Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein that confers on cancer cells a migratory phenotype. We showed recently that nicotine, a major risk factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), increases OPN expression in PDA cells. An OPN splice variant, OPNc, supports anchorage independence and maybe the most potent OPN isoform to convey metastatic behavior. In this study, we tested the effect of nicotine on OPNc expression, and analyzed the correlation between total OPN/OPNc levels and patients’ smoking history.
Real time PCR and UV-light-illumination of ethidium-bromide staining were used to examine the mRNA expression in tissue and in PDA cells treated with or without nicotine (3-300 nM). OPN and OPNc were localized by immunohisotchemistry, and ELISA was used to analyze OPN serum levels.
Nicotine treatment of PDA cells selectively induced denovo expression of OPNc. OPNc was found in 87% of invasive PDA lesions, of which 73% were smokers. The levels of OPNc correlated well with higher expression levels of total OPN in the tissue and serum from patients with invasive PDA.
Our data suggest that smoking and nicotine may contribute to PDA metastatic potential through promoting OPNc expression. Although the direct role of OPNc in PDA progression is not defined, OPNc may have value as a diagnostic and prognostic marker, especially in invasive PDA.
pancreatic cancer; nicotine; osteopontin
Background/Aims. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has etiological association with chronic inflammation. Elevated circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), are found in obese individuals. We hypothesized that serum MCP-1 levels are elevated in obese PDA patients. Methods. ELISA was used to analyze MCP-1 serum levels in PDA (n = 62) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) (n = 27). Recursive partitioning statistical analysis investigated the relationship between log MCP-1 and clinicopathological parameters. Results. Log MCP-1 values were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in patients with BMI ≥ 37.5. In patients with BMI < 37.5, average log MCP-1 values were significantly elevated in PDA patients when compared to IPMN patients. Within the IPMN group, higher log MCP-1 levels correlated with increased age. Recursive partitioning analysis of IPMN versus PDA revealed a strategy of predicting characteristics of patients who are more likely to have cancer. This strategy utilizes log MCP-1 as the primary factor and also utilizes smoking status, gender, and age. Conclusion. MCP-1 is a promising biomarker in pancreatic cancer. The potential of using MCP-1 to distinguish PDA from IPMN patients must be studied in larger populations to validate and demonstrate its eventual clinical utility.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional phosphoprotein with an important but poorly understood role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis. We hypothesize that OPN isoforms (OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc) have divergent roles in NSCLC angiogenesis and divergent impact on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion.
We examined mRNA expression using RT-PCR primers for three OPN isoforms in NSCLC and immortalized bronchial epithelial cell lines, and correlated expression with OPN secretion into media detected by ELISA. Angiogenic properties conferred by OPN isoforms were evaluated by transfecting cDNA plasmids specific to each isoform and controls into NSCLC cell lines, H153 and H358 (low endogenous OPN) and A549 and H460 (high endogenous OPN) and analyzing conditioned media on a bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) platform and measuring VEGF levels by ELISA.
OPNa mRNA expression correlated with OPN secretion in cell lines (r=0.912,p=0.0006). OPNa overexpression significantly increased tubule length compared to controls, OPNb had a similar, but less pronounced effect, while OPNc significantly decreased tubule length compared to controls in each cell line. OPNa overexpression was associated with significant increases in VEGF secretion, while OPNb had no effect and OPNc overexpression was associated with significant decreases in VEGF compared to controls in each cell line.
We demonstrated divergent effects of OPN isoforms on NSCLC angiogenesis and VEGF secretion. OPNa overexpression was associated with increased BCE tubule length and VEGF secretion, while OPNc is associated with decreases in both. These findings may lead to therapeutic strategies for selective isoform inhibition in NSCLC.
