Mismatch repair (MMR) malfunction causes the accumulation of mismatches in the genome leading to genomic instability and cancer. The inactivation of an MMR gene (MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, or PMS2) with an inherited mutation causes Lynch syndrome (LS), a dominant susceptibility to cancer. MMR gene variants of uncertain significance (VUS) may be pathogenic mutations, which cause LS, may result in moderately increased cancer risks, or may be harmless polymorphisms. Our study suggests that an inherited MMR VUS individually assessed as proficient may, however, in a pair with another MMR VUS found in the same colorectal cancer (CRC) patient have a concomitant contribution to the MMR deficiency. Here, eight pairs of MMR gene variants found in cancer patients were functionally analyzed in an in vitro MMR assay. Although the other pairs do not suggest a compound deficiency, the MSH2 VUS pair c.380A>G/c.982G>C (p.Asn127Ser/p.Ala328Pro), which nearly halves the repair capability of the wild-type MSH2 protein, is presumed to increase the cancer risk considerably. Moreover, two MSH6 variants, c.1304T>C (p.Leu435Pro) and c.1754T>C (p.Leu585Pro), were shown to be MMR deficient. The role of one of the most frequently reported MMR gene VUS, MSH2 c.380A>G (p.Asn127Ser), is especially interesting because its concomitant defect with another variant could finally explain its recurrent occurrence in CRC patients.
functional analysis; Lynch syndrome; mismatch repair; MSH2; MSH6; VUS
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 forms foci promoted by Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3 in response to mispaired bases. Here we analyzed the Mlh1-Mlh2 complex, whose role in MMR has been unclear. Mlh1-Mlh2 formed foci that often colocalized with and had a longer lifetime than Mlh1-Pms1 foci. Mlh1-Mlh2 foci were similar to Mlh1-Pms1 foci: they required mispair recognition by Msh2-Msh6, increased in response to increased mispairs or downstream defects in MMR, and formed after induction of DNA damage by phleomycin but not double-stranded breaks by I-SceI. Mlh1-Mlh2 could be recruited to mispair-containing DNA in vitro by either Msh2-Msh6 or Msh2-Msh3. Deletion of MLH2 caused a synergistic increase in mutation rate in combination with deletion of MSH6 or reduced expression of Pms1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the S. cerevisiae Mlh2 protein and the mammalian PMS1 protein are homologs. These results support a hypothesis that Mlh1-Mlh2 is a non-essential accessory factor that acts to enhance the activity of Mlh1-Pms1.
Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. In this syndrome, predisposition to cancer results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the human mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In addition to these genes, various DNA replication factors and the excision factor EXO1 function in the repair of damaged DNA by the MMR pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MLH2 gene encodes a MutL homolog protein whose role in DNA mismatch repair has been unclear. Here, we used phylogenetic analysis to demonstrate that the S. cerevisiae Mlh2 protein and the mammalian Pms1 protein are homologs. A combination of genetics, biochemistry and imaging studies were used to demonstrate that the Mlh1-Mlh2 complex is recruited to mispair-containing DNA by the Msh2-Msh6 and Msh2-Msh3 mispair recognition complexes where it forms foci that colocalize with Mlh1-Pms1 foci (note that scPms1 is the homolog of hPms2) and augments the function of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex. Thus, this work establishes the Mlh1-Mlh2 complex as a non-essential accessory factor that functions in MMR.
Germline mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2, and deletions affecting the EPCAM gene adjacent to MSH2, underlie Lynch syndrome by predisposing to early-onset colorectal, endometrial and other cancers. An alternative but rare cause of Lynch syndrome is constitutional epimutation of MLH1, whereby promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing of one allele occurs throughout normal tissues. A dominantly transmitted constitutional MLH1 epimutation has been linked to an MLH1 haplotype bearing two single-nucleotide variants, NM_000249.2: c.−27C>A and c.85G>T, in a Caucasian family with Lynch syndrome from Western Australia. Subsequently, a second seemingly unrelated Caucasian Australian case with the same MLH1 haplotype and concomitant epimutation was reported. We now describe three additional, ostensibly unrelated, cancer-affected families of European heritage with this MLH1 haplotype in association with constitutional epimutation, bringing the number of index cases reported to five. Array-based genotyping in four of these families revealed shared haplotypes between individual families that extended across ≤2.6–≤6.4 megabase regions of chromosome 3p, indicating common ancestry. A minimal ≤2.6 megabase founder haplotype common to all four families was identified, which encompassed MLH1 and additional flanking genes and segregated with the MLH1 epimutation in each family. Our findings indicate that the MLH1 c.−27C>A and c.85G>T variants are borne on a European ancestral haplotype and provide conclusive evidence for its pathogenicity via a mechanism of epigenetic silencing of MLH1 within normal tissues. Additional descendants bearing this founder haplotype may exist who are also at high risk of developing Lynch syndrome-related cancers.
