To establish optimal cutoff values for serologic diagnosis of fundic atrophy in a high-risk area for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer with high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Northern Iran, we performed an endoscopy-room-based validation study.
We measured serum pepsinogens I (PGI) and II (PGII), gastrin 17 (G-17), and antibodies against whole H. pylori, or cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antigen among 309 consecutive patients in two major endoscopy clinics in northeastern Iran. Updated Sydney System was used as histology gold standard. Areas under curves (AUCs), optimal cutoff and predictive values were calculated for serum biomarkers against the histology.
309 persons were recruited (mean age: 63.5 years old, 59.5% female). 84.5% were H. pylori positive and 77.5% were CagA positive. 21 fundic atrophy and 101 nonatrophic pangastritis were diagnosed. The best cutoff values in fundic atrophy assessment were calculated at PGI<56 µg/l (sensitivity: 61.9%, specificity: 94.8%) and PGI/PGII ratio<5 (sensitivity: 75.0%, specificity: 91.0%). A serum G-17<2.6 pmol/l or G-17>40 pmol/l was 81% sensitive and 73.3% specific for diagnosing fundic atrophy. At cutoff concentration of 11.8 µg/l, PGII showed 84.2% sensitivity and 45.4% specificity to distinguish nonatrophic pangastritis. Exclusion of nonatrophic pangastritis enhanced diagnostic ability of PGI/PGII ratio (from AUC = 0.66 to 0.90) but did not affect AUC of PGI. After restricting study samples to those with PGII<11.8, the sensitivity of using PGI<56 to define fundic atrophy increased to 83.3% (95%CI 51.6–97.9) and its specificity decreased to 88.8% (95%CI 80.8–94.3).
Among endoscopy clinic patients, PGII is a sensitive marker for extension of nonatrophic gastritis toward the corpus. PGI is a stable biomarker in assessment of fundic atrophy and has similar accuracy to PGI/PGII ratio among populations with prevalent nonatrophic pangastritis.
Pepsinogens are a class of endopeptidases that are secreted by the gastric epithelium and released into the circulation. Low serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and low serum pepsinogen I / pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II ratio) are markers of gastric fundic atrophy, and have recently been shown to be associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted the current study to test whether these markers are also associated with esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC.
We measured serum PGI and PGII, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays, in 125 case subjects (patients with moderate or severe ESD) and 250 sex-matched control subjects (no ESD) selected from an endoscopic screening study in Linxian, China. We used conditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, smoking, and place of residence to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Serum PGI showed no statistically significant association with ESD, whether analyzed as a dichotomous, ordinal (quartiles), or continuous variable. Lower serum PGI/II ratio, however, showed a dose-response association with increased risk of ESD, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 2.12 (1.08 − 4.18), comparing the lowest versus the highest quartile. The association between lower serum PGI/II ratio and log OR of ESD was nearly linear, and the p-value for the continuous association was 0.03.
Lower serum PGI/II ratio was linearly associated with higher risk of ESD. This result is consistent with recent findings that gastric atrophy may increase the risk of ESCC.
Esophageal cancer; Squamous dysplasia; Pepsinogen; China
Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). One functional SNP, COX-2 -1195G/A, has been reported to mediate susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese populations. In our previous study, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was found to play a protective role in development of ESCC. The interaction of COX-2 and H. pylori in gastric cancer was well investigated. However, literature on their interaction in ESCC risk is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction between COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), H. pylori infection and the risk of developing ESCC.
One hundred and eighty patients with ESCC and 194 controls were enrolled in this study. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire. Genotypes of the COX-2 -1195 polymorphism were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. H. pylori seropositivity was defined by immunochromatographic screening test. Data was analyzed by chi-squared tests and polytomous logistics regression.
In analysis adjusting for the covariates and confounders, H. pylori seropositivity was found to be inversely association with the ESCC development (adjusted OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.9). COX-2 -1195 AA homozygous was associated with an increased risk of contracting ESCC in comparison with the non-AA group, especially among patients with H. pylori seronegative (adjusted OR ratio: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.3). The effect was strengthened among patients with lower third ESCC (adjusted OR ratio: 6.9, 95% CI 2.1 – 22.5). Besides, H. pylori seropositivity conveyed a notably inverse effect among patients with COX-2 AA polymorphism (AOR ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 – 0.9), and the effect was observed to be enhanced for the lower third ESCC patients (AOR ratio: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02 – 0.47, p for multiplicative interaction 0.008)
H. pylori seropositivity is inversely associated with the risk of ESCC in Taiwan, and COX-2 -1195 polymorphism plays a role in modifying the influence between H. pylori and ESCC, especially in lower third esophagus.