Osteopontin is a multifunctional phosphoprotein with an important but poorly understood role in non-small cell lung cancer pathogenesis. The role of the three human isoforms has not been previously reported. We demonstrate that individual osteopontin isoforms have divergent effects on non-small cell lung cancer angiogenesis with associated changes in VEGF.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein which has been linked to tumor progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have shown that OPN is upregulated during liver injury and inflammation. However, the role of OPN in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease pathogenesis is not known. In this study, we determined the induction of OPN, and then investigated the effect of secreted forms of OPN in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion of hepatocytes. We show the induction of OPN mRNA and protein expression by HCV-infection. Our results also demonstrate the processing of precursor OPN (75 kDa) into 55 kDa, 42 kDa and 36 kDa forms of OPN in HCV-infected cells. Furthermore, we show the binding of secreted OPN to integrin αVβ3 and CD44 at the cell surface, leading to the activation of downstream cellular kinases such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, and Akt. Importantly, our results show the reduced expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and induction of mesenchymal marker (N-cadherin) in HCV-infected cells. We also show the migration and invasion of HCV-infected cells using wound healing assay and matrigel coated Boyden chamber. In addition, we demonstrate the activation of above EMT markers, and the critical players involved in OPN-mediated cell signaling cascade using primary human hepatocytes infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis (JFH)-1 HCV. Taken together, these studies suggest a potential role of OPN in inducing chronic liver disease and HCC associated with chronic HCV infection.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein with proinflammatory and profibrotic properties. Previous reports demonstrate a role for OPN in wound healing and pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, we determined if OPN levels are increased in a large cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and if OPN contributes dermal fibrosis. Plasma OPN levels were increased in SSc patients, including patients with limited and diffuse disease, compared to healthy controls. Immunohistology demonstrated OPN on fibroblast-like and inflammatory cells in SSc skin and lesional skin from mice in the bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis model. OPN deficient (OPN−/−) mice developed less dermal fibrosis compared to wild-type mice in the bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis model. Additional in vivo studies demonstrated that lesional skin from OPN−/− mice had fewer Mac-3+ cells, fewer myofibroblasts, decreased TGF-beta (TGFβ) and genes in the TGFβ pathway and decreased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated SMAD2 (pSMAD) and ERK. In vitro, OPN−/− dermal fibroblasts had decreased migratory capacity but similar phosphorylation of SMAD2 by TGFβ. Finally, TGFβ production by OPN deficient macrophages was reduced compared to wild type. These data demonstrate an important role for OPN in the development of dermal fibrosis and suggest that OPN may be a novel therapeutic target in SSc.
Background. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is associated with epithelial injury and movement of inflammatory cells into the interstitium. We have proposed that oxalate (Ox)- and CaOx crystal-induced injury is most likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activation of membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase.
Methods. Present study was undertaken to determine the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and renal CaOx crystal deposition in rats with hyperoxaluria. We also investigated the urinary excretion of KIM-1, osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and renal expression of OPN and ED-1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HLP) and 4 mmol apocynin to drink for 28 days. Urine was collected on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. After that, rats were sacrificed and their kidneys processed for various microscopic and molecular investigations.
Results. HLP consumption produced heavy deposits of CaOx crystals. Renal expression of KIM-1 and OPN and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, H2O2 and MCP-1 was significantly increased. ED-1-positive cells migrated into renal interstitium. Apocynin treatment caused significant reduction of crystal deposits, injured and dilated tubules; renal expression of KIM-1, OPN and ED-1 and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, MCP-1 and H2O2. Apocynin had no effect on the urinary excretion of Ox.
Conclusions. This is the first study of urinary excretion and renal expression of KIM-1 in association with renal CaOx crystal deposition, experimental or clinical. The results indicate that NADPH oxidase inhibition leads to reduction in KIM-1 expression and urinary excretion as well as renal CaOx crystal deposition. KIM-1 is an important marker of renal epithelial injury. The results provide further support to our proposal that renal epithelial injury is critical for crystal retention and that injury is in part caused by the production of ROS with the involvement of NADPH oxidase.
apocynin; calcium oxalate; kidney injury molecule-1; kidney stones; NADPH oxidase; oxalate; oxidative stress
In a previously published report we characterized the expression of the metastasis-associated proteins S100A4, osteopontin (OPN) and ephrin-A1 in a prospectively collected panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. The aim of the present follow-up study was to investigate the prognostic impact of these potential biomarkers in the same patient cohort. In addition, circulating serum levels of OPN were measured and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the -443 position of the OPN promoter were analyzed.
