Circadian clocks drive daily rhythms in virtually all organisms. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is recognized as the master clock that synchronizes central and peripheral oscillators to evoke circadian rhythms of diverse physiology and behavior. How the timing information is transmitted from the SCN clock to generate overt circadian rhythms is essentially unknown. Prokineticin 2 (PK2), a clock-controlled gene that encodes a secreted protein, has been indicated as a candidate SCN clock output signal that regulates circadian locomotor rhythm. Here we report the generation and analysis of PK2-null mice. The reduction of locomotor rhythms in PK2-null mice was apparent in both hybrid and inbred genetic backgrounds. PK2-null mice also displayed significantly reduced rhythmicity for a variety of other physiological and behavioral parameters, including sleep—wake cycle, body temperature, circulating glucocorticoid and glucose levels, as well as the expression of peripheral clock genes. In addition, PK2-null mice showed accelerated acquisition of food anticipatory activity during a daytime food restriction. We conclude that PK2, acting as a SCN output factor, is important for the maintenance of robust circadian rhythms.
circadian rhythm; prokineticin 2; knock-out; suprachiasmatic nucleus; sleep; locomotor
Circadian rhythms are daily oscillations of multiple biological processes directed by endogenous clocks. The circadian timing system comprises peripheral oscillators located in most tissues of the body and a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Circadian genes and the proteins produced by these genes constitute the molecular components of the circadian oscillator which form positive/negative feedback loops and generate circadian rhythms. The circadian regulation extends beyond clock genes to involve various clock-controlled genes (CCGs) including various cell cycle genes. Aberrant expression of circadian clock genes could have important consequences on the transactivation of downstream targets that control the cell cycle and on the ability of cells to undergo apoptosis. This may lead to genomic instability and accelerated cellular proliferation potentially promoting carcinogenesis. Different lines of evidence in mice and humans suggest that cancer may be a circadian-related disorder. The genetic or functional disruption of the molecular circadian clock has been found in various cancers including breast, ovarian, endometrial, prostate and hematological cancers. The acquisition of current data in circadian clock mechanism may help chronotherapy, which takes into consideration the biological time to improve treatments by devising new therapeutic approaches for treating circadian-related disorders, especially cancer.
Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are regulated by a master clock resident in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and dysfunctions in the circadian system can lead to serious health effects. This paper reviews the organization of the SCN as the brain clock, how it regulates gonadal hormone secretion, and how androgens modulate aspects of circadian behavior known to be regulated by the SCN. We show that androgen receptors are restricted to a core SCN region that receives photic input as well as afferents from arousal systems in the brain. We suggest that androgens modulate circadian behavior directly via actions on the SCN and that both androgens and estrogens modulate circadian rhythms through an indirect route, by affecting overall activity and arousal levels. Thus, this system has multiple levels of regulation; the SCN regulates circadian rhythms in gonadal hormone secretion, and hormones feed back to influence SCN functions.
Circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by “clock genes”, less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR) over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms.
To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1−/− mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT) and Kcnma1−/− slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1−/− SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak.
These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.
As a consequence of the Earth's rotation, almost all organisms experience day and night cycles within a 24-hr period. To adapt and synchronize biological rhythms to external daily cycles, organisms have evolved an internal time-keeping system. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus generates circadian rhythmicity and orchestrates numerous subsidiary local clocks in other regions of the brain and peripheral tissues. Regardless of their locations, these circadian clocks are cell-autonomous and self-sustainable, implicating rhythmic oscillations in a variety of biochemical and metabolic processes. A group of core clock genes provides interlocking molecular feedback loops that drive the circadian rhythm even at the single-cell level. In addition to the core transcription/translation feedback loops, post-translational modifications also contribute to the fine regulation of molecular circadian clocks. In this article, we briefly review the molecular mechanisms and post-translational modifications of mammalian circadian clock regulation. We also discuss the organization of and communication between central and peripheral circadian oscillators of the mammalian circadian clock.