AIM: To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA+ infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer.
METHODS: Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA+ was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively.
RESULTS: In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA+ status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P < 0.000] and fruit consumption (OR = 0.3; P < 0.00). Atrophic body gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII < 3.4 (OR = 4.9; P < 0.04) and alcohol consumption (OR = 7.3; P < 0.02). Duodenal ulcer was associated with CagA+ (OR = 2.9; P < 0.04) and smoking (OR = 2.4; P < 0.04). PGI < 60 μg/L as well as PGI/PGII < 3.4 were associated with CagA+.
CONCLUSION: In a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, H pylori CagA+ is not associated with ABG, but it is a risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population.
Atrophic gastritis; Pepsinogen; Peptic ulcers; Helicobacter pylori-CagA; Interleukins
Low serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and low pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II ratio) are markers of gastric fundic atrophy. We aimed to prospectively test the association between serum PGI/II ratio and risks of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Case-cohort study nested in a prospective cohort with over 15 years of follow-up.
Rural region of the People’s Republic of China.
Men and women aged 40-69 at study baseline.
Main outcome measures
Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between serum PGI/II ratio and caner risk
Compared to subjects with PGI/II ratio of > 4, those with ≤4 had HRs (95%CIs) of 2.72 (1.77-4.20) and 2.12 (1.42-3.16) for noncardia and cardia gastric cancers, respectively. Risk of both cancers were also increased when other cut points ranging from 3 to 6, or when we used quartile models, or nonlinear continuous models. Risk of ESCC was marginally increased in those with PGI/II ratio ≤4, with HR (95% CI) of 1.56 (0.99-2.47), but quartile models and continuous models showed no increased risk. The nonlinear continuous models suggested that any single cut point collapsed subjects with dissimilar gastric cancer risks, and that using cut points was not an efficient use of data in evaluating these associations.
In this prospective study, we found similar and significantly increased risks of noncardia and cardia gastric adenocarcinomas in subjects with low PGI/II ratio, but little evidence for an association with ESCC risk.
Gastric cancer; Esophageal cancer; Pepsinogen; Case-cohort
Iodine concentrates in gastric tissue and may act as an antioxidant for the stomach. We previously showed that self-reported goiter was associated with significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and non-significantly increased risks of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a prospective case-cohort study in a high-risk population in China. Negatively correlated with iodine levels, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a more sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency than goiter. This study aimed to determine whether baseline serum Tg was also associated with development of GNCA, GCA, and ESCC in the same cohort, the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Sera from approximately 200 subjects of each case type and 400 non-cases were tested for serum Tg concentration using appropriate assays. Tg was modeled as sex- and assay-specific quartiles in Cox regression models adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, pepsinogens I/II ratio, family history, and commune of residence. In the final combined analysis, participants in the highest quartile of serum Tg, compared to those in the lowest quartile, had adjusted Hazard Ratios of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.50–1.52), 1.14 (0.63–2.05), and 0.78 (0.47–1.31) for GNCA, GCA, and ESCC, respectively. Using serum Tg, a sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency, we found no association between serum Tg concentrations and risk of these upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in the study population. Our results do not support the hypothesis that iodine deficiency, as assessed by serum Tg, is associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers.
iodine deficiency; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; thyroglobulin; China
AIM: To clarify the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the risk of esophageal carcinoma through a meta-analysis of published data.
METHODS: Studies which reported the association between H. pylori infection and esophageal cancer published up to June 2013 were included. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95%CIs of H. pylori infection on esophageal cancer with respect to health control groups were evaluated. Data were extracted independently by two investigators and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. The statistical software, STATA (version 12.0), was applied to investigate heterogeneity among individual studies and to summarize the studies. A meta-analysis was performed using a fixed-effect or random-effect method, depending on the absence or presence of significant heterogeneity.