Associations between immunohistochemical expression of S100A4, OPN and ephrin-A1 and relapse free and overall survival were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Serum OPN was measured by ELISA, polymorphisms in the -443 position of the tumor OPN promoter were analyzed by PCR, and associations between OPN levels and promoter polymorphisms and clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome were investigated.
High expression of OPN in NSCLC tumors was associated with poor patient outcome, and OPN was a strong, independent prognostic factor for both relapse free and overall survival. Serum OPN levels increased according to tumor pT classification and tumor size, and patients with OPN-expressing tumors had higher serum levels than patients with OPN-negative tumors. S100A4 was a negative prognostic factor in several subgroups of adenocarcinoma patients, but not in the overall patient cohort. There was no association between ephrin-A1 expression and patient outcome.
OPN is a promising prognostic biomarker in NSCLC, and should be further explored in the selection of patients for adjuvant treatment following surgical resection.
NSCLC; Prognosis; Biomarker; Osteopontin; S100A4
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein that mediates cell-matrix interactions and cellular signaling by binding with integrin (primarily αvβ3) and CD44 receptors. OPN regulates cell adhesion, chemotaxis, macrophage-directed IL-10 suppression, stress-dependent angiogenesis, apoptosis prevention, and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that define the role of OPN in tumor progression and metastasis are incompletely understood.
In this study, we use a system of 4T1 and 4T07 murine mammary epithelial tumor cell lines that are divergent in both metastatic phenotype and OPN expression. 4T1 expresses OPN and hematogeneously metastasizes, whereas 4T07 does not express OPN and is highly tumorigenic but fails to metastasize.
Our results demonstrate that OPN regulates Stat1 protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to alter interferon-γ-dependent growth inhibition and p21 expression. We identify Stat-interacting LIM protein as the critical Stat ubiquitin E3 ligase in this setting.
OPN regulates Stat1-dependent functions, such as growth inhibition and p21 expression, in the murine mammary epithelial cells lines 4T1 and 4T07. This relationship between OPN and Stat1 in the context of tumor biology has not been previously examined.
Ubiquitin; SLIM; proteasome; p21; interferon
Matricellular proteins mediate both tissue morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis in important ways because they modulate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. In this study, we found that the matricellular protein osteopontin (Opn) is a novel marker of undifferentiated pancreatic precursors and pancreatic ductal tissues in mice. Our analysis also underscored a specific, dynamic profile of Opn expression in embryonic pancreatic tissues that suggests the participation of this protein’s function in processes involving cell migration, cell-cell interactions, or both. Surprisingly, our analysis of Opn-deficient pancreata did not reveal obvious alterations in the morphology or differentiation of these tissues. Therefore, in embryonic pancreatic tissues, it is possible that other proteins act redundantly to Opn or that this protein’s function is dispensable for pancreas development. Finally, the maintenance of Opn expression in pancreatic tissues of adults argues for a possible function of this protein in injury and pathologic responses.
Pancreas; osteopontin; mouse; matricellular proteins; development; pancreatic ducts; pancreatic precursor; embryo
Experimental animal model studies suggest that calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition in the kidneys is associated with the development of oxidative stress, epithelial injury and inflammation. There is increased production of inflammatory molecules including osteopontin (OPN), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and various subunits of inter-alpha-inhibitor such as bikunin. What does the increased production of such molecules suggest? Is it a cause or consequence of crystal deposition? We hypothesized that over-expression and increased production of MCP-1 is a result of the interaction between renal epithelial cells and CaOx crystals after their deposition in the renal tubules. We induced hyperoxaluria in MCP-1 null as well as wild type mice and examined pathological changes in their kidneys and urine. Both wild type and MCP-1 null male mice became hyperoxaluric and demonstrated CaOx crystalluria. Neither of them developed crystal deposits in their kidneys. Both showed some morphological changes in their renal proximal tubules. Significant pathological changes such as cell death and increased urinary excretion of LDH were not seen. Results suggest that at least in mice (1) Increase in oxalate and decrease in citrate excretion can lead to CaOx crystalluria but not CaOx nephrolithiasis; (2) MCP-1 does not play a role in crystal retention within the kidneys; (3) Expression of OPN and MCP-1 is not increased in the kidneys in the absence of crystal deposition; (4) Crystal deposition is necessary for significant pathological changes and movement of monocytes and macrophages into the interstitium.
