This study investigated the relationship of obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation and angiogenesis with cancer progression and survival in a colorectal cancer cohort.
Clinical and pathological data, along with anthropometric and follow-up data, were collected from 344 consecutive colorectal cancer patients. Serum samples at diagnosis were analysed by immunoassay for adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin and C-peptide.
Serum Ang-2 and VEGF-A levels increased with tumour T stage (P=0.007 and P=0.025, respectively) and N stage (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively), and correlated with CRP levels (r=0.43, P<0.001 and r=0.23, P<0.001, respectively). Angiopoietin-2 correlated with C-peptide (r=0.14, P=0.007) and VEGF-A with IGF-1 in males (r=0.25, P=0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with high serum levels of CRP and Ang-2 had significantly reduced survival (both P⩽0.001). After adjusting for tumour stage and age, Ang-2 remained a significant predictor of survival. The CRP levels were inversely associated with survival in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II patients (P=0.038), suggesting that CRP could be used to support treatment decisions in this subgroup. Serum markers and anthropometric measures of obesity correlated with each other, but not with survival.
Our study supports the concept that obesity-related inflammation, rather than obesity itself, is associated with colorectal cancer progression and survival. The study confirms serum Ang-2 as a predictive marker for outcome of colorectal cancer.
obesity; insulin resistance; tumour angiogenesis; angiopoietin-2; C-reactive protein
Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism.
Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children.
Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40) of autistic children.
On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11.
Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.
Autism; autoimmunity; neutrophils; progranulin.
We determined nuclear DNA content from 308 archival paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumours and evaluated the survival of the patients by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. The overall 8-year survival rate of stage I-III breast cancer patients was 74.3% in DNA-diploid and 51.2% in DNA-aneuploid tumours (P less than 0.0001). DNA ploidy had prognostic significance in both node-negative and node-positive breast cancer, primarily in cases with steroid receptor-positive tumours. In a Cox multivariate analysis DNA ploidy (P = 0.001), primary tumour size (P = 0.0007), nodal status (P = 0.04) and the content of progesterone receptors (P = 0.0008) emerged as significant independent prognostic factors, whereas oestrogen receptor status, age and menopausal status of the patients had no significant independent prognostic value. If the histological grade of ductal carcinomas was also included in the Cox model, both grade and DNA ploidy had independent prognostic effect. In conclusion, our results indicate that the analysis of DNA ploidy is a useful adjunct in the assessment of prognosis for breast cancer patients.
The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) was assayed by a radioreceptor method in 117 primary ovarian cancers. EGFR was not significantly related to any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. In patients with stage II-IV disease who underwent second-look surgery after primary chemotherapy, a significant correlation between high EGFR levels and poor response to chemotherapy was demonstrated (P = 0.031). Moreover, post-operative residual tumour showed an independent role in predicting chemotherapy response (P = 0.0007) and EGFR status showed a borderline significance (P = 0.052) in the multivariate analysis. No correlation between steroid hormone receptors and clinicopathological parameters was observed. Whereas a significant relationship was shown between EGFR positivity and a shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0022) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.0033), patient survival was not related to steroid hormone receptor status. Among the parameters tested only stage, ascites and EGFR status retained an independent prognostic value in the multivariate analysis.
Progranulin (PGRN) is considered to play an important role in breast cancer tumorigenesis and in inhibiting tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. We aimed to determine whether PGRN levels are associated with breast cancer recurrence after curative surgery.
We evaluated the associations between preoperative serum PGRN levels and breast cancer recurrence in a cohort of 697 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who underwent curative surgery between April 2001 and December 2004. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 46±9.8 years, and all patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. At a median follow-up of 62.2 months (range, 2.9–98.2), 89 patients (12.8%) had experienced a recurrence and 51 patients (7.3%) had died. In the HR-positive group, serum PGRN levels were associated with recurrence according to the log-rank test for trend (p for trend = 0.049). There was no association between PGRN levels and recurrence in the HR-negative group (p for trend = 0.658). Adjusted hazard ratios, including possible confounders, revealed a linear relationship between serum PGRN levels and recurrence in the HR-positive group (p for trend = 0.049), and this association was further strengthened after excluding patients who had no lymph node metastasis (p for trend = 0.038).
Serum PGRN levels were clinically significant for predicting recurrence in patients with HR-positive breast cancer during adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
Progranulin is a growth factor involved in the regulation of multiple processes including tumorigenesis, wound repair, development, and inflammation. The recent discovery that mutations in the gene encoding for progranulin (GRN) cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and other neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia, has brought renewed interest in progranulin and its functions in the central nervous system. GRN null mutations cause protein haploinsufficiency, leading to a significant decrease in progranulin levels that can be detected in plasma, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of mutation carriers. The dosage of circulating progranulin sped up the identification of GRN mutations thus favoring genotype-phenotype correlation studies. Researchers demonstrated that, in GRN null mutation carriers, the shortage of progranulin invariably precedes clinical symptoms and thus mutation carriers are “captured” regardless of their disease status. GRN is a particularly appealing gene for drug targeting, in the way that boosting its expression may be beneficial for mutation carriers, preventing or delaying the onset of GRN-related neurodegenerative diseases. Physiological regulation of progranulin expression level is only partially known. Progranulin expression reflects mutation status and, intriguingly, its levels can be modulated by some additional factor (i.e. genetic background; drugs). Thus, factors increasing the production and secretion of progranulin from the normal gene are promising potential therapeutic avenues. In conclusion, peripheral progranulin is a nonintrusive highly accurate biomarker for early identification of mutation carriers and for monitoring future treatments that might boost the level of this protein.