Lynch syndrome; MLH1; epimutation; founder haplotype
Germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes are associated with Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Here, we characterise a variant of hMLH1 that confers a loss-of-function MMR phenotype. The mutation changes the highly conserved Gly67 residue to a glutamate (G67E) and is reminiscent of the hMLH1-p.Gly67Arg mutation, which is present in several Lynch syndrome cohorts. hMLH1-Gly67Arg has previously been shown to confer loss-of-function (Shimodaira et al, 1998), and two functional assays suggest that the hMLH1-Gly67Glu protein fails to sustain normal MMR functions. In the first assay, hMLH1-Gly67Glu abolishes the protein's ability to interfere with MMR in yeast. In the second assay, mutation of the analogous residue in yMLH1 (yMLH1-Gly64Glu) causes a loss-of-function mutator phenotype similar to yMLH1-Gly64Arg. Despite these molecular similarities, an unusual spectrum of tumours is associated with hMLH1-Gly67Glu, which is not typical of those associated with Lynch syndrome and differs from those found in families carrying the hMLH1-Gly67Arg allele. This suggests that hMLH1 may have different functions in certain tissues and/or that additional factors may modify the influence of hMLH1 mutations in causing Lynch syndrome.
G67E; HNPCC; hMLH1; breast; prostate
Background & Aims
Direct germline analysis could be used to screen high-risk patients for DNA mismatch repair gene mutations associated with Lynch Syndrome. To further evaluate this potential strategy, we examined the prevalence of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutations in a population-based sample of young-onset (age < 50 years) CRC cases.
Young-onset CRC cases were randomly selected from three Colon Cancer Family Registry sites (Cancer Care Ontario, Mayo Clinic, University of Southern California). Extracted DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes was shipped to Myriad Genetic Laboratories (Salt Lake City, UT) for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 sequencing, and duplication/deletion analyses for MLH1 and MSH2. Results were reported as: deleterious/suspected deleterious, likely neutral, variant of uncertain significance, or no alteration detected. Germline data were compared to Amsterdam II criteria (ACII) and immunohistochemistry testing (IHC) in secondary analyses.
In 195 subjects, 11 had deleterious/suspected deleterious mutations (5.6%; 95% CI, 2.8%–9.9%), 12 had likely neutral alterations (6.2%; 3.2%–10.5%), 14 had variants of uncertain significance (7.2%; 4.0%–11.8%), 2 had both a likely neutral alteration and a variant of uncertain significance (1.0%; 0.1%–3.7%) and 156 had no alteration detected (80.0%; 73.7%–85.4%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for detecting deleterious/suspected deleterious mutations by ACII were 36.4% (4/11), 96.7% (178/184), 40.0% (4/10), and 96.2% (178/185) and by IHC testing were 85.7% (6/7), 91.9% (136/148), 33.3% (6/18) and 99.3% (136/137).
In this population-based sample of young-onset CRC cases, germline MLH1, MSH2 and/or MSH6 mutations were more prevalent than previously reported for CRC patients overall. Yet, since only about 1 in 20 young-onset CRC cases had confirmed deleterious/suspected deleterious mutations, further comparative effectiveness research is needed to determine the preferred Lynch Syndrome screening strategy for this high-risk group.
Lynch Syndrome screening; mutation prevalence; direct germline analysis; Colon Cancer Family Registry
Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome classically caused by germline mutations of the mismatch repair genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Constitutional epimutations of the MLH1 gene, characterized by soma-wide methylation of a single allele of the promoter and allelic transcriptional silencing, have been identified in a subset of Lynch syndrome cases lacking a sequence mutation in MLH1. We report two individuals with no family history of colorectal cancer who developed that disease at age 18 and 20 years. In both cases, cancer had arisen because of the de novo occurrence of a constitutional MLH1 epimutation and somatic loss-of-heterozygosity of the functional allele in the tumors. We show for the first time that the epimutation in one case arose on the paternally inherited allele. Analysis of 13 tumors from seven individuals with constitutional MLH1 epimutations showed eight tumors had lost the second MLH1 allele, two tumors had a novel pathogenic missense mutation and three had retained heterozygosity. Only 1 of 12 tumors demonstrated the BRAF V600E mutation and 3 of 11 tumors harbored a mutation in KRAS. The finding that epimutations can originate on the paternal allele provides important new insights into the mechanism of origin of epimutations. It is clear that the second hit in MLH1 epimutation-associated tumors typically has a genetic not epigenetic basis. Individuals with mismatch repair–deficient cancers without the BRAF V600E mutation are candidates for germline screening for sequence or methylation changes in MLH1.
colorectal cancer; Lynch syndrome; MLH1 epimutation; microsatellite instability; BRAF
Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes predispose to Lynch syndrome, thus conferring a high relative risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer. The MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutational spectrum reported so far involves minor alterations scattered throughout their coding regions as well as large genomic rearrangements. Therefore, a combination of complete sequencing and a specialized technique for the detection of genomic rearrangements should be conducted during a proper DNA-testing procedure. Our main goal was to successfully identify Lynch syndrome families and determine the spectrum of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutations in Greek Lynch families in order to develop an efficient screening protocol for the Greek colorectal cancer patients' cohort.