Calcium oxalate; Nephrolithiasis; MCP-1; Inflammation
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal disease with a characteristic pattern of early metastasis, which is driving a search for biomarkers that can be used to detect the cancer at an early stage. Recently, the actin-associated protein palladin was identified as a candidate biomarker when it was shown that palladin is mutated in a rare inherited form of PDA, and overexpressed in many sporadic pancreas tumors and premalignant precursors. In this study, we analyzed the expression of palladin isoforms in murine and human PDA and explored palladin's potential use in diagnosing PDA. We performed immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses on patient samples and tumor-derived cells using an isoform-selective monoclonal antibody and a pan-palladin polyclonal antibody. Immunoblot and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to quantify palladin mRNA levels in human samples. We show that there are two major palladin isoforms expressed in pancreas: 65 and 85–90 kDa. The 65 kDa isoform is expressed in both normal and neoplastic ductal epithelial cells. The 85–90 kDa palladin isoform is highly overexpressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in both primary and metastatic tumors compared to normal pancreas, in samples obtained from either human patients or genetically engineered mice. In tumor-derived cultured cells, expression of palladin isoforms follows cell-type specific patterns, with the 85–90 kDa isoform in TAFs, and the 65 kDa isoform predominating in normal and neoplastic epithelial cells. These results suggest that upregulation of 85–90 kDa palladin isoform may play a role in the establishment of the TAF phenotype, and thus in the formation of a desmoplastic tumor microenvironment. Thus, palladin may have a potential use in the early diagnosis of PDA and may have much broader significance in understanding metastatic behavior.
Osteopontin (OPN) mediates cancer metastatis. Mechanisms regulating OPN expression in human colorectal cancer are unknown. Using SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells, we hypothesized that transcription determines OPN expression.
SW480 constitutively express OPN. Transient transfection and deletion analysis of human OPN promoter (full-length 2.1 kb)-luciferase constructs identified cis-regulatory regions. Gelshift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays identified the trans-regulatory nuclear protein. Using in vitro adhesion, migration and invasion studies, siRNA was utilized to determine the functional effect of decreased nuclear protein expression.
A cis-regulatory promoter region, nt-80 to nt-108, upregulated OPN transcription. Gelshift assays demonstrated specific binding of nuclear proteins. Competition with unlabelled mutant oligonucleotides indicated that the region, nt-94 to nt-104 (TGGGCTGGGC), was essential for protein binding in gelshift assays. Confirmatory ChIP assays showed the corresponding nuclear protein to be Sp1. Sp1 expression was ablated with siRNA (si-Sp1) resulting in decreased OPN dependent adhesion, migration and invasion by 50%, 70% and 65%, respectively. Exogenous addition of OPN to si-Sp1 cells restored adhesion, migration and invasion indices.
In SW480 human colon cancer cells, we conclude that Sp1 mediated expression of the tumor metastasis protein, OPN, regulates in vitro functional correlates of tumor metastasis.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein that binds to a number of cell surface receptors including integrins and CD44. It is expressed in many tissues and secreted into body fluids including blood, milk and urine. OPN plays important physiological roles in bone remodeling, immune response and inflammation. It is also a tumour-associated protein, and elevated OPN levels are associated with tumour formation, progression and metastasis. Research has revealed a promising role for OPN as a cancer biomarker. OPN is subject to alternative splicing, as well as post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage. Functional differences have been revealed for different isoforms and post-translational modifications. The pattern of isoform expression and post-translational modification is cell-type specific and may influence the potential role of OPN in malignancy and as a cancer biomarker.