Progranulin; haploinsufficiency; cut-off; blood; CSF; expression; frontotemporal; dementia; GRN; modulator
Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2–promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5–14.5) and later (E15.5–17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in the formation of the mural cell layer and weakening of vessel integrity. These results demonstrate that overexpression of progranulin in endothelial cells influences normal angiogenesis in vivo.
Frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) is the most common cause of dementia in patients younger than 60 years of age, and causes progressive neurodegeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes usually accompanied by devastating changes in language or behavior in affected individuals. Mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene account for a significant fraction of familial FTLD, and in the vast majority of cases, these mutations lead to reduced expression of progranulin via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates a diverse range of cellular functions including cell proliferation, cell migration, and inflammation. Recent fundamental discoveries about progranulin biology, including the findings that sortilin and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) are high affinity progranulin receptors, are beginning to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which progranulin deficiency causes FTLD. This review will explore how alterations in basic cellular functions due to PGRN deficiency, both intrinsic and extrinsic to neurons, might lead to the development of FTLD.
Progranulin; Frontotemporal lobar dementia; Sortilin; Tumor necrosis factor receptor; TDP-43; Neuroinflammation
Collagen IV is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and may be a marker of angiogenesis. Serum levels of this protein are elevated in some human cancers. Our objectives were to compare collagen IV levels in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy women and to examine changes during preoperative chemotherapy. Sera from 51 patients with stage II–III breast cancer and 55 healthy controls were analysed. Collagen IV level was measured by a commercially available sandwich enzyme link immunoassay. Baseline serum levels were compared between cancer patients and healthy women and paired pre- and post-chemotherapy measurements were also performed in 39 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and were correlated with response to therapy. The median serum collagen IV concentration was significantly higher in cancer patients (166 μg l−1) than in healthy women (115 μg l−1), P<0.001. Chemotherapy induced a significant further increase in serum collagen IV (167 μg l−1 prechemo vs 206 μg l−1 postchemo, P=0.001). There were no correlations between baseline collagen IV levels and response to therapy, age, clinical stage or HER2 status. In conclusion, patients with breast cancer have elevated levels of collagen IV compared to healthy women and collagen IV levels increase further during chemotherapy.
serum collagen IV; breast cancer; primary chemotherapy; collagen IV; HER-2
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 10398 polymorphism is hypothesised to alter a mitochondrial subunit of the electron transfer chain and is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders and cancers.
In this study, an mtDNA polymorphism at nucleotide position 10398 was screened in 101 Malay female patients with invasive breast cancer and 90 age-matched healthy female controls using minisequencing analysis.
The Malay women with the 10398G variant showed a significantly increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 1.25–4.20, P = 0.007). Immunohistochemistry analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of this polymorphism on the levels of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The level of Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) expression was significantly higher than that of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic protein) in patients carrying the G allele (P = 0.016) but not in those carrying the A allele (P = 0.48).
Based on these findings, we propose that the mtDNA 10398 polymorphism may be a potential risk marker for breast cancer susceptibility in the Malay population.
breast cancer; DNA sequencing; genetic marker; mitochondrial DNA; oncology; single nucleotide polymorphism
Progranulin is an epithelial tissue growth factor (also known as proepithelin, acrogranin and PC-cell-derived growth factor) that has been implicated in development, wound healing and in the progression of many cancers. The single mammalian progranulin gene encodes a glycoprotein precursor consisting of seven and one half tandemly repeated non-identical copies of the cystine-rich granulin motif. A genome-wide duplication event hypothesized to have occurred at the base of the teleost radiation predicts that mammalian progranulin may be represented by two co-orthologues in zebrafish.
The cDNAs encoding two zebrafish granulin precursors, progranulins-A and -B, were characterized and found to contain 10 and 9 copies of the granulin motif respectively. The cDNAs and genes encoding the two forms of granulin, progranulins-1 and -2, were also cloned and sequenced. Both latter peptides were found to be encoded by precursors with a simplified architecture consisting of one and one half copies of the granulin motif. A cDNA encoding a chimeric progranulin which likely arises through the mechanism of trans-splicing between grn1 and grn2 was also characterized. A non-coding RNA gene with antisense complementarity to both grn1 and grn2 was identified which may have functional implications with respect to gene dosage, as well as in restricting the formation of the chimeric form of progranulin. Chromosomal localization of the four progranulin (grn) genes reveals syntenic conservation for grna only, suggesting that it is the true orthologue of mammalian grn. RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of zebrafish grns during development reveals that combined expression of grna and grnb, but not grn1 and grn2, recapitulate many of the expression patterns observed for the murine counterpart. This includes maternal deposition, widespread central nervous system distribution and specific localization within the epithelial compartments of various organs.
