after ERT administration needs to be confirmed in larger scale studies.
doi:10.5812/ijem.4967
PMCID: PMC3693639  PMID: 23843830
Bone Density; α-glucosidase; Pompe Disease
23.  Relationship between blood pressure levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women 
Introduction
We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) method and blood pressure (BP) in a large sample of postmenopausal women.
Material and methods
The current study was based on a retrospective analysis of 586 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.8 ±8.8 years, who were screened for osteopenia or osteoporosis by DXA. Patients with hypertension (HT, n= 306) were compared with normotensive (NT, n = 290) individuals. Bone mineral density results for the femur neck and spine were classified into 3 groups according to World Health Organization criteria: normal (T score > –1.0 SD), osteopenia (T score –1.0 to –2.5 SD) and osteoporosis (T score < –2.5 SD). Patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis (T score < –1.0 SD) were grouped as having low bone mass (LBM).
Results
There were no significant differences in femur T score, femur BMD, femur Z score, spinal T score, spinal BMD and spinal Z score between hypertensive and normotensive groups. The group of patients with low bone mass calculated from femur T scores had higher age, systolic BP, duration of hypertension and duration of menopause, but lower BMI. Similarly, patients with low spine BMD had higher age and duration of menopause, but lower BMI. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between systolic BP and femur BMD and T score values. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis revealed that hypertension is an independent predictor of spinal osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Conclusions
The presence of hypertension is an independent predictor of spinal low bone density in Turkish women after menopause.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.22077
PMCID: PMC3258724  PMID: 22291766
blood pressure; bone mineral density; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric
24.  Bone densitometry in patients with osteomalacia: is it valuable? 
Summary
Osteomalacia is a generalized bone disorder characterized by impairment of mineralization, leading to accumulation of unmineralized matrix or osteoid in the skeleton. The clinical features of osteomalacia include musculoskeletal vague pain and muscle weakness.
In its mild and early stages, osteomalacia may be misdiagnosed with variety of musculoskeletal diseases including osteopenia and osteoporosis, and for early diagnosis high rate of suspicion of osteomalacia is necessary.
Our purpose was to determine the amount of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with osteomalacia and to evaluate the efficiency of bone densitometry in these patients.
Diagnosis of our patients was based on history, physical, laboratory and radiological findings and in three patients with bone biopsy and histological approval.
BMD (gm/cm2) at the lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4) and femoral neck were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in 20 patients with osteomalacia (16 females and 4 males, age range 20 to 60 years, mean 39 years) before treatment, comparing with 28 matched healthy individuals, and their T scores were evaluated according to WHO criteria for the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis. 14 patients with osteomalacia (70%) had BMD in amount of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, and 12 patients with osteomalacia (60%) had BMD in amount of osteoporosis in their femoral neck. 50% of the patients had T≥ −3.
We concluded that bone densitometry may detect osteoporosis in up to 70% of patients with osteomalacia. Middle aged individuals with significant osteoporosis should be evaluated for osteomalacia, beside other causes of secondary osteoporosis. Measurement of BMD in patients with osteomalacia is helpful for assessment of the severity of bone condition and following management.
PMCID: PMC3917579  PMID: 24554927
osteomalacia; bone mineral density; densitometry; osteoporosis; Vitamin D
25.  Antiepileptic Medications Increase Osteoporosis Risk in Male Fabry Patients: Bone Mineral Density in an Australian Cohort 
JIMD Reports  2014;17:29-36.
Background: Fabry disease (FD) is an inherited X-linked lysosomal storage disease with widespread clinical manifestations. Small prospective studies have shown increased osteopenia and osteoporosis in male FD patients. Limited information however exists about bone metabolism and osteoporosis risk factors within this group. We reviewed osteoporosis risk factors within our cohort.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) results and fracture incidence in 44 patients (22 males and 22 females) was undertaken. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at the lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck. The impact of risk factors including renal function, antiepileptic drug (AED), analgesia and vitamin D levels were assessed.
Results: Male FD patients had low T scores at all sites (spine −1.2 ± 1.06, hip −1.6 ± 0.9, femoral neck −2.23 ± 1.01). Female T scores showed more typical distribution (spine −0.07 ± 1.47, hip 0.02 ± 1.14, femoral neck −0.49 ± 1.31). A higher incidence of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis occurred in males versus females (spine 46.9% versus 31.8%, hip 75.5% versus 18.2% and femoral neck 86.4% versus 45.5%). Multiple regression analysis showed a 50.8% (p < 0.001) reduction in femoral neck BMD with AED usage, after adjustment for age, gender and renal function. Non-traumatic fractures occurred in 27.3% males over 205 patient-years versus 4.6% in females over 149 patient-years, p = 0.095.
Conclusions: Low bone density was highly prevalent in male patients with increased incidence of non-traumatic fractures. AED usage significantly reduces BMD. Treatment to prevent BMD deterioration will depend on determining the bone turnover status.
doi:10.1007/8904_2014_328
PMCID: PMC4241203  PMID: 25062758

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