circadian pacemaker; SCN; feedback loop; mammalian circadian clock
The sleep-wake cycle is regulated by the interaction of endogenous circadian and homeostatic processes. The circadian system provides timing information for most physiological rhythms, including the sleep and wake cycle. In addition, the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus has been shown to promote alertness during the day. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders arise when there is a misalignment between the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythms and the external environment or when there is dysfunction of the circadian clock or its entrainment pathways. The primary synchronizing agents of the circadian system are light and melatonin. Light is the strongest entraining agent of circadian rhythms and timed exposure to bright light is often used in the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In addition, timed administration of melatonin, either alone or in combination with light therapy has been shown to be useful in the treatment of the following circadian rhythm sleep disorders: delayed sleep phase, advanced sleep phase, free-running, irregular sleep wake, jet lag and shift work.
circadian rhythm sleep disorders; treatment; melatonin; light therapy; sleep
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains the master circadian clock that regulates daily rhythms of many physiological and behavioural processes in mammals. Previously we have shown that prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a clock-controlled gene that may function as a critical SCN output molecule responsible for circadian locomotor rhythms. As light is the principal zeitgeber that entrains the circadian oscillator, and PK2 expression is responsive to nocturnal light pulses, we further investigated the effects of light on the molecular rhythm of PK2 in the SCN. In particular, we examined how PK2 responds to shifts of light/dark cycles and changes in photoperiod. We also investigated which photoreceptors are responsible for the light-induced PK2 expression in the SCN. To determine whether light requires an intact functional circadian pacemaker to regulate PK2, we examined PK2 expression in cryptochrome1,2-deficient (Cry1-/-Cry2-/-) mice that lack functional circadian clock under normal light/dark cycles and constant darkness.
Upon abrupt shifts of the light/dark cycle, PK2 expression exhibits transients in response to phase advances but rapidly entrains to phase delays. Photoperiod studies indicate that PK2 responds differentially to changes in light period. Although the phase of PK2 expression expands as the light period increases, decreasing light period does not further condense the phase of PK2 expression. Genetic knockout studies revealed that functional melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems are required for the light-inducibility of PK2. In Cry1-/-Cry2-/- mice that lack a functional circadian clock, a low amplitude PK2 rhythm is detected under light/dark conditions, but not in constant darkness. This suggests that light can directly regulate PK2 expression in the SCN.
These data demonstrate that the molecular rhythm of PK2 in the SCN is regulated by both the circadian clock and light. PK2 is predominantly controlled by the endogenous circadian clock, while light plays a modulatory role. The Cry1-/-Cry2-/- mice studies reveal a light-driven PK2 rhythm, indicating that light can induce PK2 expression independent of the circadian oscillator. The light inducibility of PK2 suggests that in addition to its role in clock-driven rhythms of locomotor behaviour, PK2 may also participate in the photic entrainment of circadian locomotor rhythms.
In mammals, the synchronized activity of cell autonomous clocks in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) enables this structure to function as the master circadian clock, coordinating daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, the dominance of this clock has been challenged by the observations that metabolic duress can over-ride SCN controlled rhythms, and that clock genes are expressed in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of appetite and feeding. The recent development of mice in which clock gene/protein activity is reported by bioluminescent constructs (luciferase or luc) now enables us to track molecular oscillations in numerous tissues ex vivo. Consequently we determined both clock activities and responsiveness to metabolic perturbations of cells and tissues within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), a site pivotal for optimal internal homeostatic regulation.
Here we demonstrate endogenous circadian rhythms of PER2::LUC expression in discrete subdivisions of the arcuate (Arc) and dorsomedial nuclei (DMH). Rhythms resolved to single cells did not maintain long-term synchrony with one-another, leading to a damping of oscillations at both cell and tissue levels. Complementary electrophysiology recordings revealed rhythms in neuronal activity in the Arc and DMH. Further, PER2::LUC rhythms were detected in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle and in the median eminence/pars tuberalis (ME/PT). A high-fat diet had no effect on the molecular oscillations in the MBH, whereas food deprivation resulted in an altered phase in the ME/PT.