Osteopontin; Cancer; Metastasis; Matricellular protein; Post-translational modification; Alternative splicing
We investigated the role of osteopontin (OPN) in interleukin-12 (IL-12) production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with Penicillium marneffei. Kinetic studies showed that OPN synthesis preceded that of IL-12 at both mRNA and protein levels when PBMCs were cocultured with P. marneffei. Treatment with anti-OPN monoclonal antibodies (MAb) significantly suppressed IL-12 secretion. Furthermore, native OPN induced a profound level of synthesis of IL-12 from noninfected PBMCs. The major cellular source of OPN was monocytes, because depletion of CD14+ cells resulted in the abrogation of such production. We also examined the regulatory role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in OPN secretion from P. marneffei-stimulated PBMCs. Neutralizing anti-GM-CSF MAb significantly reduced OPN secretion, and treatment with this cytokine induced OPN production from both infected and noninfected PBMCs. Finally, antagonists against the mannose receptor but not the β-glucan receptor almost completely abrogated the production of OPN. Our results demonstrated that OPN secreted from monocytes is involved in the production of IL-12 from PBMCs after stimulation with P. marneffei and that OPN production is regulated by GM-CSF. Our results also indicated the possible involvement of the mannose receptor as a signal-transducing receptor for triggering the secretion of OPN by P. marneffei-stimulated PBMCs.
Liver metastasis is a major cause of mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC). However, mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphorylated glycoprotein that is involved in tumor migration and metastasis. The role of OPN in cancer is currently unclear. In this study, OPN mRNA was examined in tissues from CRC, adjacent normal mucosa, and liver metastatic lesions using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The protein expression of OPN and its receptors (integrin αv and CD44 v6) was detected by using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The role of OPN in liver metastasis was studied in established colon cancer Colo-205 and SW-480 cell lines transfected with sense- or antisense-OPN eukaryotic expression plasmids by flow cytometry and cell adhesion assay. Florescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to study gap functional intercellular communication (GJIC) among OPN-transfected cells. It was found that OPN was highly expressed in metastatic hepatic lesions from CRC compared to primary CRC tissue and adjacent normal mucosa. The expression of OPN mRNA in tumor tissues was significantly related with the CRC stages. OPN expression was also detected in normal hepatocytes surrounding CRC metastatic lesions. Two known receptors of OPN, integrin αv and CD44v6 proteins, were strongly expressed in hepatocytes from normal liver. CRC cells with forced OPN expression exhibited increased heterotypic adhesion with endothelial cells and weakened intercellular communication. OPN plays a significant role in CRC metastasis to liver through interaction with its receptors in hepatocytes, decreased homotypic adhesion, and enhanced heterotypic adhesion.
Graves’ disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease involving the thyroid gland. The altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GD. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) is important for interleukin-17 (IL-17) signal activation and a potent chemoattractant for Th17 cells. Meanwhile, Osteopontin (OPN), a broadly expressed pleiotropic cytokine, has been implicated in GD through inducing Th1-involved response to enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but little is known about the role of OPN in regulating CCL20 and IL-17 signaling.
This study sought to explore the possibility of CCL20 level as a biomarker for GD, as well as investigate the role of OPN in regulating CCL20 production.
Fifty untreated GD patients, fifteen euthyroid GD patients, twelve TRAb-negative GD patients and thirty-five healthy control donors were recruited. OPN, CCL20 and other clinical GD diagnosis parameters were measured. CD4+T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using antibody-coated magnetic beads. Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine CCL20 expression level.
We found that the plasma CCL20 level was enhanced in GD patients and decreased in euthyroid and TRAb-negative GD patients. In addition, CCL20 level correlated with GD clinical diagnostic parameters and plasma OPN level. Moreover, we demonstrated that recombinant OPN and plasma from untreated GD patients increased the expression of CCL20 in CD4+T cells, which could be blocked by OPN antibody. Furthermore, we found that the effect of OPN on CCL20 expression was mediated by β3 integrin receptor, IL-17, NF-κB and MAPK pathways.
