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1.  Vitamin D Receptor Fok-I Polymorphism Modulates Diabetic Host Response to Vitamin D Intake 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(3):550-556.
OBJECTIVE
Interpopulation as well as interindividual variations in response to vitamin D intake commonly observed in subjects with type 2 diabetes may be related to genetic makeup. One of the candidate genes potentially responsible for this diversity is vitamin D receptor (VDR). This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of VDR Fok-I polymorphism and vitamin D intake on diverse aspects of diabetic host response.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Glycemic status, lipid profiles, inflammatory biomarkers, and VDR Fok-I genotypes were determined in diabetic subjects (n = 140) who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Participants consumed two 250-mL bottles per day of yogurt drink (doogh) fortified with 500 IU vitamin D/250 mL for 12 weeks.
RESULTS
Mean serum 25(OH)D increased by ~30 nmol/L (P < 0.001). The time × intervention effect was significant for 25(OH)D (P = 0.030), HDL (P = 0.011), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-4 (P = 0.008), and IL-6 (P = 0.017) among the genotypic groups. The alleles were defined as ‘‘F’’ or ‘‘f’’ depending on the absence or presence of the restriction site, respectively. The least increment in 25(OH)D was in ff (23.0 ± 3.8 nmol/L) compared with Ff (31.2 ± 3.4 nmol/L) and FF (35.6 ± 2.7 nmol/L) (P for trend = 0.009), but only the difference between ff and FF was significant (P = 0.023). FF group had the largest decrement of both hsCRP and IL-6 compared with Ff (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038) and ff (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
We concluded that those of VDR ff genotype may be regarded as “low responders” to vitamin D intake in terms of response of circulating 25(OH)D and certain inflammatory biomarkers. A nutrigenetic approach may, therefore, be needed to protect diabetic patients from vitamin D deficiency.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0919
PMCID: PMC3579338  PMID: 23160722
2.  Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial 
BMC Medicine  2011;9:125.
Background
Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as the underlying cause of diabetic angiopathy that eventually leads to cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in diabetes. We recently demonstrated the ameliorating effect of regular vitamin D intake on the glycemic status of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, the effects of improvement of vitamin D status on glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects were investigated.
Methods
Subjects with T2D were randomly allocated to one of the two groups to receive either plain yogurt drink (PYD; containing 170 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 mL, n1 = 50) or vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; containing 170 mg calcium and 500 IU/250 mL, n2 = 50) twice a day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures, glycemic status, lipid profile, body fat mass (FM) and endothelial biomarkers including serum endothelin-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were evaluated at the beginning and after the 12-week intervention period.
Results
The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in fasting glucose, the Quantitative Insulin Check Index (QUICKI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 in FYD compared to PYD (P < 0.05, for all). Interestingly, difference in changes of endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 concentrations in FYD compared to PYD (-0.35 ± 0.63 versus -0.03 ± 0.55, P = 0.028; -3.8 ± 7.3 versus 0.95 ± 8.3, P = 0.003 and -2.3 ± 3.7 versus 0.44 ± 7.1 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05 for all), even after controlling for changes of QUICKI, FM and waist circumference, remained significant for endothelin-1 and MMP-9 (P = 0.009 and P = 0.005, respectively) but disappeared for E-selectin (P = 0.092). On the contrary, after controlling for serum 25(OH)D, the differences disappeared for endothelin-1(P = 0.066) and MMP-9 (P = 0.277) but still remained significant for E-selectin (P = 0.011).
Conclusions
Ameliorated vitamin D status was accompanied by improved glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects. Our findings suggest both direct and indirect ameliorating effects of vitamin D on the endothelial biomarkers.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01236846
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-125
PMCID: PMC3239240  PMID: 22114787
3.  Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66716.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) principally mediates the anticancer activities of vitamin D. Various epidemiological studies have investigated the associations of VDR gene polymorphisms with ovarian cancer; however, the results have been inconclusive. In the current study, we evaluated, in a meta-analysis, the association of five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene (ApaI, BsmI, Cdx-2, FokI, and TaqI) with the risk of ovarian cancer. Six eligible studies, with a total of 4,107 cases and 6,661 controls, which evaluated the association of these variants and ovarian cancer risk, were identified from the MEDLINE and PubMed databases. The meta-analysis indicated that FokI was associated with an increased ovarian cancer risk, with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.10 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) = 1.00–1.20] for CT heterozygotes and 1.16 (95% CI = 1.02–1.30) for TT homozygotes relative to common CC carriers. Carriers of the T allele (also known as the f allele) showed an 11% (pooled OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02–1.21; TT/CT vs. CC) increased risk of ovarian cancer relative to CC carriers. For FokI, no significant heterogeneity between the studies was found (I2 = 0%, P = 0.62 for the Q test). There was no statistically significant association between the other four variants (ApaI, BsmI, Cdx-2 and TaqI) and risk of ovarian cancer. These data indicate that the polymorphism FokI on the VDR is a susceptibility factor for ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, more studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the VDR in development of ovarian cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066716
PMCID: PMC3691226  PMID: 23826116
4.  Associations between Two Polymorphisms (FokI and BsmI) of Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Asian Population: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e89325.