Forty-two samples from twenty-four families, out of which twenty two of Greek, one of Cypriot and one of Serbian origin, were screened for the presence of germline mutations in the major mismatch repair genes through direct sequencing and MLPA. Families were selected upon Amsterdam criteria or revised Bethesda guidelines.
Ten deleterious alterations were detected in twelve out of the twenty-four families subjected to genetic testing, thus our detection rate is 50%. Four of the pathogenic point mutations, namely two nonsense, one missense and one splice site change, are novel, whereas the detected genomic deletion encompassing exon 6 of the MLH1 gene has been described repeatedly in the LOVD database. The average age of onset for the development of both colorectal and endometrial cancer among mutation positive families is 43.2 years.
The mutational spectrum of the MMR genes investigated as it has been shaped by our analysis is quite heterogeneous without any strong indication for the presence of a founder effect.
MutLα, a heterodimer of MLH1 and PMS2, plays a central role in human DNA mismatch repair. It interacts ATP-dependently with the mismatch detector MutSα and assembles and controls further repair enzymes. We tested if the interaction of MutLα with DNA-bound MutSα is impaired by cancer-associated mutations in MLH1, and identified one mutation (Ala128Pro) which abolished interaction as well as mismatch repair activity. Further examinations revealed three more residues whose mutation interfered with interaction. Homology modelling of MLH1 showed that all residues clustered in a small accessible surface patch, suggesting that the major interaction interface of MutLα for MutSα is located on the edge of an extensive β-sheet that backs the MLH1 ATP binding pocket. Bioinformatic analysis confirmed that this patch corresponds to a conserved potential protein–protein interaction interface which is present in both human MLH1 and its E.coli homologue MutL. MutL could be site-specifically crosslinked to MutS from this patch, confirming that the bacterial MutL–MutS complex is established by the corresponding interface in MutL. This is the first study that identifies the conserved major MutLα–MutSα interaction interface in MLH1 and demonstrates that mutations in this interface can affect interaction and mismatch repair, and thereby can also contribute to cancer development.
An accurate algorithm is essential for effective molecular diagnosis of hereditary colorectal cancer. Here we have extended the analysis of 71 colorectal cancer cases suspected to be Lynch Syndrome cases for MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2 gene defects. All cases were screened for mutations in MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6 and all cases where tumors were available were screened for microsatellite instability and expression of MSH2 and MLH1. Subsequently, mutation negative cases were screened for MLH1 methylation and mutations in PMS2. Of the MSI-H cases, 96% had a mismatch repair gene defect, mostly involving MSH2 or MLH1; 1 PMS2 mutation, 1 MLH1 epimutation, and no MSH6 mutations were found. Four of the 28 MSI-H cases, including 1 Amsterdam criteria case, had biallelic tumor MLH1 methylation indicating that sporadic cases can be admixed in with Lynch Syndrome cases even those meeting the strongest criteria for Lynch Syndrome. Mismatch repair gene defects were found in similar frequency in cases where tumors were and were not available. One MLH1 and 1 MSH2 deletion mutation were found in MSI-S/L cases indicating that microsatellite instability testing can exclude cases with pathogenic mutations. Our analysis support a diagnostic algorithm where cases are selected for analysis based on clinical criteria or prediction models; isolated sporadic young-onset cases can be pre-screened by tumor testing whereas familial cases may be directly subjected to molecular analysis for mutations in mismatch repair genes followed by microsatellite instability, protein expression and DNA methylation analysis to aid in the resolution of mutation negative cases.
Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MSH2 and MLH1 are responsible for the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), an autosomal-dominant early-onset cancer syndrome. Genetic testing of both MSH2 and MLH1 from individuals suspected of HNPCC has revealed a considerable number of missense codons, which are difficult to classify as either pathogenic mutations or silent polymorphisms. To identify novel MLH1 missense codons that impair MMR activity, a prospective genetic screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. The screen utilized hybrid human-yeast MLH1 genes that encode proteins having regions of the yeast ATPase domain replaced by homologous regions from the human protein. These hybrid MLH1 proteins are functional in MMR in vivo in yeast. Mutagenized MLH1 fragments of the human coding region were synthesized by error-prone PCR and cloned directly in yeast by in vivo gap repair. The resulting yeast colonies, which constitute a library of hybrid MLH1 gene variants, were initially screened by semi-quantitative in vivo MMR assays. The hybrid MLH1 genes were recovered from yeast clones that exhibited a MMR defect and sequenced to identify alterations in the mutagenized region. This investigation identified 117 missense codons that conferred a 2-fold or greater decreased efficiency of MMR in subsequent quantitative MMR assays. Notably, 10 of the identified missense codons were equivalent to codon changes previously observed in the human population and implicated in HNPCC. To investigate the effect of all possible codon alterations at single residues, a comprehensive mutational analysis of human MLH1 codons 43 (lysine-43) and 44 (serine-44) was performed. Several amino acid replacements at each residue were silent, but the majority of substitutions at lysine-43 (14/19) and serine-44 (18/19) reduced the efficiency of MMR. The assembled data identifies amino acid substitutions that disrupt MLH1 structure and/or function, and should assist the interpretation of MLH1 genetic tests.
The analytical algorithm of Lynch syndrome (LS) is increasingly complex. BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation have been proposed as a screening tool for the identification of LS. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness and cost-effectiveness of both somatic alterations to improve the yield of the diagnostic algorithm of LS. A total of 122 colorectal tumors from individuals with family history of colorectal cancer that showed microsatellite instability and/or loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression were studied. MMR germline mutations were detected in 57 cases (40 MLH1, 15 MSH2 and 2 MSH6). BRAF V600E mutation was assessed by single-nucleotide primer extension. MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was assessed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a subset of 71 cases with loss of MLH1 protein. A decision model was developed to estimate the incremental costs of alternative case-finding methods for detecting MLH1 mutation carriers. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess robustness of estimations. Sensitivity of the absence of BRAF mutations for depiction of LS patients was 96% (23/24) and specificity was 28% (13/47). Specificity of MLH1 promoter hypermethylation for depiction of sporadic tumors was 66% (31/47) and sensitivity of 96% (23/24). The cost per additional mutation detected when using hypermethylation analysis was lower when compared with BRAF study and germinal MLH1 mutation study. Somatic hypermethylation of MLH1 is an accurate and cost-effective pre-screening method in the selection of patients that are candidates for MLH1 germline analysis when LS is suspected and MLH1 protein expression is absent.
Lyncg Syndrome; MLH1 promoter hypermethylation; BRAF V600E mutation; MS-MLPA; cost-effectiveness
Clinical screening criteria, such as young age of endometrial cancer diagnosis and family history of signature cancers, have traditionally been used to identify women with Lynch Syndrome, which is caused by mutation of a DNA mismatch repair gene. Immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability analysis have evolved as important screening tools to evaluate endometrial cancer patients for Lynch Syndrome. A complicating factor is that 15-20% of sporadic endometrial cancers have immunohistochemical loss of the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 and high levels of microsatellite instability due to methylation of MLH1. The PCR-based MLH1 methylation assay potentially resolves this issue, yet many clinical laboratories do not perform this assay. The objective of this study was to determine if clinical and pathologic features help to distinguish sporadic endometrial carcinomas with MLH1 loss secondary to MLH1 methylation from Lynch Syndrome-associated endometrial carcinomas with MLH1 loss and absence of MLH1 methylation. Of 337 endometrial carcinomas examined, 54 had immunohistochemical loss of MLH1. 40/54 had MLH1 methylation and were designated as sporadic, while 14/54 lacked MLH1 methylation and were designated as Lynch Syndrome. Diabetes and deep myometrial invasion were associated with Lynch Syndrome; no other clinical or pathological variable distinguished the 2 groups. Combining Society of Gynecologic Oncology screening criteria with these 2 features accurately captured all Lynch Syndrome cases, but with low specificity. In summary, no single clinical/pathologic feature or screening criteria tool accurately identified all Lynch Syndrome-associated endometrial carcinomas, highlighting the importance of the MLH1 methylation assay in the clinical evaluation of these patients.
Lynch Syndrome; molecular diagnostics; MLH1 methylation; immunohistochemistry; endometrial cancer
Germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 predispose to the development of colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). These mutations include disease-causing frame-shift, nonsense, and splicing mutations as well as large genomic rearrangements. However, a large number of mutations, including missense, silent, and intronic variants, are classified as variants of unknown clinical significance.
Intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 variants were investigated using in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assay to asses the effect on splicing.