These results demonstrated that CCL20 might serve as a biomarker for GD and suggested the possible role of OPN in induction of CCL20 expression.
Calcification and fibrosis reduce vascular compliance in arteriosclerosis. To better understand the role of osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein upregulated in diabetic arteries, we evaluated contributions of OPN in male LDLR−/− mice fed high fat diets (HFD).
Methods and Results
OPN had no impact on HFD-induced hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, or body composition. However, OPN−/−;LDLR−/− mice exhibited an altered time-course of aortic calcium accrual -- reduced during initiation but increased with progression -- vs. OPN+/+;LDLR−/− controls. Collagen accumulation, chondroid metaplasia, and mural thickness were increased in aortas of OPN−/−;LDLR−/− mice. Aortic compliance was concomitantly reduced. Vascular re-expression of OPN (SM22-OPN transgene) reduced aortic Col2A1 and medial chondroid metaplasia, but did not impact atherosclerotic calcification, Col1A1 expression, collagen accumulation, or arterial stiffness. Dosing with the pro-inflammatory OPN fragment SVVYGLR upregulated aortic Wnt and osteogenic gene expression, increased aortic β-catenin, and restored early-phase aortic calcification in OPN−/−;LDLR−/− mice.
OPN exerts stage-specific roles in arteriosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice. Actions phenocopied by the OPN metabolite SVVYGLR promote osteogenic calcification processes with disease initiation. OPN limits vascular chondroid metaplasia, endochondral mineralization and collagen accumulation with progression. Complete deficiency yields a net increase in arteriosclerotic disease, reducing aortic compliance and conduit vessel function in LDLR−/− mice.
Arteriosclerosis; Calcification; Chondroid Metaplasia; Diabetes; Osteopontin
Infectious antigens may be triggers for the exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. The underlying mechanism causing acceleration and exacerbation of lupus nephritis (LN) is largely unknown. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is capable of inducing an accelerated model of LN in NZB/W mice, featuring diffuse proliferation of glomerular resident cells. We hypothesized that mesangial cells (MCs) from LN subjects are more responsive to LPS than normal subjects. Cultured primary NZB/W and DBA/W (nonautoimmune disease-prone strain with MHC class II molecules identical to those of NZB/W) MCs were used. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and osteopontin (OPN) expressions either in the baseline (normal culture) condition or in the presence of LPS were evaluated by real-time PCR, ELISA, or western blot analysis. NF-κB was detected by ELISA, electrophoresis mobility-shift assay, and immunofluorescence. First, either in the baseline condition or in the presence of LPS, NZB/W MCs produced significantly higher levels of MCP-1 and OPN than the DBA/W MC controls. Second, NZB/W MCs expressed significantly higher levels of Toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, and NF-κB than the DBA/W MC controls, both receiving exactly the same LPS treatment. In conclusion, NZB/W MCs are significantly more sensitive than their normal control DBA/W MCs in producing both MCP-1 and OPN. With LPS treatment, the significantly elevated levels of both chemokines produced by NZB/W MCs are more likely due to a significantly greater activation of the Toll-like receptor 4-myeloid differentiation factor 88-associated NF-κB pathway. The observed abnormal molecular events provide an intrarenal pathogenic pathway involved in an accelerated type of LN, which is potentially infection triggered.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein, involved in various pathophysiological events. OPN has been studied as a secreted protein, but recent reports showed that OPN can be found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Therefore, some OPN molecules are not secreted and stay in cells. Such intracellular OPN (iOPN) has biological functions distinct from secreted OPN (sOPN). iOPN is involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement and in signal transduction pathways downstream of innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as an adaptor or scaffolding protein. Although sOPN and iOPN are generated from the same Opn mRNA species, biological outcomes mediated by two isoforms can be different. It would be necessary to delineate which isoform of OPN is responsible for pathophysiological events.
osteopontin (OPN); intracellular OPN (iOPN); sOPN; innate immunity; EAE; MS; autoimmune diseases; T helper cell polarization; dendritic cells (DCs)
The authors identified reduced levels of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma aqueous humor compared with control. Osteopontin levels are not influenced by latanoprost but may be altered because of a cellular response to increased IOP. The importance of osteopontin and IOP regulation is discussed.