Our results provide the first single cell resolution of endogenous circadian rhythms in clock gene expression in any intact tissue outside the SCN, reveal the cellular basis for tissue level damping in extra-SCN oscillators and demonstrate that an oscillator in the ME/PT is responsive to changes in metabolism.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian pacemaker driving behavioral and physiological rhythms in mammals. Circadian activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK; also known as ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)] is observed in vivo in the SCN under constant darkness, although the biological significance of this remains unclear. To elucidate this question, we first examined whether MAPK was autonomously activated in ex vivo SCN slices. Moreover, we investigated the effect of MAPK inhibition on circadian clock gene expression and neuronal firing rhythms using SCN-slice culture systems. We show herein that MAPK is autonomously activated in the SCN, and our data demonstrate that inhibition of the MAPK activity results in dampened rhythms and reduced basal levels in circadian clock gene expression at the SCN single-neuron level. Furthermore, MAPK inhibition attenuates autonomous circadian neuronal firing rhythms in the SCN. Thus, our data suggest that light-independent MAPK activity contributes to the robustness of the SCN autonomous circadian system.
circadian rhythms; ERK; suprachiasmatic nucleus; tissue culture; transcription; transgenic
The circadian rhythm is an endogenous time keeping system shared by most organisms. The circadian clock is comprised of both peripheral oscillators in most organ tissues of the body and a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the central nervous system. The circadian rhythm is crucial in maintaining the normal physiology of the organism including, but not limited to, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cellular metabolism; whereas disruption of the circadian rhythm is closely related to multi-tumorigenesis. In the past several years, studies from different fields have revealed that the genetic or functional disruption of the molecular circadian rhythm has been found in various cancers, such as breast, prostate, and ovarian. In this review, we will investigate and present an overview of the current research on the influence of circadian rhythm regulating proteins on breast cancer.
Circadian rhythm; breast cancer; circadian proteins; chronotherapy
The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc) mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression.
We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin) is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b) and cryptochrome 3 (cry3), in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh) and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2), involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT) siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings.
Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.
The circadian clock is accountable for the regulation of internal rhythms in most living organisms. It allows the anticipation of environmental changes during the day and a better adaptation of physiological processes. In mammals the main clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and synchronizes secondary clocks throughout the body. Its molecular constituents form an intracellular network which dictates circadian time and regulates clock-controlled genes. These clock-controlled genes are involved in crucial biological processes including metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Its malfunction can lead to disruption of biological rhythms and cause severe damage to the organism. The detailed mechanisms that govern the circadian system are not yet completely understood. Mathematical models can be of great help to exploit the mechanism of the circadian circuitry. We built a mathematical model for the core clock system using available data on phases and amplitudes of clock components obtained from an extensive literature search. This model was used to answer complex questions for example: how does the degradation rate of Per affect the period of the system and what is the role of the ROR/Bmal/REV-ERB (RBR) loop? Our findings indicate that an increase in the RNA degradation rate of the clock gene Period (Per) can contribute to increase or decrease of the period - a consequence of a non-monotonic effect of Per transcript stability on the circadian period identified by our model. Furthermore, we provide theoretical evidence for a potential role of the RBR loop as an independent oscillator. We carried out overexpression experiments on members of the RBR loop which lead to loss of oscillations consistent with our predictions. These findings challenge the role of the RBR loop as a merely auxiliary loop and might change our view of the clock molecular circuitry and of the function of the nuclear receptors (REV-ERB and ROR) as a putative driving force of molecular oscillations.
Most organisms have evolved an internal clock which allows them to anticipate and react to the light/dark daily rhythm and is able to generate oscillation with a circa 24 hour rhythm. A molecular network involving feedback loops is responsible for the rhythm generation. A large number of clock-controlled genes pass on time messages and control several biological processes. In spite of its medical importance (role in cancer, sleep disorders, diabetes and others) the mechanism of action of the circadian clock and the role of its constituent's feedback loops remains partially unknown. Using a mathematical model, we were able to bring insight in open circadian biology questions. Firstly, increasing the mRNA degradation rate of Per can contribute to increase or decrease of the period which might explain contradictory experimental findings. Secondly, our data points to a more relevant role of the ROR/Bmal/REV-ERB loop. In particular, that this loop can be an oscillator on its own. We provide experimental evidence that overexpression of members of the ROR/Bmal/REV-ERB lead to loss of Bmal reporter mRNA oscillations. The fact that REV-ERB and ROR are nuclear receptors and therefore important regulators in many cellular processes might have important implications for molecular biology and medicine.
Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity.
Metabolic, physiological and behavioral processes exhibit 24-hour rhythms in most organisms, including humans. These rhythms are driven by a system of self-sustained clocks and are entrained by environmental cues such as light-dark cycles as well as food intake. In mammals, the circadian clock system is hierarchically organized such that the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus integrates environmental information and synchronizes the phase of oscillators in peripheral tissues. The transcription and translation feedback loops of multiple clock genes are involved in the molecular mechanism of the circadian system. Disturbed circadian rhythms are known to be closely related to many diseases, including sleep disorders. Advanced sleep phase type, delayed sleep phase type and nonentrained type of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) are thought to result from disorganization of the circadian system. Evaluation of circadian phenotypes is indispensable to understanding the pathophysiology of CRSD. It is laborious and costly to assess an individual's circadian properties precisely, however, because the subject is usually required to stay in a laboratory environment free from external cues and masking effects for a minimum of several weeks. More convenient measurements of circadian rhythms are therefore needed to reduce patients' burden. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of CRSD as well as surrogate measurements for assessing an individual's circadian phenotype.
circadian; sleep; surrogate measurement; clock gene expression; biopsy sample
Daily feeding schedules generate food anticipatory rhythms of behavior and physiology that exhibit canonical properties of circadian clock control. The molecular mechanisms and location of food-entrainable circadian oscillators hypothesized to control food anticipatory rhythms are unknown. In 2008, Fuller et al reported that food-entrainable circadian rhythms are absent in mice bearing a null mutation of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 and that these rhythms can be rescued by virally-mediated restoration of Bmal1 expression in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (site of the master light-entrainable circadian pacemaker). These results, taken together with controversial DMH lesion results published by the same laboratory, appear to establish the DMH as the site of a Bmal1-dependent circadian mechanism necessary and sufficient for food anticipatory rhythms. However, careful examination of the manuscript reveals numerous weaknesses in the evidence as presented. These problems are grouped as follows and elaborated in detail: 1. data management issues (apparent misalignments of plotted data), 2. failure of evidence to support the major conclusions, and 3. missing data and methodological details. The Fuller et al results are therefore considered inconclusive, and fail to clarify the role of either the DMH or Bmal1 in the expression of food-entrainable circadian rhythms in rodents.
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus constitutes the central circadian pacemaker. The SCN receives light signals from the retina and controls peripheral circadian clocks (located in the cortex, the pineal gland, the liver, the kidney, the heart, etc.). This hierarchical organization of the circadian system ensures the proper timing of physiological processes. In each SCN neuron, interconnected transcriptional and translational feedback loops enable the circadian expression of the clock genes. Although all the neurons have the same genotype, the oscillations of individual cells are highly heterogeneous in dispersed cell culture: many cells present damped oscillations and the period of the oscillations varies from cell to cell. In addition, the neurotransmitters that ensure the intercellular coupling, and thereby the synchronization of the cellular rhythms, differ between the two main regions of the SCN. In this work, a mathematical model that accounts for this heterogeneous organization of the SCN is presented and used to study the implication of the SCN network topology on synchronization and entrainment properties. The results show that oscillations with larger amplitude can be obtained with scale-free networks, in contrast to random and local connections. Networks with the small-world property such as the scale-free networks used in this work can adapt faster to a delay or advance in the light/dark cycle (jet lag). Interestingly a certain level of cellular heterogeneity is not detrimental to synchronization performances, but on the contrary helps resynchronization after jet lag. When coupling two networks with different topologies that mimic the two regions of the SCN, efficient filtering of pulse-like perturbations in the entrainment pattern is observed. These results suggest that the complex and heterogeneous architecture of the SCN decreases the sensitivity of the network to short entrainment perturbations while, at the same time, improving its adaptation abilities to long term changes.