RESULTS: No significant association between H. pylori infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk was found in the pooled overall population (OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.76-1.24). However, significant associations between H. pylori infection and ESCC risk were found in Eastern subjects (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.43-0.89). Similarly, cytotoxin-associated gene-A (CagA) positive strains of infection may decrease the risk of ESCC in Eastern subjects (OR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65-0.92), however, these associations were not statistically significant in Western subjects (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.97-1.63). For esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) the summary OR for H. pylori infection and CagA positive strains of infection were 0.59 (95%CI: 0.51-0.68) and 0.56 (95%CI: 0.45-0.70), respectively.
CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection is associated with a decreased risk of ESCC in Eastern populations and a decreased risk of EAC in the overall population.
Helicobacter pylori; Esophageal carcinoma; Cancer risk; Meta-analysis
Gastric fundal atrophy has been hypothesised to increase the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but studies have shown inconsistent results.
We measured serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and pepsinogen II (PGII) among 293 incident cases and 524 matched neighbourhood controls in a high-risk area of Northern Iran. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
After controlling for age, sex, residence area and other potential confounders, gastric atrophy (defined by a validated criterion, PGI <55 μg dl−1) was associated with a two-fold increased risk (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.45) of OSCC in the absence of nonatrophic pangastritis (defined as PGII <11.8 μg dl−1). Stratification by PGII decreased the misclassification errors due to cancer-induced gastritis. Presence of both poor dental health, indicated by higher than median sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT score), and gastric atrophy further increased the risk of OSCC (OR=4.15, 95% CI: 2.04, 8.42) with relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) of 1.47 (95% CI: −1.15, 4.1). Coexistence of poor oral hygiene habit with gastric atrophy elevated OSCC risk eight times (OR=8.65, 95% CI: 3.65, 20.46) and the additive interaction index was marginally statistically significant (RERI=4.34, 95% CI: −1.07, 9.76).
Gastric atrophy is a risk factor for OSCC, and poor dental health and oral hygiene habit may act synergistically in increasing the risk.
atrophic gastritis; oesophageal neoplasm; relative risk; dental health; oral hygiene; pepsinogen
AIM: To study the association between atrophic gastritis (AG) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Latin-America population.
METHODS: A case-control study was performed at two reference Brazilian hospitals including patients diagnosed with advanced ESCC and dyspeptic patients who had been subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with biopsies of the gastric antrum and body. All cases with ESCC were reviewed by a single pathologist, who applied standard criteria for the diagnosis of mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, all classified as AG. The data on the patients’ age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were collected from clinical records, and any missing information was completed by telephone interview. The association between AG and ESCC was assessed by means of univariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions.
RESULTS: Most patients were male, and the median age was 59 years (range: 37-79 years) in both the ESCC and control groups. Univariate analysis showed that an intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d was an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 7.57 times (P = 0.014); upon multiple analysis, alcohol intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d exhibited a risk of 4.54 (P = 0.081), as adjusted for AG and smoking. Smoking was shown to be an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 14.55 times (P = 0.011) for individuals who smoked 0 to 51 packs/year and 21.40 times (P = 0.006) for those who smoked more than 51 packs/year. Upon multiple analyses, those who smoked up to 51 packs/year exhibited a risk of 7.85 (P = 0.058), and those who smoked more than 51 packs/ year had a risk 11.57 times higher (P = 0.04), as adjusted for AG and alcohol consumption. AG proved to be a risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 5.33 times (95%CI: 1.55-18.30, P = 0.008) according to the results of univariate conditional logistic regression.
CONCLUSION: There was an association by univariate conditional logistic regression between AG and ECSS in this sample of Latin-American population.
Atrophic gastritis; Esophagus; Squamous cell carcinoma; Risk factor; Alcohol; Tobacco
Oesophageal cancers rank as the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer death, worldwide. Gastric atrophy, as determined by a low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, may be associated with an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ghrelin, a hormone which, like pepsinogen, is produced in the fundic glands of the stomach, may be a sensitive and specific marker of gastric atrophy, but its association with OSCC is not known.
To examine the relationship between baseline serum ghrelin concentration and subsequent risk of OSCC, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. 82 cases of OSCC were matched (1:1) by age and date of blood draw to controls from the ATBC study. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.