To characterize the role of osteopontin (OPN) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes.
OPN quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aqueous humor (AH) obtained from human donor eyes (POAG and normal) and surgical samples (POAG and elective cataract removal). OPN expression and localization in whole eye tissue sections and primary normal human trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Latanoprost-free acid (LFA)–treated NTM cells were analyzed for OPN gene and protein expression. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in young OPN−/− and wild-type mice.
OPN levels were significantly reduced in donor POAG AH compared with normal AH (0.54 ± 0.18 ng/μg [n = 8] vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 ng/μg [n = 9]; P = 0.039). A similar trend was observed in surgical AH (1.05 ± 0.31 ng/μg [n = 20] vs. 1.43 ± 0.88 ng/μg [n = 20]; P = 0.083). OPN was present in the trabecular meshwork, corneal epithelium and endothelium, iris, ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. LFA increased OPN gene expression, but minimal change in OPN protein expression was observed. No difference in intraocular pressure (17.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg [n = 56] vs. 17.3 ± 1.9 mm Hg [n = 68]) but thinner central corneal thickness (91.7 ± 3.6 μm [n = 50] vs. 99.2 ± 5.5 μm [n = 70]) was noted between OPN−/− and wild-type mice.
OPN is widely distributed in the human eye and was found in lower concentrations in POAG AH. Reduction of OPN in young mice does not affect IOP.
We found that absence of osteopontin (OPN) in immunocompromised Rag2−/− mice, which lack T and B cells, made the mice extremely susceptible to an opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis, although immunocompetent OPN-deficient mice could clear Pneumocystis as well as wild-type mice. OPN has been studied as an extracellular protein, and the role of an intracellular isoform of osteopontin (iOPN) is still largely unknown. Here, we elucidated the mechanism by which iOPN was involved in anti-fungal innate immunity. First, iOPN was essential for cluster formation of fungal receptors that detect Pneumocystis; including dectin-1, TLR2, and mannose receptor. Second, iOPN played a role as an adaptor molecule in TLR2 and dectin-1 signaling pathways, and mediated ERK activation and cytokine production by zymosan, which simultaneously activates TLR2 and dectin-1 pathways. Third, iOPN enhanced phagocytosis and clearance of Pneumocystis. Our study here suggests the critical involvement of iOPN in anti-fungal innate immunity.
Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals bind avidly to the surface of proliferating and migrating renal endothelial cells, perhaps a key event in kidney stone formation. Oxalate-induced pre-oxidative stress can further promote crystal attachment cells. Natural products including gallotannins found in green teas have been studied as potentially novel treatments to prevent crystal retention and kidney stone formation. Gallotannin significantly inhibited COM crystal growth and binding to MDCK I renal epithelial cells at non-toxic concentrations and also delayed renal cell migration in a wound healing assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that gallotannin significantly attenuated oxalate-induced mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), osteopontin (OPN), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p22phox and p47phox in human primary renal epithelial cells (HRCs). Gallotannin also reduced HRC production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in response to oxalate. Taken together, our findings suggest that gallotannin can contribute to nephrolithiasis prevention via direct effects on renal epithelial cells including suppression of COM binding and MCP-1 and OPN expression, along with augmenting antioxidant activity.
gallotannin; renal epithelial cells; calcium oxalate monohydrate; MCP-1; osteopontin; ROS; SOD
We aimed to evaluate possible clinical application of urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), osteopontin (OPN), and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) chemokine as useful noninvasive markers in children with congenital hydronephrosis (HN) caused by ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO).