In order to adapt to their cycling environment, virtually all living organisms have developed an internal timer, the circadian clock. In mammals, the circadian pacemaker is composed of about 20,000 neurons, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located in the hypothalamus. The SCN receives light signals from the retina and controls peripheral circadian clocks to ensure the proper timing of physiological processes. In each SCN neuron, a genetic regulatory network enables the circadian expression of the clock genes, but individual dynamics are highly heterogeneous in dispersed cell culture: many cells present damped oscillations and the period of the oscillations varies from cell to cell. In addition, the neurotransmitters that ensure the intercellular coupling, and thereby the synchronization of the cellular rhythms, differ between the two main regions of the SCN. We present here a mathematical model that accounts for this heterogeneous organization of the SCN and study the implication of the network topology on synchronization and entrainment properties. Our results show that cellular heterogeneity may help the resynchronization after jet lag and suggest that the complex architecture of the SCN decreases the sensitivity of the network to short entrainment perturbations while, at the same time, improving its adaptation abilities to long term changes.
In mammals, it is well established that circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the rhythmic secretion of hormones, are regulated by a brain clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. While SCN regulation of gonadal hormone secretion has been amply studied, the mechanisms whereby steroid hormones affect circadian functions are less well known. This is surprising considering substantial evidence that sex hormones affect many aspects of circadian responses, and that there are significant sex differences in rhythmicity. Our previous finding that “core” and “shell” regions of the SCN differ in their expression of clock genes prompted us to examine the possibility that steroid receptors are localized to a specific compartment of the brain clock, with the discovery that the androgen receptor (AR) is concentrated in the SCN core in male mice. In the present study, we compare AR expression in female and male mice using Western blots and immunochemistry. Both of these methods indicate that AR’s are more highly expressed in males than in females; gonadectomy eliminates and androgen treatment restores these sex differences. At the behavioral level, gonadectomy produces a dramatic loss of the evening activity onset bout in males, but has no such effect in females. Treatment with testosterone, or with the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone restores male locomotor activity and eliminates sex differences in the behavioral response. The results indicate that androgenic hormones regulate circadian responses, and suggest an SCN site of action.
Circadian rhythms; mouse; gonadal hormones; dihydrotestosterone; testosterone; androgen receptor; locomotor activity
In mammals, it is well established that circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the rhythmic secretion of hormones, are regulated by a brain clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. While SCN regulation of gonadal hormone secretion has been amply studied, the mechanisms whereby steroid hormones affect circadian functions are less well known. This is surprising considering substantial evidence that sex hormones affect many aspects of circadian responses, and that there are significant sex differences in rhythmicity. Our previous finding that “core” and “shell” regions of the SCN differ in their expression of clock genes prompted us to examine the possibility that steroid receptors are localized to a specific compartment of the brain clock, with the discovery that the androgen receptor (AR) is concentrated in the SCN core in male mice. In the present study, we compare AR expression in female and male mice using Western blots and immunochemistry. Both of these methods indicate that ARs are more highly expressed in males than in females; gonadectomy eliminates and androgen treatment restores these sex differences. At the behavioral level, gonadectomy produces a dramatic loss of the evening activity onset bout in males, but has no such effect in females. Treatment with testosterone, or with the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, restores male locomotor activity and eliminates sex differences in the behavioral response. The results indicate that androgenic hormones regulate circadian responses, and suggest an SCN site of action.