Background
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are possibly involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the results to date have been inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the association between 2 polymorphisms (FokI and BsmI) of the VDR gene and T1DM in the Asian population.
Methods
Literature was retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, CBM, Embase and Chinese databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random or fixed effect model.
Results
In total, 20 papers (BsmI: 13 studies; FokI: 13 studies) were included. In contrast to the FokI polymorphism, the BsmI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the Asian population (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13–1.91, P = 0.004 for B vs. b). Upon stratification by regional geography, an increased risk of T1DM in association with the BsmI polymorphism was observed in the East Asian population (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38–2.83, P<0.001 for B vs. b), whereas the FokI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the West Asian population (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12–1.88, P = 0.004 for F vs. f).
Conclusions
Our meta-analysis suggests that the BsmI polymorphism may be a risk factor for susceptibility to T1DM in the East Asian population, and the FokI polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the West Asian population. However, because the study size was limited, further studies are essential to confirm our results.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089325
PMCID: PMC3945782  PMID: 24603699
5.  Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic meta-analysis 
AIM: To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms present in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and colorectal cancer risk, a systematic meta-analysis of population-based studies was performed.
METHODS: A total of 38 relevant reports published between January 1990 and August 2010 were identified, of which only 23 qualified for this meta-analysis based on our selection criteria. Five polymorphic variants of the VDR gene, including Cdx-2 (intron 1e) and FokI (exon 2) present in the 5’ region of the gene, and BsmI (intron 8), ApaI (intron 8), and TaqI (exon 9) sites present in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR), were evaluated for possible associations with colorectal cancer risk. Review manager 4.2 was used to perform statistical analyses.
RESULTS: In the meta-analysis performed, only the BsmI polymorphism was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk. In particular, the BsmI B genotype was found to be related to an overall decrease in the risk for colorectal cancer [BB vs bb: odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.94, P = 3 × 10-4; BB vs Bb + bb: OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.97, P = 5 × 10-4]. Moreover, in subgroup analyses, the BsmI B genotype was significantly associated with colon cancer, and not rectal cancer. An absence of between-study heterogeneity was also observed.
CONCLUSION: A meta-analysis of 23 published studies identified the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene to be associated with an increased risk of colon cancer.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i14.1672
PMCID: PMC3325535  PMID: 22529698
Vitamin D receptor; Polymorphism; Meta-analysis; Colorectal cancer
6.  Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus 
Molecular Biology Reports  2012;40(2):803-810.
Recently, several studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, these results are inconsistent between different cohorts. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of the VDR FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236) genotypes and alleles in SLE patients (n = 258) and healthy individuals (n = 545) in a Polish population. We did not observe significant differences for either the VDR FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI genotype and allele frequencies in patients with SLE and healthy individuals. However, the frequency of the VDR F/F and F/f genotypes of FokI was statistically different between patients with renal disease and patients without this symptom OR = 3.228 (1.534–6.792, p = 0.0014), pcorr = 0.0476)]. There was no association of the studied VDR BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms with clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in patients with SLE. Our study indicates that the studied VDR FokI variant might increase the risk of some clinical presentations in patients with SLE.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11033-012-2118-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11033-012-2118-6
PMCID: PMC3538008  PMID: 23065277
VDR polymorphism; SLE; PCR–RFLP
7.  Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Prognosis of Breast Cancer among African-American and Hispanic Women 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e57967.
Background
Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Although African-Americans have the lowest levels of serum vitamin D, there is a dearth of information on VDR gene polymorphisms and breast cancer among African-Americans and Hispanics. This study examines whether VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer in these cohorts.
Methods
Blood was collected from 232 breast cancer patients (Cases) and 349 non-cancer subjects (Controls). Genotyping for four polymorphic variants of VDR (FokI, BsmI, TaqI and ApaI) was performed using the PCR-RFLP method.