For those individuals in the lowest quartile of serum ghrelin, compared to those in the highest, the multivariate odds ratio of subsequent OSCC was 6.83 (95% CI: 1.46, 31.84). These associations were dose dependent (P for trend = 0.005 for both), and independent of the effects of low pepsinogen I/II ratio (a marker of gastric fundic atrophy) and Helicobacter pylori infection. The significance of these associations remained even for individuals developing OSCC up to 10 years after baseline ghrelin measurement, though they become attenuated after 10 years.
Lower baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with an increase in risk of OSCC. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in other populations and to explore the role of ghrelin in the aetiology of OSCC.
ghrelin; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; atrophy
The human upper digestive tract microbial community (microbiota) is not well characterized and few studies have explored how it relates to human health. We examined the relationship between upper digestive tract microbiota and two cancer predisposing states, serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II) (predictor of gastric cancer risk), and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD) (the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)) in a cross-sectional design.
The Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray was used to test for the presence of 272 bacterial species in 333 upper digestive tract samples from a Chinese cancer screening cohort. Serum PGI and PGII were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. ESD was determined by chromoendoscopy with biopsy.
Lower microbial richness (number of bacterial genera per sample) was significantly associated with lower PGI/II ratio (P=0.034) and the presence of ESD (P=0.018). We conducted principal component (PC) analysis on a β-diversity matrix (pairwise difference in microbiota), and observed significant correlations between PC1, PC3 and PGI/II (P=0.004, 0.009 respectively), and between PC1 and ESD (P=0.003).
lower microbial richness in upper digestive tract was independently associated with both cancer predisposing states in the esophagus and stomach (presence of ESD and lower PGI/II).
microbiota; gastric cancer; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; esophageal squamous dysplasia; serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio
Previous studies have revealed the significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as a risk factor of gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) positivity has been demonstrated to determine the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection in the presence of SHP-2 (src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2). This study aimed to examine the formerly reported association of G/A PTPN11 (protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 11) polymorphism (rs2301756) with gastric atrophy, as well as the association with gastric cancer in a Japanese population using a large sample size.
Study subjects were 583 histologically diagnosed patients with gastric cancer (429 males and 154 females) and age- and sex-frequency-matched 1,636 non-cancer outpatients (1,203 males and 433 females), who visited Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between 2001–2005. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody and pepsinogens were measured to evaluate H. pylori infection and gastric atrophy, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by a logistic model.
Among H. pylori seropositive non-cancer outpatients, the age- and sex-adjusted OR of gastric atrophy was 0.82 (95% CI 0.62–1.10, P = 0.194) for G/A, 0.84 (95% CI 0.39–1.81, P = 0.650) for A/A, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.62–1.09, P = 0.182) for G/A+A/A, relative to G/G genotype, and that of severe gastric atrophy was 0.70 (95% CI 0.47–1.04, P = 0.079), 0.56 (95% CI 0.17–1.91, P = 0.356), and 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–1.01, P = 0.057), respectively. Among H. pylori infected subjects (H. pylori seropositive subjects and seronegative subjects with gastric atrophy), the adjusted OR of severe gastric atrophy was further reduced; 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.90, P = 0.012) for G/A+A/A. The distribution of the genotype in patients with gastric cancer was not significantly different from that for H. pylori infected subjects without gastric atrophy.
Our study results revealed that those with the A/A genotype of PTPN11 rs2301756 polymorphism are at lower risk of severe gastric atrophy, but are not associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer, which partially supported our previous finding that the polymorphism in the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2 was associated with the gastric atrophy risk in H. pylori infected Japanese. The biological roles of this PTPN11 polymorphism require further investigation.
Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China.
A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques.
Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P < 0.05). Regular clean up of food storage utensils, green tea consumption, and alcohol abstinence were protective factors for ESCC (P < 0.01). The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4%) compared to controls (47.2%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07), especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01). No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05).
Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian area, China.