Circadian rhythms; Mouse; Gonadal hormones; Dihydrotestosterone; Testosterone; Androgen receptor; Locomotor activity
Hormone secretion is highly organized temporally, achieving optimal biological functioning and health. The master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates the timing of circadian rhythms, including daily control of hormone secretion. In the brain, the SCN drives hormone secretion. In some instances, SCN neurons make direct synaptic connections with neurosecretory neurons. In other instances, SCN signals set the phase of “clock genes” that regulate circadian function at the cellular level within neurosecretory cells. The protein products of these clock genes can also exert direct transcriptional control over neuroendocrine releasing factors. Clock genes and proteins are also expressed in peripheral endocrine organs providing additional modes of temporal control. Finally, the SCN signals endocrine glands via the autonomic nervous system, allowing for rapid regulation via multisynaptic pathways. Thus, the circadian system achieves temporal regulation of endocrine function by a combination of genetic, cellular, and neural regulatory mechanisms to ensure that each response occurs in its correct temporal niche. The availability of tools to assess the phase of molecular/cellular clocks and of powerful tract tracing methods to assess connections between “clock cells” and their targets provides an opportunity to examine circadian-controlled aspects of neurosecretion, in the search for general principles by which the endocrine system is organized.
Circadian; Diurnal; Endocrinel; Neurosecretion; Clock genes; Suprachiasmatic
Circadian (24-hr) rhythms influence virtually every aspect of mammalian physiology. The main rhythm generation center is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and work over the past several years has revealed that rhythmic gene transcription and post-translational processes are central to clock timing. In addition, rhythmic translation control has also been implicated in clock timing; however the precise cell signaling pathways that drive this process are not well known. Here we report that a key translation activation cascade, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, is under control of the circadian clock in the SCN. Using phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (pS6) as a marker of mTOR activity, we show that the mTOR cascade exhibits maximal activity during the subjective day, and minimal activity during the late subjective night. Importantly, expression of S6 was not altered as a function of circadian time. Rhythmic S6 phosphorylation was detected throughout the dorsoventral axis of the SCN, thus suggesting that rhythmic mTOR activity was not restricted to a subset of SCN neurons. Rather, rhythmic pS6 expression appeared to parallel the expression pattern of the clock gene period1 (per1). Using a transgenic per1 reporter gene mouse strain, we found a statistically significant cellular level correlation between pS6 and per1 gene expression over the circadian cycle. Further, photic stimulation triggered a coordinate upregulation of per1 and mTOR activation in a subset of SCN cells. Interestingly, this cellular level correlation between mTOR activity and per1 expression appears to be specific, since a similar expression profile for pS6 and per2 or c-FOS was not detected. Finally, we show that mTOR activity is downstream of the ERK/MAPK signal transduction pathway. Together these data reveal that mTOR pathway activity is under the control of the SCN clock, and suggests that mTOR signaling may contribute to distinct aspects of the molecular clock timing process.
circadian; SCN; S6; phosphorylation; per1; mTOR; ERK
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates a wide range of daily behaviors and has been described as the master circadian pacemaker. The role of daily rhythmicity in other tissues, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that circadian changes in olfactory discrimination depend on a genetic circadian oscillator outside the SCN. We developed an automated assay to monitor olfactory discrimination in individual mice throughout the day. We found olfactory sensitivity increased approximately 6-fold from a minimum during the day to a peak in the early night. This circadian rhythm was maintained in SCN-lesioned mice and mice deficient for the Npas2 gene but was lost in mice lacking Bmal1 or both Per1 and Per2 genes. We conclude that daily rhythms in olfactory sensitivity depend on the expression of canonical clock genes. Olfaction is, thus, the first circadian behavior that is not based on locomotor activity and does not require the SCN.
olfaction; circadian rhythms; Bmal1 gene; oscillator; Period2 gene
Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are a multi-functional protein family, which functions in part as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) of G protein α-subunits to terminate G protein signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Rgs16 transcripts exhibit robust circadian rhythms both in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian light-entrainable oscillator (LEO) of the hypothalamus, and in the liver. To investigate the role of RGS16 in the circadian clock in vivo, we generated two independent transgenic mouse lines using lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the Rgs16 mRNA. The knockdown mice demonstrated significantly shorter free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and reduced total activity as compared to the wild-type siblings. In addition, when feeding was restricted during the daytime, food-entrainable oscillator (FEO)-driven elevated food-anticipatory activity (FAA) observed prior to the scheduled feeding time was significantly attenuated in the knockdown mice. Whereas the restricted feeding phase-advanced the rhythmic expression of the Per2 clock gene in liver and thalamus in the wild-type animals, the above phase shift was not observed in the knockdown mice. This is the first in vivo demonstration that a common regulator of G protein signaling is involved in the two separate, but interactive circadian timing systems, LEO and FEO. The present study also suggests that liver and/or thalamus regulate the food-entrained circadian behavior through G protein-mediated signal transduction pathway(s).