Results
An increased association of the VDR-Fok1 f allele with breast cancer was observed in African-Americans (OR = 1.9, p = 0.07). Furthermore, the FbTA, FbtA and fbtA haplotypes were associated with breast cancer among African-Americans (p<0.05). Latinas were more likely to have the VDR-ApaI alleles (Aa or aa) (p = 0.008). The VDR-ApaI aa genotype was significantly associated with poorly-differentiated breast tumors (p = 0.04) in combined Cases. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed decreased 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) in breast cancer patients who had the VDR-Fok1 FF genotype (p<0.05). The Cox regression with multivariate analysis revealed the independent predictor value of the VDR-FokI polymorphism for DFS. The other three variants of VDR (BsmI, TaqI and ApaI) were not associated with disease outcome.
Conclusions
VDR haplotypes are associated with breast cancer in African-Americans, but not in Hispanic/Latinas. The VDR-FokI FF genotype is linked with poor prognosis in African-American women with breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057967
PMCID: PMC3595235  PMID: 23554871
8.  The Associated Ion between the VDR Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Hepatocellular Carcinoma and the Clinicopathological Features in Subjects Infected with HBV 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:953974.
Aim. To evaluate the possible association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Method. 968 chronic HBV infection patients were enrolled, of which 436 patients were diagnosed HCC patients, and 532 were non-HCC patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were evaluated. The genotypes of VDR gene at FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI were determined. Results. The genotype frequencies of VDR FokI C>T polymorphism were significantly different between HCC and non-HCC groups. HCC patients had a higher prevalence of FokI TT genotype than non-HCC subjects. With FokI CC as reference, the TT carriage had a significantly higher risk for development of HCC after adjustments with age, sex, HBV infection time, α-fetoprotein, smoking status, and alcohol intake. In addition, we also found that the TT genotype carriage of FokI polymorphisms were associated with advanced tumor stage, presence of cirrhosis, and lymph node metastasis. The SNP at BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI did not show positive association with the risk and clinicopathological features of HCC. Conclusion. The FokI C>T polymorphisms may be used as a molecular marker to predict the risk and to evaluate the disease severity of HCC in those infected with HBV.
doi:10.1155/2013/953974
PMCID: PMC3618929  PMID: 23586065
9.  Prognostic Significance of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e29634.
Background
In patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and haplotypes are reported to be associated with survival. We hypothesized that a similar association would be observed in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Methods
In a post-hoc analysis of our previous prospective cohort study, VDR polymorphisms including Cdx2 G/A (rs11568820), FokI C/T (rs10735810), BsmI A/G (rs1544410), ApaI G/T (rs7976091), and TaqI T/C (rs731236) were genotyped by sequencing in 204 consecutive patients with HNSCC who underwent tumor resection. Progression-free survival was compared between VDR polymorphisms using Kaplan-Meier survival curves with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, primary tumor sites, postoperative stages, existence of residual tumor, and postoperative treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Results
During a median follow-up of 1,047 days, tumor progression and death occurred in 76 (37.3%) and 27 (13.2%) patients, respectively. The FokI T/T genotype was associated with poor progression-free survival: median survival for T/T was 265 days compared with 1,127 days for C/C or C/T (log-rank test: P = 0.0004; adjusted hazard ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 5.67; P = 0.001). In contrast, the other polymorphisms (Cdx2, BsmI, ApaI, TaqI) showed no significant association with progression-free survival. The A-T-G (Cdx2-FokI-ApaI) haplotype demonstrated a significant association with a higher progression rate (P = 0.02).
Conclusion
These results suggest that VDR polymorphisms and haplotypes may be associated with prognosis in patients with HNSCC, although the sample size is not large enough to draw definitive conclusions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029634
PMCID: PMC3248455  PMID: 22242137
10.  Association between vitamin D receptor gene haplotypes and chronic periodontitis among Japanese men 
Background: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in a variety of biological processes, such as bone metabolism and modulation of the immune response. Recent findings suggest that the pathway involving bone mineral density-mediated effects is important for the development of periodontitis, but their effects of combined VDR gene polymorphisms have not been confirmed on periodontitis. We assessed the relationship between ApaI, BsmI, and FokI VDR polymorphisms and the risk of severe chronic periodontitis among Japanese adult men.
Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 97 unrelated healthy Japanese men (mean age: 45.6 years, range: 22-59). A clinical examination was performed at a worksite health checkup, and information was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the VDR ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction.
Results: F-carriers of FokI VDR polymorphisms were less likely to develop severe chronic periodontitis than non-F-carriers (p = 0.09). The ApaI and BsmI VDR polymorphisms did not show significant differences in the alleles or genotypes between the subjects with or without severe chronic periodontitis. The haplotype analysis of the three combined VDR polymorphisms revealed that the Abf homozygote had a notably higher prevalence of severe chronic periodontitis than the others, and adjustments for age, smoking status, number of teeth present, and prevalence of diabetes did not change this association (OR = 7.5; 95% CI = 1.6-34.4; p = 0.01).