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Recently, serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies and pepsinogen (PG) have been used for gastric cancer screening. The incidence of gastric cancer in Bhutan is reported to be quite high compared with that in neighbouring countries. In this study, 381 subjects from three areas of Bhutan were assessed for gastric mucosal atrophy and serological parameters. Anti-H. pylori IgG, PG I, PG II and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibodies were measured using ELISA. Subjects were classified into four groups according to H. pylori and PG seropositivity: Group A (H. pylori-negative/PG-negative), Group B (H. pylori-positive/PG-negative), Group C (H. pylori-positive/PG-positive) and Group D (H. pylori-negative/PG-positive). The prevalence of H. pylori in the 381 subjects was 71.1 % (271/381), with high infection rates found in rural areas. The PG I/II ratio was significantly inversely correlated with the atrophy score in the antrum and the corpus (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the PG status was significantly associated with the presence of atrophy in the corpus. The prevalence of the PG-positive status was significantly higher among H. pylori-positive subjects than among H. pylori-negative subjects (P<0.001). Based on the ABC method, Group B was the most dominant, followed by Group A, Group C and Group D. The high incidence of gastric cancer in Bhutan can be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA) antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75–1.6) or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77–1.7). Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.
AIM: To study gastric mucosal interleukine-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression, the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) mutation, and serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio related risk in Thai gastric cancer.
METHODS: There were consent 134 Thai non-cancer volunteers who underwent endoscopic narrow band imaging examination, and 86 Thais advance gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic mucosal biopsies and gastric surgery. Tissue samples were taken by endoscopy with 3 points biopsies. The serum PG I, II, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody for H. pylori were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The histopathology description of gastric cancer and non-cancer with H. pylori detection was defined with modified Sydney Score System. Gastric mucosal tissue H. pylori DNA was extracted and genotyped for cagA mutation. Tissue IL-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression were conducted by real time relative quantitation polymerase chain reaction. From 17 Japanese advance gastric cancer and 12 benign gastric tissue samples, all were tested for genetic expression with same methods as well as Thai gastric mucosal tissue samples. The multivariate analysis was used for the risk study. Correlation and standardized t-test were done for quantitative data, P value < 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant.
RESULTS: There is a high non cagA gene of 86.8 per cent in Thai gastric cancer although there are high yields of the East Asian type in the positive cagA. The H. pylori infection prevalence in this study is reported by combined histopathology and H. pylori IgG antibody test with 77.1% and 97.4% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The serum PG I/II ratio in gastric cancer is significantly lower than in the non-cancer group, P = 0.045. The serum PG I/II ratio of less than 3.0 and IL-8 mRNA expression ≥ 100 or log10 ≥ 2 are significant cut off risk differences between Thai cancer and non-cancer, P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively. There is a significantly lower PGI/II ratio in Japanese than that in Thai gastric cancer, P = 0.026. Serum PG I/II ratio at cut off less than 3.0 and IL-8 mRNA expression Raw RQ > 100 or log10 > 2 are significantly difference between Thai cancer group when compared to non-cancer group, P = 0.013 and P < 0.001, respectively. In the correlation study, low PG I/II ratio does not associate with chronic atrophic gastritis severity score in Thais non-cancer cases. However, there is a trend, but not significant convert correlation between IL-8 mRNA expression level and low PG I/II ratio in Thai positive H. pylori infection. The high expression of IL-8 gene demonstrates a poorer prognosis by stage and histology.
CONCLUSION:Predominant gastric mucosal IL-8 mRNA expression level, H. pylori infection, and low PG I/II ratio are relative risks for Thai gastric cancer without correlation with cagA mutation.
Gastric cancer; CagA mutation; Interleukine-8 mRNA expression; Helicobacter pylori; Pepsinogen I/II ratio
The role of tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A in the esophageal and gastric cardia carcinogenesis is still inconclusive. In this study, the polymorphism, promoter methylation and gene expression of RASSF1A were characterized in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA).
We firstly analyzed the prevalence of RASSF1A A133S in a total of 228 cancer patients with ESCC (n=112) and GCA (n=116) and 235 normal controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme-digestion assay. Then, the promoter methylation status of the RASSF1A in ESCC (n=143), GCA (n=92) and corresponding adjacent normal tissues were further investigated using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) approach. Finally, the RASSF1A protein expression were determined in ESCC (n=27), GCA (n=24) and the matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical method.