In the mammalian brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus is considered to be the principal circadian pacemaker, keeping the rhythm of most physiological and behavioral processes on the basis of light/dark cycles. Because restriction of food availability to a certain time of day elicits anticipatory behavior even after ablation of the SCN, such behavior has been assumed to be under the control of another circadian oscillator. According to recent studies, however, mutant mice lacking circadian clock function exhibit normal food-anticipatory activity (FAA), a daily increase in locomotor activity preceding periodic feeding, suggesting that FAA is independent of the known circadian oscillator. To investigate the molecular basis of FAA, we examined oscillatory properties in mice lacking molecular clock components. Mice with SCN lesions or with mutant circadian periods were exposed to restricted feeding schedules at periods within and outside circadian range. Periodic feeding led to the entrainment of FAA rhythms only within a limited circadian range. Cry1−/− mice, which are known to be a “short-period mutant,” entrained to a shorter period of feeding cycles than did Cry2−/− mice. This result indicated that the intrinsic periods of FAA rhythms are also affected by Cry deficiency. Bmal1−/− mice, deficient in another essential element of the molecular clock machinery, exhibited a pre-feeding increase of activity far from circadian range, indicating a deficit in circadian oscillation. We propose that mice possess a food-entrainable pacemaker outside the SCN in which canonical clock genes such as Cry1, Cry2 and Bmal1 play essential roles in regulating FAA in a circadian oscillatory manner.
Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology are orchestrated by a master biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian oscillations are a cellular property, with ‘clock’ genes and their protein products forming transcription-translation feedback loops that maintain 24-hour rhythmicity. Although the expression of clock genes is thought to be ubiquitous, the function of local, extra-SCN timing mechanisms remains elusive. We hypothesized that extra-SCN clock genes control local temporal sensitivity to upstream modulatory signals, allowing system-specific processes to be carried out during individual, optimal times of day. To test this possibility, we examined changes in the sensitivity of immortalized GnRH neurons, GT1–7 cells, to timed stimulation by two key neuropeptides thought to trigger ovulation on the afternoon of proestrus, kisspeptin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). We noted a prominent daily rhythm of clock gene expression in this cell line. GT1–7 cells also exhibited daily changes in cellular peptide expression and GnRH secretion in response to kisspeptin and VIP stimulation. These responses occurred without changes in GnRH transcription. These findings are consistent with the notion that GnRH cells are capable of intrinsic circadian cycles that may be fundamental for coordinating daily changes in sensitivity to signals impacting the reproductive axis.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Kisspeptin; Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; Reproduction
Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology are orchestrated by a master biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian oscillations are a cellular property, with ‘clock’ genes and their protein products forming transcription-translation feedback loops that maintain 24-hour rhythmicity. Although the expression of clock genes is thought to be ubiquitous, the function of local, extra-SCN timing mechanisms remains elusive. We hypothesized that extra-SCN clock genes control local temporal sensitivity to upstream modulatory signals, allowing system-specific processes to be carried out during individual, optimal times of day. To test this possibility, we examined changes in the sensitivity of immortalized GnRH neurons, GT1-7 cells, to timed stimulation by two key neuropeptides thought to trigger ovulation on the afternoon of proestrus, kisspeptin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). We noted a prominent daily rhythm of clock gene expression in this cell line. GT1-7 cells also exhibited daily changes in cellular peptide expression and GnRH secretion in response to kisspeptin and VIP stimulation. These responses occurred without changes in GnRH transcription. These findings are consistent with the notion that GnRH cells are capable of intrinsic circadian cycles that may be fundamental for coordinating daily changes in sensitivity to signals impacting the reproductive axis.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Kisspeptin; Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; Reproduction