Conclusion: The VDR haplotype constructed from the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms is related to the risk of severe chronic periodontitis in Japanese men.
PMCID: PMC1975778  PMID: 17848979
chronic periodontitis; vitamin D receptor; polymorphism; haplotypes
11.  Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Renal Cancer Risk in Central and Eastern Europe 
Previous studies investigated the role of vitamin D intake and cancer risk. The kidney is a major organ for vitamin D metabolism, activity, and calcium homeostasis, therefore, it was hypothesized that dietary vitamin D intake and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may modify renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Three common VDR gene polymorphisms (BsmI, FokI, TaqI) were evaluated among 925 RCC cases and 1,192 controls enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Overall associations with RCC risk were not observed, however subgroup analyses revealed associations after stratification by median age of diagnosis and family history of cancer. Among subjects over 60 years, reduced risks were observed among carriers of the f alleles in the FokI SNP (OR = 0.61 for Ff and OR = 0.74 for ff genotypes) compared to subjects with the FF genotype (P-trend = 0.04; P-interaction = 0.004). Subjects with the BB BsmI genotype and a positive family history of cancer had lower risk compared to subjects with the bb allele (OR=0.60; 95% CI: 0.33-1.1; P trend = 0.05). Genotype associations with these subgroups were not modified when dietary sources of vitamin D or calcium were considered. Additional studies of genetic variation in the VDR gene are warranted.
doi:10.1080/15287390701798685
PMCID: PMC2799224  PMID: 18246496
VDR polymorphisms; FokI; BsmI; TaqI; RCC; renal cancer; kidney
12.  The effect of FokI vitamin D receptor polymorphism on bone mineral density in Jordanian perimenopausal women 
Indian Journal of Human Genetics  2013;19(2):233-238.
CONTEXT:
Osteoporosis is a polygenic, multifactorial disease that is characterized by demineralization of bone, and thus presented with decreasing bone mineral mass. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms in the 3’-end region (as determined by the enzymes BsmI and ApaI) have been inconsistently associated with bone mineral mass. Another important VDR start codon polymorphism (as determined by the enzyme FokI) has been found to be related to adult bone mineral density (BMD) in pre-and post-menopausal American women.
AIMS:
This study aims to investigate the prevalence of the FokI VDR gene polymorphism in Jordanian perimenopausal women and study its relationship with bone mineral density.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
DNA was isolated from 90 controls (Mean age = 50.41 ± 1.29 y), and 120 patients with symptomatic vertebral fractures (Mean age = 49.14 ± 3.19 y). Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of FokI was performed on DNA samples.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:
Data was analyzed using SPSS v19 and Microsoft Excel 2007.
RESULTS:
The results showed that in controls, the FF (−0.70 ± 0.51) genotype is associated with high lumbar spine BMD Z-score as compared to Ff (−1.25 ± 0.26) and ff (−1.66 ± 0.47) genotypes (P = 0.0095). In patients, the ff genotype was associated with lower lumbar spine BMD in T-score (−2.31 ± 0.17) and Z-score (−1.56 ± 0.09) genotypes (P = 0.031). No significant association was seen in the femoral neck BMD.
CONCLUSION:
FokI polymorphism may be associated with low BMD in our studied population; however, further studies including other polymorphisms and large sample number are needed.
doi:10.4103/0971-6866.116125
PMCID: PMC3758732  PMID: 24019627
dbSNP rs10735810; Jordan; osteoporosis; vitamin D receptor
13.  Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms, diet, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a nested case-control study 
Breast Cancer Research  2007;9(1):R9.
Introduction
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. Whether risk is influenced by polymorphisms in other vitamin D metabolism genes and whether calcium or vitamin D intake modifies risk by genotype have not been evaluated.
Methods
We conducted a nested case-control study within the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort of associations between breast cancer and four VDR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Bsm1,Apa1,Taq1, and Fok1, a poly(A) microsatellite, and associated haplotypes (baTL and BAtS). We also examined one SNP in the 24-hydroxylase gene (CYP24A1) and two in the vitamin D-binding protein (group-specific component [GC]) gene. Participants completed a questionnaire on diet and medical history at baseline in 1992. This study includes 500 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 500 controls matched by age, race/ethnicity, and date of blood collection.
Results
Incident breast cancer was not associated with any genotype examined. However, women with the Bsm1 bb SNP who consumed greater than the median intake of total calcium (≥902 mg/day) had lower odds of breast cancer compared to women with the Bb or BB genotype and less than the median calcium intake (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.96; pinteraction = 0.01). Similar interactions were observed for Taq1 (T allele) and the poly(A) (LL) repeat.