The frequency of 133Ala/Se and Ser/Ser genotype was significantly higher in GCA patients than in normal controls (19.0% vs. 10.2%, P=0.02). Compared with Ala/Ala genotype, Ala/Se and Ser/Ser genotype significantly increased susceptibility to GCA (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.09–3.97). However, this polymorphism had no association with ESCC (P=0.69). The promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene was significantly increased the risk to both ESCC (OR=5.90, 95% CI=2.78–12.52) and GCA (OR=7.50, 95% CI= 2.78–20.23). Promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene in ESCC was also associated with age and cancer cell differentiation (for age: OR=3.11, 95% CI=1.10–8.73; for differentiation: OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.12–0.69). RASSF1A positive expression was significantly decreased the risk of GCA (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.03–0.83). In contrast, there was no statistical significance between RASSF1A positive expression and ESCC. The expression of RASSF1A protein trend to be positively related with older GCA patients (OR=16.20, 95% CI=1.57–167.74).
The present findings suggest that alterations of RASSF1A may play an important role in gastric cardia carcinogenesis in terms of polymorphism, promoter hypermethylation and protein expression. Whereas, RASSF1A hypermethylation may probably also be involved in esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma; A133S in RASSF1A; Polymorphism; Methylation; Protein expression
AIM: To investigate screening makers for gastric cancer, we assessed the association between gastric cancer and serum pepsinogens (PGs).
METHODS: The subjects comprised 450 patients with gastric cancer, 111 individuals with gastric atrophy, and 961 healthy controls. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG), PGIand PG II were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gastric atrophy and gastric cancer were diagnosed by endoscopy and histopathological examinations. Odds ratios and 95%CIs were calculated using multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: Rates of H. pylori infection remained high in Northeastern China. Rates of H. pylori IgG positivity were greater in the gastric cancer and gastric atrophy groups compared to the control group (69.1% and 75.7% vs 49.7%, P < 0.001). Higher levels of PG II (15.9 μg/L and 13.9 μg/L vs 11.5 μg/L, P < 0.001) and lower PGI/PG II ratio (5.4 and 4.6 vs 8.4, P < 0.001) were found in patients with gastric cancer or gastric atrophy compared to healthy controls, whereas no correlation was found between the plasma PGIconcentration and risk of gastric cancer (P = 0.537). In addition, multivariate logistic analysis indicated that H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis were independent risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower plasma PGI/PG II ratio was associated with higher risks of atrophy and gastric cancer. Furthermore, plasma PG II level significantly correlated with H. pylori-infected gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: Serum PG II concentration and PGI/PG II ratio are potential biomarkers for H. pylori-infected gastric disease. PG II is independently associated with risk of gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; Pepsinogens; Helicobacter pylori; Gastric atrophy; Screening
Background and aim: Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy are both risk factors for gastric cancer. We aimed to elucidate the natural history of gastric cancer development according to H pylori infection and gastric atrophy status.
Subjects and methods: A total of 9293 participants in a mass health appraisal programme were candidates for inclusion in the present prospective cohort study: 6983 subjects revisited the follow up programme. Subjects were classified into four groups according to serological status at initial endoscopy. Group A (n = 3324) had “normal” pepsinogen and were negative for H pylori antibody; group B (n = 2134) had “normal” pepsinogen and were positive for H pylori antibody; group C (n = 1082) had “atrophic” pepsinogen and were positive for H pylori antibody; and group D (n = 443) had “atrophic” pepsinogen and were negative for H pylori antibody. Incidence of gastric cancer was determined by annual endoscopic examination.
Results: Mean duration of follow up was 4.7 years and the average number of endoscopic examinations was 5.1. The annual incidence of gastric cancer was 0.04% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02–0.09), 0.06% (0.03–0.13), 0.35% (0.23–0.57), and 0.60% (0.34–1.05) in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. Hazard ratios compared with group A were 1.1 (95% CI 0.4–3.4), 6.0 (2.4–14.5), and 8.2 (3.2–21.5) in groups B, C, and D, respectively. Age, sex, and “group” significantly served as independent valuables by multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: The combination of serum pepsinogen and anti-H pylori antibody provides a good predictive marker for the development of gastric cancer.
gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; pepsinogen; endoscopy; screening
We conducted this meta-analysis to examine the association between H. pylori and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
We searched the PubMed database, the ISI database, and the references of the selected articles. Case-control or nested case-control studies were selected if they used serology or endoscopic methods to detect H. pylori in the stomach and if control subjects were not restricted to upper gastrointestinal tract cancer or peptic ulcer disease patients. A total of 19 studies were used for this analysis. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird method. Q-statistics and I2 statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were conducted by CagA status.