We describe in silico and in vitro characterization of nine intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients, of which four mutations are novel. The analysis revealed aberrant splicing of five mutations (MLH1 c.588 + 5G > A, MLH1 c.677 + 3A > T, MLH1 c.1732-2A > T, MSH2 c.1276 + 1G > T, and MSH2 c.1662-2A > C), while four mutations had no effect on splicing compared to wild type (MLH1 c.117-34A > T, MLH1 c.1039-8 T > A, MSH2 c.2459-18delT, and MSH6 c.3439-16C > T).
In conclusion, we classify five MLH1/MSH2 mutations as pathogenic, whereas four MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 mutations are classified as neutral. This study supports the notion that in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assays are important for the classification of intronic variants, and thereby crucial for the genetic counseling of patients and their family members.
Colorectal cancer; HNPCC; Lynch syndrome; Mini-gene assay; Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6; Splicing defect
Immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins has shown utility in the identification of Lynch syndrome, but majority of tumours with loss MLH1 expression are due to sporadic hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter. These tumours can also show epigenetic silencing of other genes, such as p16. The aim of our study is to evaluate the utility of p16 immunohistochemistry in the prediction of MLH1 germline mutations.
p16 immunohistochemistry was appropriately evaluated in 79 colorectal cancers with loss of MLH1 expression. Methylation of MLH1 and p16 were quantitatively studied using real time PCR assay Methylight. BRAF V600E mutation in tumour tissue was also investigated. Genetic testing for germline mutation of MLH1 was made on 52 patients.
Loss of p16 expression was seen in 21 out of 79 samples (26,6%). There was found statistically significant association between p16 expression and p16 methylation (p<0.001), MLH1 methylation (p<0.001) and BRAF mutation (p<0.005). All tumours with loss of p16 expression showed hypermethylation of p16 (21/21), 95.2% (20/21) showed MLH1 methylation and 71.4% (15/21) were mutated for BRAF V600E Mutational analysis showed pathogenic germline mutations in 8 of the patients, harbouring 10 tumours. All 10 of these tumours showed normal staining of p16 in the immunochemical analysis.
p16 immunohistochemistry is a good surrogate marker for p16 and MLH1 epigenetic silencing due to hypermethylation, and is useful as screening tool in the selection of patients for genetic testing in Lynch syndrome.
colorectal cancer; Lynch syndrome; p16; immunohistochemistry; diagnosis
AIM: To explore the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tissue from patients with Lynch syndrome, and to interpret biological behaviour of Lynch syndrome.
METHODS: Sixty-eight formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks were analyzed in this study, including tissues from Lynch syndrome (n = 30), sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (n = 30), and tumor-adjacent tissues (n = 8). Tissue sections were stained for human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2), human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1), transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (TGFβRII), E-cadherin, β-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, clinical data such as age, gender and tumor-node-metastasis stage were also collected retrospectively.
RESULTS: The positive expression rates of hMSH2, hMLH1, TGFβRII, E-cadherin, β-catenin, MMP-7 and TIMP-2 were significantly related to the depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis, but not to sex or tumour size or location. The differences in the positive expression rates of hMSH2, hMLH1, TGFβRII, E-cadherin, cytomembrane β-catenin, cytoplasmic β-catenin, MMP-7 and TIMP-2 were significant between sporadic CRC and Lynch syndrome. The expression of hMSH2 had a positive correlation with that of hMLH1 in Lynch syndrome and sporadic CRC. The expression of TGFβRII had a positive correlation with that of hMSH2, hMLH1 and MMP-7, and a negative correlation with that of TIMP-2. The expression of MMP-7 had a negative correlation with that of TIMP-2 in Lynch syndrome and sporadic CRC. The expression of E-cadherin was positively correlated with that of cytomembrane β-catenin. However, the expression of cytomembrane β-catenin was negatively correlated with that of cytoplasmic β-catenin, and the expression of cytoplasmic β-catenin was positively correlated with that of MMP-7.
CONCLUSION: EMT may play an important role in the development and progression of Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome was caused by the mutations of mismatch repair genes, mainly hMSH2 and hMLH1, which also beget the mutational inactivation of TGFβRII. Therefore, the colorectal cancer of Lynch syndrome can escape the inhibitory effect of TGFβ1. However, TGFβ1 can up-regulate the expression of MMP-7 and down-regulate the expression of TIMP-2 in tumors by disassembling the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex in the cytomembrane.
Lynch syndrome; Mutation; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; β-catenin; Mismatch repair gene
Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.
Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. In addition to these genes, various DNA replication factors and the excision factor EXO1 function in the repair of damaged DNA by the MMR pathway. Although EXO1 is considered to be the major repair nuclease functioning in mismatch repair, the relatively low mutation rates caused by an exo1 deletion suggest otherwise. Here we used genetics, microscopy and protein biochemistry to analyze the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to further characterize a poorly understood mismatch repair pathway that functions in the absence of EXO1 that is highly dependent on the Mlh1-Pms1 complex. Surprisingly, we found that the highly conserved metal binding site that is critical for the endonuclease activity of the Mlh1-Pms1 heterodimer is required for MMR in the absence of Exo1 to a much greater extent than in the presence of Exo1. Thus, this work establishes that there are at least two different polynucleotide excision pathways that function in MMR.
In eukaryotic cells, DNA mismatch repair is initiated by a conserved family of MutS (Msh) and MutL (Mlh) homolog proteins. Mlh1 is unique among Mlh proteins because it is required in mismatch repair and for wild-type levels of crossing over during meiosis. In this study, 60 new alleles of MLH1 were examined for defects in vegetative and meiotic mismatch repair as well as in meiotic crossing over. Four alleles predicted to disrupt the Mlh1p ATPase activity conferred defects in all functions assayed. Three mutations, mlh1-2, -29, and -31, caused defects in mismatch repair during vegetative growth but allowed nearly wild-type levels of meiotic crossing over and spore viability. Surprisingly, these mutants did not accumulate high levels of postmeiotic segregation at the ARG4 recombination hotspot. In biochemical assays, Pms1p failed to copurify with mlh1-2, and two-hybrid studies indicated that this allele did not interact with Pms1p and Mlh3p but maintained wild-type interactions with Exo1p and Sgs1p. mlh1-29 and mlh1-31 did not alter the ability of Mlh1p-Pms1p to form a ternary complex with a mismatch substrate and Msh2p-Msh6p, suggesting that the region mutated in these alleles could be responsible for signaling events that take place after ternary complex formation. These results indicate that mismatches formed during genetic recombination are processed differently than during replication and that, compared to mismatch repair functions, the meiotic crossing-over role of MLH1 appears to be more resistant to mutagenesis, perhaps indicating a structural role for Mlh1p during crossing over.
The MutL protein is an essential component of the Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair system but has no known enzymatic function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MutL equivalent, an Mlh1p and Pms1p heterodimer, interacts with Msh2p bound to mismatch-containing DNA. Little is known of the functional domains of Mlh1p and Pms1p. In this report, we define the Mlh1p and Pms1p domains required for Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. The Mlh1p-interactive domain of Pms1p is comprised of 260 amino acids near the carboxyl terminus while the Pms1p-interactive domain of Mlh1p resides in the final 212 residues. The two domains are sufficient for Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction, as determined by the two-hybrid assay and by in vitro protein affinity chromatography. Deletions within the domains completely eliminated Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we altered a number of highly conserved residues in the Mlh1p and Pms1p proteins, including some alterations that mimic germline mutations observed for human hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Alterations either in the consensus MutL box located in the amino-terminal portion of each protein or in the carboxyl-terminal homology motif of Mlh1p eliminated DNA mismatch repair function but had no effect on Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. In addition, certain MLH1 and PMS1 mutant alleles caused a dominant negative mutator effect when overexpressed. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural organization of the Mlh1p and Pms1p proteins and the importance of Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction.
High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2–3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only four MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and one MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high and one was MSI-low. The three MSI-high cases included: 1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; 2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and 3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI in the appendix as compared to the right colon and suggest that MLH1 promoter methylation is not a mechanism for microsatellite instability in this location.
Recently, constitutional MLH1 epimutations have been identified in a subset of Lynch syndrome (LS) cases. The aim of this study was the identification of patients harboring constitutional MLH1 epimutations in a set of 34 patients with a clinical suspicion of LS, MLH1-methylated tumors and non-detected germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed in lymphocyte DNA samples by MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification). Confirmation of MLH1 constitutional methylation was performed by MS-MCA (Methylation-specific melting curve analysis), bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing in different biological samples. Allelic expression was determined using heterozygous polymorphisms. Vertical transmission was evaluated by MS-MLPA and haplotype analyses. MS-MLPA analysis detected constitutional MLH1 methylation in 2 of the 34 individuals whose colorectal cancers showed MLH1 methylation (5.9%). These results were confirmed by bisulfite-based methods. Both epimutation carriers had developed metachronous early-onset LS tumors, with no family history of LS-associated cancers in their first-degree relatives. In one of the cases, the identified MLH1 constitutional methylation was monoallelic and results in MLH1 and EPM2AIP1 allele-specific transcriptional silencing. It was present in normal somatic tissues and absent in spermatozoa. The methylated MLH1 allele was maternally transmitted and methylation was reversed in a daughter who inherited the same allele. MLH1 methylation screening in lymphocyte DNA from patients with early-onset MLH1-methylated LS-associated tumors allows the identification of epimutation carriers. The present study adds further evidence to the emerging entity of soma-wide MLH1 epimutation and its heritability.