Conclusion
We found no overall association between selected vitamin D pathway genes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, certain VDR gene polymorphisms were associated with lower risk in women consuming high levels of calcium, suggesting that dietary factors may modify associations by VDR genotype.
doi:10.1186/bcr1642
PMCID: PMC1851389  PMID: 17244366
14.  BsmI, TaqI, ApaI and FokI Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Gene and the Risk of Osteoporosis: A Meta-Analysis 
Disease Markers  2007;22(5-6):317-326.
A meta-analysis regarding BsmI, TaqI, ApaI and FokI polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and their associations with osteoporosis in females is reported. The meta-analysis involved 14, seven, seven and three studies for BsmI, TaqI, ApaI and FokI polymorphisms, respectively. The studies were association studies with osteoporotic cases and controls free of osteoporosis that provided the genotype distribution of individual cases and controls. For the BsmI polymorphism, the allele contrast b vs. B showed heterogeneity among studies (p < 0.01, I2 > 50%) and the random effects (RE) pooled odds ratio (OR) was non-significant: 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–1.38]. Caucasians, postmenopausal cases and studies with WHO diagnostic criteria showed no association under any genetic contrast. However, in East Asians, the OR for the dominant model [fixed effects OR = 0.14 (95% CI 0.04–0.50) and RE OR = 0.16 (95% CI 0.03–0.84)] was significant, indicating prevention. Overall, for the TaqI, ApaI and FokI polymorphisms, the allele contrast showed heterogeneity and the pooled RE ORs were non-significant [OR = 1.06 (95% CI 0.71–1.60), OR = 0.99 (95% CI 0.72–1.37) and OR = 1.17 (95% CI 0.76–1.80), respectively]. The allele contrast for Caucasians, East Asians, postmenopausal cases and studies with WHO diagnostic criteria showed no association for TaqI, ApaI, and FokI. The allele contrast of homozygotes, and the recessive and dominant models the results followed the same pattern as the allele contrast. Therefore, the relationship between the VDR polymorphisms and osteoporosis remains an unresolved issue and other probable genetic-environmental risk factors interacting with the above polymorphisms should be investigated.
doi:10.1155/2006/921694
PMCID: PMC3851656  PMID: 17264402
VDR; osteoporosis; meta-analysis
15.  Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and haplotypes (Apa I, Bsm I, Fok I, Taq I) in Turkish psoriasis patients 
Summary
Background
Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease characterized by increased squamous cell proliferation and impaired differentiation. Vitamin D, Calcitriol, and its analogues are successfully used for psoriasis therapy. However, it is unknown why some psoriasis patients are resistant to Vitamin D therapy. Vitamin D mediates its activity by a nuclear receptor. It is suggested that polymorphisms and haplotypes in the VDR gene may explain the differences in response to vitamin D therapy.
Material/Methods
In this study, 102 psoriasis patients and 102 healthy controls were studied for VDR gene polymorphisms. The Fok I, Bsm I, Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms were examined by PCR-RFLP, and 50 subjects received vitamin D therapy to evaluate the association between VDR gene polymorphisms and response to vitamin D therapy. Existence of cutting site is shown by capital letters, and lack was shown by lower case. The haplotypes were analysed by CHAPLIN.
Results
There was significant difference in allele frequency of T and genotype frequency of Tt between cases and controls (p values 0.038 and 0.04, respectively). The Aa and bb genotypes were significantly higher in early onset than late onset psoriasis (p values 0.008 and 0.04, respectively). The genotypes Ff, ff and TT are significantly different between vitamin D3 therapy responders and non-responders (p values 0.04, 0.0001, 0.009, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing importance of VDR gene haplotypes in psoriasis, the significance of the Wald and LR (Likelihood Ratio) statistics (p=0,0042) suggest that FfBbAatt is a disease-susceptibility haplotype.
Conclusions
Haplotype analysis is a recent and commonly used method in genetic association studies. Our results reveal a previously unidentified susceptibility haplotype and indicate that certain haplotypes are important in the resistance to vitamin D3 therapy and the onset of psoriasis. The haplotypes can give valuable data where genotypes unable to do.
doi:10.12659/MSM.883544
PMCID: PMC3560606  PMID: 23111742
haplotype; polymorphism; psoriasis; vitamin D; VDR; Turkish
16.  Interaction of Vitamin D Receptor with HLA DRB1*0301 in Type 1 Diabetes Patients from North India 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8023.