For EAC, the summary OR (95% CI) was 0.56 (0.46 – 0.68). There was little heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 15%). Further analysis showed that colonization with CagA-positive strains was inversely associated with EAC risk (OR (95%CI) 0.41 (0.28–0.62)) but colonization with CagA-negative strains was not (OR (95%CI) 1.08 (0.76–1.53)). For ESCC, the summary OR (95% CI) was 1.10 (0.78 – 1.55). However, there was substantial heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 73%), with statistically significant associations in both directions.
Our results suggest an inverse association between CagA-positive H. pylori colonization and risk of EAC. The prominent decline of H. pylori colonization in the past few decades may be partly responsible for the recent increase in EAC incidence in Western countries.
Helicobacter pylori; CagA; esophageal cancer; adenocarcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; colonization
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Bacterial virulence factors such as CagA have been shown to increase the risk of both diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role for CagA EPIYA polymorphisms in gastric carcinogenesis, and it has been shown to be geographically diverse. We studied associations between H. pylori CagA EPIYA patterns and gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer, in an ethnically admixed Western population from Brazil. CagA EPIYA was determined by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. A total of 436 patients were included, being 188 with gastric cancer, 112 with duodenal ulcer and 136 with gastritis.
The number of EPIYA C segments was significantly associated with the increased risk of gastric carcinoma (OR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.74 to 5.45, p < 10-3) even after adjustment for age and gender. Higher number of EPIYA C segments was also associated with gastric atrophy (p = 0.04) and intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.007). Furthermore, patients infected by cagA strains possessing more than one EPIYA C segment showed decreased serum levels of pepsinogen I in comparison with those infected by strains containing one or less EPIYA C repeat. Otherwise, the number of EPIYA C segments did not associate with duodenal ulcer.
Our results demonstrate that infection with H. pylori strains harbouring more than one CagA EPIYA C motif was clearly associated with gastric cancer, but not with duodenal ulcer.
Higher number of EPIYA C segments was also associated with gastric precancerous lesions as demonstrated by histological gastric atrophic and metaplastic changes and decreased serum levels of pepsinogen I.
Serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio has been widely used as “serological biopsy” for the screening of gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis (GA). However, study concerning in situ expression of PGs is currently insufficient, particularly for their relationship with serum PGs levels. This study was designed to investigate in situ expression of PGI and PGII in subjects with normal mucosa (NOR), superficial gastritis (GS), GA and GC, and to evaluate the correlations between PGs expressions in situ and in serum.
185 subjects were enrolled for the study, including 30 NOR, 70 GS, 54 GA and 31 GC. PGI and PGII expressions in situ and in serum were detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig) G was also determined by ELISA.
In situ expressions of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio consistently decreased in sequence of NOR/GS- > GA- > GC. The expressions of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio in situ were statistically higher in youngers than in olders (P < 0.05). In the NOR subjects, PGI staining was statistically higher in males than that in females (p = 0.02). For the correlations between in situ and serum expressions of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio, a borderline correlation in the total study sample (r = 0.131, P = 0.076) and a statistical correlation in GA cases (r = 0.307, P = 0.027) were observed for the PGI/II ratio. The PGI expression correlated well with that of PGII in situ and in serum.
The in situ levels of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratio sharply decreased in the GA and GC cases. The youngers exhibited higher levels of PGI, PGII and PGI/II ratios than the olders. The in situ PGI/II ratio rather than PGI and PGII alone showed certain correlation with that in serum, and the PGI expression correlated well with PGII expression. Further studies with large-scale samples are still required to validate our findings.
Pepsinogen; Gastric disease; Correlation
It has been suggested that GastroPanel might be a useful tool for the diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) measuring four biomarkers in blood: basal gastrin-17 (G17), pepsinogen I and II (PGI and PGII), and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.
To determine the accuracy of GastroPanel for the diagnosis of CAG.