Lynch syndrome; constitutional epimutation; MLH1; methylation; MS-MLPA; pyrosequencing
Loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) expression and microsatellite instability are two of the more common molecular alterations in endometrial carcinoma. From the published literature, it is controversial as to whether there is a relationship between these different molecular mechanisms. Therefore, a cohort of 187 pure endometrioid and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, carefully characterized as to clinical and pathological features, was examined for PTEN sequence abnormalities and the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. MLH1 methylation analysis was performed when tumors had loss of MLH1 protein. Mismatch repair protein loss was more frequent in endometrioid carcinomas compared to non-endometrioid carcinomas, a difference primarily attributable to the presence of MLH1 methylation in a greater proportion of endometrioid tumors. Among the non-endometrioid group, mixed endometrioid/non-endometrioid carcinomas were the histotype that most commonly had loss of a mismatch repair protein. In endometrioid tumors, the frequency of PTEN loss measured by immunohistochemistry and mutation did not differ significantly between the mismatch repair protein intact or mismatch repair protein loss groups, suggesting that PTEN loss is independent of mismatch protein repair status in this group. However, in non-endometrioid carcinomas, both intact positive PTEN immunohistochemical expression and PTEN wild type were highly associated with retained positive expression of mismatch repair proteins in the tumor. Relevant to screening endometrial cancers for Lynch Syndrome, an initial PTEN immunohistochemistry determination may be able to replace the use of four mismatch repair immunohistochemical markers in 63% of patients with non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Therefore, PTEN immunohistochemistry, in combination with tumor histotype, is a useful adjunct in the clinical evaluation of endometrial carcinomas for Lynch Syndrome.
The Huntington's disease gene (HTT) CAG repeat mutation undergoes somatic expansion that correlates with pathogenesis. Modifiers of somatic expansion may therefore provide routes for therapies targeting the underlying mutation, an approach that is likely applicable to other trinucleotide repeat diseases. Huntington's disease HdhQ111 mice exhibit higher levels of somatic HTT CAG expansion on a C57BL/6 genetic background (B6.HdhQ111) than on a 129 background (129.HdhQ111). Linkage mapping in (B6x129).HdhQ111 F2 intercross animals identified a single quantitative trait locus underlying the strain-specific difference in expansion in the striatum, implicating mismatch repair (MMR) gene Mlh1 as the most likely candidate modifier. Crossing B6.HdhQ111 mice onto an Mlh1 null background demonstrated that Mlh1 is essential for somatic CAG expansions and that it is an enhancer of nuclear huntingtin accumulation in striatal neurons. HdhQ111 somatic expansion was also abolished in mice deficient in the Mlh3 gene, implicating MutLγ (MLH1–MLH3) complex as a key driver of somatic expansion. Strikingly, Mlh1 and Mlh3 genes encoding MMR effector proteins were as critical to somatic expansion as Msh2 and Msh3 genes encoding DNA mismatch recognition complex MutSβ (MSH2–MSH3). The Mlh1 locus is highly polymorphic between B6 and 129 strains. While we were unable to detect any difference in base-base mismatch or short slipped-repeat repair activity between B6 and 129 MLH1 variants, repair efficiency was MLH1 dose-dependent. MLH1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in 129 mice compared to B6 mice, consistent with a dose-sensitive MLH1-dependent DNA repair mechanism underlying the somatic expansion difference between these strains. Together, these data identify Mlh1 and Mlh3 as novel critical genetic modifiers of HTT CAG instability, point to Mlh1 genetic variation as the likely source of the instability difference in B6 and 129 strains and suggest that MLH1 protein levels play an important role in driving of the efficiency of somatic expansions.
The expansion of a CAG repeat underlies Huntington's disease (HD), with longer CAG tracts giving rise to earlier onset and more severe disease. In individuals harboring a CAG expansion the repeat undergoes further somatic expansion over time, particularly in brain cells most susceptible to disease pathogenesis. Preventing this repeat lengthening may delay disease onset and/or slow progression. We are using mouse models of HD to identify the factors that modify the somatic expansion of the HD CAG repeat, as these may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. To identify genetic modifiers of somatic expansion in HD mouse models we have used both an unbiased genetic mapping approach in inbred mouse strains that exhibit different levels of somatic expansion, as well as targeted gene knockout approaches. Our results demonstrate that: 1) Mlh1 and Mlh3 genes, encoding components of the DNA mismatch repair pathway, are critical for somatic CAG expansion; 2) in the absence of somatic expansion the pathogenic process in the mouse is slowed; 3) MLH1 protein levels are likely to be a driver of the efficiency of somatic expansion. Together, our data provide new insight into the factors underlying the process of somatic expansion of the HD CAG repeat.