Background
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder where interaction and integration of immune response genes along with environmental factors play a role in autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing Pancreatic Beta cells.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We have studied four single nucleotide polymorphisms (FokI site in Exon 2, BsmI and ApaI sites in Intron 8 and TaqI site in exon 9) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene using PCR-RFLP and HLA-DRB1 alleles using PCR and hybridization with sequence specific oligonucleotide probes and studied their interaction using LD based statistics for non-linked loci followed by sequence analysis of the vitamin D response element (VDRE) present in the promoter region of HLA-DRB1*0301. Haplotypes, constructed using SHEsis program for four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene, were studied for their interaction with HLA-DRB1 alleles in 233 T1D patients and 191 healthy controls from North India. A significant increase of haplotypes FBAt and fBAT (p<0.02, OR = 1.44 and p<0.002, OR = 3.23 respectively) was observed in the patients. Both the haplotypes FBAt and fBAT were significantly increased in male patients with age at onset less than 18 years; however, fBAT was significantly increased in female patients irrespective of their age at onset. LD based statistics showed significant interaction between the high producer F and T alleles with HLA-DRB1*0301. F and T alleles of VDR have been shown to contribute to VDR mRNA independently. The promoter sequence analysis of HLA-DRB1*0301 showed presence of VDRE involved in higher expression of HLA-DRB1*030, which was confirmed by flow cytometry and real time PCR analysis.
Conclusions/Significance
These data suggest that the interaction between VDR and HLA alleles is mediated by VDRE present in the promoter region of HLA-DRB1*0301 allele, which may be detrimental for the manifestation of T1D in the absence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in early childhood due to poor expression of DRB1*0301 in the thymus resulting in autoimmunity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008023
PMCID: PMC2780726  PMID: 19956544
17.  Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in alcoholic cirrhosis 
AIM: To assess the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Two-hundred forty patients who underwent liver transplantation were studied. The etiologies of liver disease were hepatitis C (100 patients), hepatitis B (37) and alcoholic liver disease (103). A group of 236 healthy subjects served as controls. HCC in the explanted liver was detected in 80 patients. The following single nucleotide gene polymorphisms of the VDR were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism: FokI C>T (F/f), BsmI A>G (B/b), ApaI T>G (A/a) and TaqI T>C (T/t) (BAT).
RESULTS: The frequencies of genotypes in patients without and with HCC were for FokI F/F = 69, F/f = 73, f/f = 18 and F/F = 36, F/f = 36, f/f = 8; BsmI b/b = 45, B/b = 87, B/B = 28 and b/b = 33, B/b = 35, B/B = 12; for ApaI A/A = 53, A/a = 85, a/a = 22 and A/A = 27, A/a = 38, a/a = 15; for TaqI T/T = 44, T/t = 88, t/t = 28 and T/T = 32, T/t = 38, t/t = 10. Carriage of the b/b genotype of BsmI and the T/T genotype of TaqI was significantly associated with HCC (45/160 vs 33/80, P < 0.05 and 44/160 vs 32/80, P < 0.05, respectively). The absence of the A-T-C protective allele of BAT was significantly associated with the presence of HCC (46/80 vs 68/160, P < 0.05). A strong association was observed between carriage of the BAT A-T-C and G-T-T haplotypes and HCC only in alcoholic liver disease (7/46 vs 12/36 vs 11/21, P < 0.002, respectively).
CONCLUSION: VDR genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with the occurrence of HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis. This relationship is more specific for patients with an alcoholic etiology.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i24.3016
PMCID: PMC2890942  PMID: 20572305
Alcohol; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver cirrhosis; Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms
18.  Effects of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on urolithiasis risk: a meta-analysis 
BMC Medical Genetics  2013;14:104.
Background
Several studies analyzed the associations of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with urolithiasis risk in different ethnic groups. However, the results were inconclusive. To evaluate a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed.
Methods
Pubmed, EMBASE, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched. Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations.
Results
Twenty-three case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations between ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms and urolithiasis risk were observed. However, sensitivity analyses for BsmI and FokI polymorphisms indicated that the results were not reliable and credible. In addition, there was a significant association of the ApaI-TaqI haplotype with urolithiasis risk.
Conclusions
This meta-analysis suggested that ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in VDR gene were associated with urolithiasis risk.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-14-104
PMCID: PMC3850980  PMID: 24093218
Urolithiasis; Vitamin D receptor; Polymorphism; Meta-analysis
19.  Vitamin D Receptor Gene TaqI, BsmI and FokI Polymorphisms in Korean Patients with Tuberculosis 
Immune Network  2011;11(5):253-257.
Background
The active metabolite (1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) of vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) leads to activation of macrophages and deficiency of vitamin D seems to be involved in the risk of tuberculosis. The effects of vitamin D are exerted by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. In this study, variation in the VDR gene was investigated in Korean population with tuberculosis.
Methods
We typed three VDR polymorphisms of restriction endonuclease sites for TaqI, BsmI and FokI in 155 patients with tuberculosis and 105 healthy volunteers.