The study cohort consisted of surgical cases (study group 1), comprising 15 children with severe HN who required surgery (median age 1.03 years), conservative cases (study group 2), comprising 21 patients with mild, nonobstructive HN, and control group, comprising 19 healthy children. All children had normal renal function. Urinary (u) concentrations of MCP-1, OPN, and RANTES were measured using immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits and were expressed in nanograms per milligram creatinine. Increased levels of MCP-1 and OPN were found in children with HN in comparison with study group 2 and controls (p < 0.05). UMCP-1/Cr correlated with half-time (T1/2) of the elimination phase of tracer excretion of technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG-3) (p < 0.05).
Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed good diagnostic profile for uMCP-1 only in identifying children (<40 %) with abnormal differential renal function (DRF) [area under the curve (AUC) 0.862], and in detecting kidney injury in all examined children (AUC 0.704).
Additional studies with larger number of patients are required to confirm a potential application of uMCP-1 as a promising parameter for early identification of kidney obstruction.
Monocyte chemotactic protein-1; Osteopontin; Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted chemokine; Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
Elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted phosphoglycoprotein, is frequently associated with many transformed cell lines. Various studies suggest that OPN may contribute to tumor progression as well as metastasis in multiple tumor types. High levels of OPN have been reported in patients with metastatic cancers, including breast. We found that the expression of OPN corroborates with the aggressive phenotype of the breast cancer cells i.e. the expression of OPN is acquired as the breast cancer cells become more aggressive. To assess the role(s) of OPN in breast carcinoma, expression of endogenous OPN was knocked down in metastatic MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells using RNA interference. We targeted multiple regions of the OPN transcript for RNA interference, along with ‘scrambled’ and ‘non-targeting siRNA pool’ controls to distinguish between target-specific and potential off-target effects including interferon-response gene (PeIF2-α) induction. The OPN knockdown by shRNA suppressed tumor take in immunocompromised mice. The ‘silenced’ cells also showed significantly lower invasion and migration in modified Boyden chamber assays and reduced ability to grow in soft agar. Thus, in addition to the widely reported roles of OPN in late stages of tumor progression, these results provide functional evidence that OPN contributes to breast tumor growth as well.
Osteopontin; RNA interference; Invasion; Migration; Tumorigenicity; Breast cancer; CMF-DPBS Calcium- and magnesium-free Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline; DMEM-F12 Mixture (1:1) Dulbecco’s-modified minimum essential medium and Ham’s F-12 medium; HBSS Hank’s balanced salt solution; SDS Sodium dodecyl sulfate; PAGE Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis
Purpose: Gastric cancer (GC) remains a leading cause of death worldwide, and an elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN) may correlate with its poor survival. Alternative splicing of OPN can result in three isoforms, OPN-a, OPN-b and OPN-c. The aim of our current study is to examine the expression pattern and biological functions of OPN splice variants in GC.
Methods: Firstly, we evaluated the expression of OPN splice variants in 7 gastric cell lines, 101 pairs of GC tissues and their adjacent non-tumor tissues by Quantative real-time PCR (QT-PCR). Gain-of-function experiments were subsequently performed to determine their diverse roles in malignant behaviors of GC. Besides, their differential effects on the regulation of crucial downstream molecules were further explored in the anti-apoptotic and pro-metastatic process.
Results: We found that OPN-b is the dominant kind of OPN isoform in GC cell lines. Although the expression levels of three variants were all elevated in GC tissues, increased OPN-b or OPN-c expression could correlate with clinicopathological features. Functional analyses further showed that OPN-b most strongly promoted GC cell survival possibly by regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins and CD44v expressions. Moreover, OPN-c most effectively stimulated GC metastatic activity by increasing secretion of MMP-2, uPa, and IL-8.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that OPN splice variants differentially exert clinicopathological features and biological functions in GC. Therefore, focusing on specific OPN isoform could be a novel direction for developing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in GC.
OPN splice variants; gastric cancer; clinicopathological feature; biological function; apoptosis; metastasis.