This was a prospective, blinded, multicenter study that included dyspeptic patients. G17, PGI, and PGII were determined by enzyme immunoassays. Three antrum and two corpus biopsies were obtained for standard histological analysis and rapid urease test. Biopsies were analyzed by a single blinded expert pathologist.
Ninety-one patients were included (77% women, mean age 44 years, 51% H. pylori positive, 17% with CAG). G17 was reduced in patients with antrum CAG (5.4 vs. 13.4 pmol/l; P<0.01) and increased in patients with corpus CAG (11 vs. 24 pmol/l; P<0.05), but its accuracy was only acceptable in the case of corpus localization [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), 74%]; PGII difference was almost statistically significant only when testing for corpus atrophy (33 vs. 21 μg/l; P=0.05; AUC=72%). The PGI and PGI/PGII ratio showed no significant differences (AUCs were all unacceptably low). Helicobacter pylori antibody levels were higher in H. pylori-infected patients (251 vs. 109 EIU, P=0.01; AUC=70). The accuracy of GastroPanel for the diagnosis of CAG was as follows: sensitivity 50%; specificity 80%; positive 25% and negative 92% predictive values; and positive 2.4 and negative 0.6 likelihood ratios.
GastroPanel is not accurate enough for the diagnosis of CAG; thus, its systematic use in clinical practice cannot be recommended.
antibodies; chronic atrophic gastritis; gastrin-17; Helicobacter pylori; pepsinogen I; pepsinogen II; serologic diagnosis
The incidence of gastric cancer is very high in Japan, Korea, and China. Reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with gastric cancer requires early diagnosis, which can be facilitated by applying gastroscopy more frequently in high-risk groups. A strategy of population screening for gastric cancer is currently being adopted in Korea, Japan, and the Matsu region of Taiwan, but using different screening methods. In addition, the history of pepsinogen (PG) in research as a gastric cancer biomarker has varied, in that the use of serum levels of PGI and PGII and the PGI/PGII ratio as gastric cancer screening tools was introduced in Japan before 1990, but in Korea the first research results were only reported in 2008. This review first evaluates the physiology of PG, followed by the usefulness or limitations of serum PG testing with regard to the detection of gastric cancer. Finally, the factors affecting the efficacy of PG tests as a gastric cancer biomarker (i.e., Helicobacter pylori infection status, gender, histopathologic features, and cancer location and depth) are evaluated. It was found that the strategies used to increase the efficacy of PG tests should be individualized in each country according to the seroprevalence of H. pylori.
Pepsinogen; Gastric cancer; Atrophic gastritis; Helicobacter pylori
Background/Aims—Infection with Helicobacter
pylori strains harbouring the cagA gene
(cagA+) is associated with an increased risk of developing
peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess
whether H pylori isolates with different cagA
status were present in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, and whether a
variable cagA status is relevant to histological gastric
mucosal damage and glandular cell proliferation.
Methods—Well separated H pylori
colonies (between 2 and 25) from primary plates, per gastric area, for
each of 19 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia were examined for
cagA by hybridisation. Western blotting was used to
examine both representative colonies for CagA expression and the
patients' sera for antibody response to CagA. Glandular gastric cell
proliferation was assessed immunohistochemically.
Results—Of the 747 colonies examined, 45.3% were
cagA+. All colonies from four patients were
cagA+, and all colonies from two patients were
cagA−. In 13 patients (68%) both cagA+ and
cagA− colonies were found. CagA expression of isolates
corresponded to their cagA status. H pylori
strains with different CagA molecular masses were present in three
patients. Results based on all 19patients studied showed that the
prevalence of cagA+ colonies in areas with mucosal atrophy
associated or not with intestinal metaplasia (67.9%) was significantly
higher than in normal mucosa (44.7%) and mucosa from patients with
chronic gastritis (44.0%) (p< 0.001). High levels of cell
proliferation were associated with histological atrophy with or without
intestinal metaplasia, but not with the possession of cagA
by organisms colonising the same mucosal sites.
Conclusions—Most patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia
are infected by both cagA+ and cagA−H pylori colonies. The cagA status of
infecting organisms may play a role in the development of atrophy and
gastritis; Helicobacter pylori
infection; cagA; mucosal atrophy; cell proliferation