Results
The frequencies of FokI genotypes determined from TB patients were 29.13% for FF, 56.31% for Ff, and 14.56% for ff. We observed 1.4-fold increased prevalence of the Ff genotype in TB patients compared with normal healthy groups (p=0.0857). However, there was no significant association between the genotype groups, TB patient and normal control, for FokI polymorphism. There was also no significant association between VDR gene and tuberculosis in another polymorphism (BsmI and TaqI).
Conclusion
Three polymorphisms (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) in the VDR gene do not appear to be responsible for host susceptibility to human tuberculosis in Korean population.
doi:10.4110/in.2011.11.5.253
PMCID: PMC3242999  PMID: 22194708
VDR; Polymorphism; Tuberculosis; Korean; FokI
20.  Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chronic Kidney Disease 
Nutrients  2014;6(3):1029-1037.
FokI and BsmI polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are regarded as reliable markers of disturbed vitamin D signaling pathway. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong cardiovascular risk marker in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Since BsmI polymorphism has been associated with LVH in ESRD patients, we addressed this study in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis. One hundred and forty five patients with CKD stage 3 were genotyped for FokI and BsmI VDR polymorphisms, in order to assess the relationships between these VDR polymorphisms, some markers of mineral bone disorders, and LVH measured by echocardiography. Patients bearing either the Ff heterozygous or FF homozygous genotype had significantly higher PTH values than those bearing the ff genotype. The relationships between VDR genotypes and LVH revealed a highly significant association of the BsmI Bb heterozygous genotype with LVH. In patients with CKD stage 3 BsmI B allele was independently related to LVH. Since LVH is a frequent finding in dialysis population due to several mechanisms, the presence of the same relationship in patients with CKD strengthens the hypothesis that alterations of vitamin D signaling are implicated in LVH development in patients with renal diseases.
doi:10.3390/nu6031029
PMCID: PMC3967176  PMID: 24618509
vitamin D receptor; gene polymorphisms; left ventricular hypertrophy; parathormone; chronic kidney disease
21.  Polymorphism in vitamin D receptor is associated with bone mineral density in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 
European Spine Journal  2010;19(9):1545-1550.
Low bone mass and osteopenia have been reported in the axial and peripheral skeleton of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that gene polymorphisms are related to osteoporosis. However, no study has yet linked polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and bone mass in AIS. Accordingly, the authors examined the association between bone mass and VDR gene polymorphisms in 198 girls diagnosed with AIS. The VDR BsmI (rs1544410), FokI (rs2228670) and Cdx2 (rs11568820) polymorphisms and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were analyzed and compared to their levels in healthy controls. Mean LSBMD and FNBMD in AIS patients were lower than in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0013, respectively). A comparison of genotype frequencies in AIS patients and controls revealed a significant difference for the BsmI polymorphism only (P = 0.0054). Furthermore, a significant association was found between the VDR BsmI polymorphism and LSBMD. In particular, LSBMD in AIS patients with the AA genotype was found to be significantly lower than in patients with the GA (P < 0.05) or GG (P < 0.01) genotypes. However, no significant association was found between LSBMD or FNBMD and the VDR FokI or Cdx2 polymorphisms. These results suggest that the VDR BsmI polymorphism is associated with LSBMD in girls with AIS.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1385-y
PMCID: PMC2989276  PMID: 20361340
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Bone mineral density; Vitamin D receptor; Polymorphism
22.  Circulating levels of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2011;5(5):464-470.
Growing evidence suggests an elevated risk for colorectal neoplasia among individuals with low levels of vitamin D, the biological actions of which are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). To investigate the association among vitamin D status, VDR polymorphisms (FokI, and BsmI), and colorectal adenoma, we conducted a meta-analysis of nine studies of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and five studies of FokI or BsmI polymorphisms in relation to colorectal adenomas. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. A total of 3398 colorectal adenomas for 25(OH)D and 1754 colorectal adenomas for VDR were included in the meta-analysis. We identified a significant inverse association between colorectal adenoma (combined RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98 per 10 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D levels). When we examined FokI and BsmI polymorphisms in the meta-analysis, we found no association for either FokI (combined RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.95-1.06) or BsmI (combined RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93-1.05) in the additive model. These data suggest an inverse association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and colorectal adenoma risk.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.5.464
PMCID: PMC3221833  PMID: 22125685
Colorectal adenoma; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D receptor; meta-analysis
23.  Association of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer in the Han population of Southern China 
BMC Medical Genetics  2009;10:125.
Background
Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that gene polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) are associated with prostate cancer risks. However, previous results from many molecular studies remain inconsistent.