AIM: To investigate the protein expression profile of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in suspected cases of Lynch syndrome and to characterize the associated germline mutations.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples was performed to determine the protein expression profile of MMR protein. Germline mutation screening was carried out on peripheral blood samples. The entire exon regions of MLH1 and MSH2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, screened by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and analyzed by DNA sequencing to characterize the germline mutations.
RESULTS: Three out of 34 tissue samples (8.8%) and four out of 34 tissue samples (11.8%) showed loss of nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry, indicating the absence of MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression in carcinoma cells, respectively. dHPLC analysis followed by DNA sequencing showed these samples to have germline mutations of MSH2 gene. However, no deleterious mutations were identified in any of the 19 exons or coding regions of MLH1 gene, but we were able to identify MLH1 promoter polymorphism, -93G > A (rs1800734), in 21 out of 34 patients (61.8%). We identified one novel mutation, transversion mutation c.2005G > C, which resulted in a missense mutation (Gly669Arg), a transversion mutation in exon 1, c.142G > T, which resulted in a nonsense mutation (Glu48Stop) and splice-site mutation, c.2006-6T > C, which was adjacent to exon 13 of MSH2 gene.
CONCLUSION: Germline mutations were identified in four Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue proved to be a good pre-screening test before proceeding to germline mutation analysis of DNA MMR genes.
Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography; DNA sequencing; Germline mutation; Mismatch repair genes; Immunohistochemistry; Lynch syndrome
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is increasingly utilized to identify therapeutic targets for patients with malignancy. This technology also has the capability to reveal the presence of constitutional genetic alterations, which may have significant implications for patients and their family members. Here we present the case of a 23 year old Caucasian patient with recurrent undifferentiated sarcoma who had NGS-based tumor analysis using an assay which simultaneously analyzed the entire coding sequence of 236 cancer-related genes (3769 exons) plus 47 introns from 19 genes often rearranged or altered in cancer. Pathogenic alterations were reported in tumor as the predicted protein alterations, BRCA2 “R645fs*15″ and MLH1 “E694*”. Because constitutional BRCA2 and MLH1 gene mutations are associated with Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Lynch syndrome respectively, sequence analysis of DNA isolated from peripheral blood was performed. The presence of the alterations, BRCA2 c.1929delG and MLH1 c.2080G>T, corresponding to the previously reported predicted protein alterations, were confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the constitutional DNA. An additional DNA finding was reported in this analysis, MLH1 c.2081A>C at the neighboring nucleotide. Further evaluation of the family revealed that all alterations were paternally inherited and the two MLH1 substitutions were in cis, more appropriately referred to as MLH1 c.2080_2081delGAinsTC, which is classified as a variant of uncertain significance. This case illustrates important considerations related to appropriate interpretation of NGS tumor results and follow-up of patients with potentially deleterious constitutional alterations.
Tumor profiling; Lynch syndrome; Sarcoma; Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome; Incidental findings
In order to assess whether variations affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are pathogenic and hence predisposing to Lynch syndrome (LS), a three-step assessment model has been proposed. Where LS is suspected based on family history, STEP1 is dedicated to the identification of the causative MMR gene and the variation within it. Thereafter, in STEP2 of the assessment model, the effect of the variation on the function of the protein is assessed in an in vitro MMR and in silico assays. Where LS cannot be confirmed or ruled out in STEP2, the more specific biochemical laboratory assays such as analyzing the effect of the variation on expression, localization, and interaction of the protein are required in STEP3. Here, we verified the proposed three-step assessment model and its ability to distinguish pathogenic MMR variations from variants of uncertain significance (VUS) by utilizing the clinical as well as the laboratory and in silico data of 37 MLH1, 26 MSH2, and 11 MSH6 variations. The proposed model was shown to be appropriate and proceed logically in assessing the pathogenicity of MMR variations. In fact, for MMR deficient MSH2 and MLH1 variations the first two steps seem to be sufficient as STEP3 provides no imperative information concerning the variant pathogenicity. However, the importance of STEP3 is seen in the assessment of MMR proficient variations showing discrepant in silico results as their pathogenicity cannot be confirmed or ruled out after STEP2. MSH6 variations may be applicable to the model if appropriate selection in terms of ruling out MLH1 and MSH2 variations and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation is ensured prior to the completion of STEP2. In conclusion, taking into consideration the susceptibility gene the three-step model can be utilized in an appropriate and efficient manner to determine the pathogenicity of MMR gene variations. Hum Mutat 32:107–115, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Colorectal cancer; CRC; HNPCC; Lynch syndrome; VUS; MLH1; MSH2; MSH6