Methods
Blood samples were collected from 122 prostate cancer patients and 130 age-matched control subjects in the Han population of Southern China. The differences of VDR gene polymorphism between cancer cases and controls were determined by PCR-RFLP, examiming FokI (exon 2), BsmI, Tru9I, ApaI (intron 9), and TaqI (exon 9). Associations between the VDR gene polymorphism and prostate cancer risk were calculated in an unconditional logistic regression model. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes were analyzed with the SHEsis software.
Results
Of five polymorphisms, BsmI was shown to associate with prostate cancer, while FokI, Tru9I, ApaI, and TaqI did not show any significant association. After adjustment for age, the BsmI 'B' allele was associated with an almost 1/3-fold risk (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.15-0.80) of the occurrence of prostate cancer, a 1/5-fold risk (OR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.68) of poorly differentiated prostate cancer, and a 1/10-fold risk (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.78) of aggressive prostate cancer compared with the 'b' allele, especially among older men (>71 years). In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that the 'F-b-U-A-T' was more frequent found in cases than in controls (3.4% vs 0.0%, P = 0.0035), while the frequency of haplotype 'F-B-U-a-T' was 0.8% in cases, significantly lower than in controls (3.9%, P = 0.019).
Conclusion
Our experiments provide evidences that genetic polymorphisms in the VDR gene may be potential risk factors for prostate cancer in the Han population of southern China and the susceptibility to prostate cancer is associated with ethnicity and geographic location.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-10-125
PMCID: PMC2796660  PMID: 19961572
24.  Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms (FokI, BsmI) and breast cancer risk: association replication in two case–control studies within French Canadian population 
Endocrine-Related Cancer  2008;15(4):975-983.
Vitamin D has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. We studied the association of two vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms restriction enzyme detecting SNP of VDR (FokI and BsmI) with breast cancer risk in two independent case–control studies carried out in the same population. The modifying effect of family history of breast cancer on this relationship was also evaluated. The first and second studies included respectively 718 (255 cases/463 controls) and 1596 (622 cases/974 controls) women recruited in Quebec City, Canada. FokI and BsmI genotypes were assessed. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Compared with homozygotes for the common F allele (FF genotype), FokI ff homozygotes had a higher breast cancer risk (study 1: odds ratio (OR)=1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76–1.95; study 2: OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.05–1.99; and combined studies: OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03–1.73). Significant interactions were observed between FokI and family history of breast cancer in the two studies as well as in the combined analysis (P interaction=0.031, 0.050 and 0.0059 respectively). Among women without family history, odds ratios were 1.00, 1.27 (95% CI=1.02–1.58) and 1.57 (95% CI=1.18–2.10) respectively for FF, Ff and ff carriers (Ptrend=0.0013). BsmI Bb+bb genotypes were associated with a weak non-significant increased risk in the two studies (combined OR=1.22, 95% CI=0.95–1.57) without interaction with family history. Results support the idea that vitamin D, through its signalling pathway, can affect breast cancer risk. They also suggest that variability in observed associations between VDR FokI and breast cancer from different studies may partly be explained by the proportion of study subjects with a family history of breast cancer.
doi:10.1677/ERC-08-0056
PMCID: PMC2629179  PMID: 18719092
25.  Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, VDR Polymorphisms, and Survival in Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2008;26(34):5596-5602.
Purpose
We showed previously that in early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), serum vitamin D levels and VDR polymorphisms were associated with survival. We hypothesized that vitamin D levels and VDR polymorphisms may also affect survival among patients with advanced NSCLC.
Patients and Methods
We evaluated the relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; VDR polymorphisms, including Cdx-2 G>A (rs11568820), FokI C>T (rs10735810), and BsmI C>T (rs144410); and overall survival among patients with advanced NSCLC. Analyses of survival outcomes were performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for sex, stage, and performance status.
Results
There were 294 patients and 233 deaths, with median follow-up of 42 months. We found no difference in survival by circulating vitamin D level. The C/C genotype of the FokI polymorphism was associated with improved survival: median survival for C/C was 21.4 months, for C/T was 12.1 months, and for T/T was 15.6 months (log-rank P = .005). There were no significant effects on survival by the Cdx-2 or BsMI polymorphism. However, having increasing numbers of protective alleles was associated with improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio for two or more v zero to one protective alleles, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.79; P = .0008). On haplotype analysis, the G-T-C (Cdx-2-FokI-BsmI) haplotype was associated with worse survival compared with the most common haplotype of G-C-T (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.14; P = .001).
Conclusion
There was no main effect of vitamin D level on overall survival in the advanced NSCLC population. The T allele of the VDR FokI>T polymorphism and the G-T-C (Cdx-2-FokI-BsmI) haplotype were associated with worse survival.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.0406
PMCID: PMC2651100  PMID: 18936471

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