In support of the duplication-degeneration-complementation model of duplicate gene retention, partitioning of expression between grna and grnb was observed in the intermediate cell mass and yolk syncytial layer, respectively. Taken together these expression patterns suggest that the function of an ancestral grn gene has been devolved upon four paralogues in zebrafish.
To assess the influence of rs5848 polymorphism in serum progranulin (PGRN) level in a cohort of subjects with Alzheimer and related dementias from a tertiary referral clinic.
Mutations in the GRN gene cause autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP) through haploinsufficiency. It has recently been shown that homozygous carriers of the T-allele of rs5848 have an elevated risk developing FTD, and this polymorphism may play a role in the pathogenesis of other dementia by modifying progranulin level. We hypothesize that genotype of rs5848 may influence serum PGRN level in AD, FTD, and other dementias.
Blood samples were obtained from patients with cognitive impairment and dementia referred to a tertiary dementia clinic, as well as samples from a cohort of healthy controls. Serum PGRN level was measured using an ELISA assay, and rs5848 genotype was determined by a TaqMan assay.
We found that rs5848 SNP significantly influenced serum PGRN level, with TT genotype having the lowest levels, CC the highest. This relationship is observed in each of the subgroups. We also confirmed that GRN mutation carriers had significantly lower serum PGRN levels than all other groups.
The rs5848 polymorphism significantly influences serum PGRN with TT carriers having a lower level of serum PGRN then CT and CC carriers. This is consistent with the finding that miR-659 binding to the high risk T allele of rs5848 may augment translational inhibition of GRN and alter risk of FTD and possibly other dementias.
Frontotemporal Dementia; Progranulin; PGRN; GRN; rs5848; genetic polymorphism; biomarker
GP88 (progranulin) has been implicated in tumorigenesis and resistance to anti-estrogen therapies for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Previous pathological studies showed that GP88 is expressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), but not in normal mammary epithelial tissue, benign lesions or lobular carcinoma. Based on these results, the present study examines GP88 prognostic significance in association with recurrence and death risks for ER+ IDC patients.
Two retrospective multi-site clinical studies examined GP88 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue sections from ER+ IDC patients (lymph node positive and negative, stage 1 to 3) in correlation with patients' survival outcomes. The training study established a GP88 cut-off value associated with decreased disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survivals. The validation study verified the GP88 cut-off value and compared GP88 prognostic information with other prognostic factors, particularly tumor size, grade, disease stage and lymph node status in multivariate analysis.
GP88 expression is associated with a statistically significant increase in recurrence risk for ER+ IDC patients. The training study established that GP88 3+ score was associated with decreased DFS (P = 0.0004) and OS (P = 0.0036). The independent validation study verified that GP88 3+ score was associated with a 5.9-fold higher hazard of disease recurrence and a 2.5-fold higher mortality hazard compared to patients with tumor GP88 < 3+. GP88 remained an independent risk predictor after considering age, ethnicity, nodal status, tumor size, tumor grade, disease stage, progesterone receptor expression and treatments.
The survival factor GP88 is a novel prognostic biomarker, predictive of recurrence risk and increased mortality for non-metastatic ER+ IDC patients. Of importance, our data show that GP88 continues to be a prognostic factor even after five years. These results also provide evidence that GP88 provides prognostic information independent of tumor and clinical characteristics and would support prospective study to examine whether GP88 expression could help stratify patients with ER+ tumors for adjuvant therapy.
The anterior gradient protein-2 (AGR2) is inducible by oestrogen and itself can induce metastasis in a rat model for breast cancer. Here, a rabbit antibody to recombinant human AGR2 was used to assess its prognostic significance in a retrospective cohort of 351 breast cancer patients treated by adjuvant hormonal therapy. The antibody stains 66% of breast carcinomas to varying degrees. The percentage of positive carcinoma cells in tumours directly correlates with the level of AGR2 mRNA (Spearman's rank correlation, P=0.0007) and protein (linear regression analysis r2=0.95, P=0.0002). There is a significant association of staining of carcinomas for AGR2 with oestrogen receptor α (ERα) staining and with low histological grade (both Fisher's Exact test P<0.0001). In the ERα-positive cases, but not the ERα-negative cases, when subdivided into the separate staining classes for AGR2, there is a significantly progressive decrease in patient survival with increased staining (log rank test, P=0.006). The significant association of staining for AGR2 with patient death over a 10-year period (log rank test P=0.007, hazard ratio=3) only becomes significant at 6 years of follow-up. This may be due to the cessation of adjuvant hormonal therapy at an earlier time, resulting in adverse re-expression of the metastasis-inducing protein AGR2.
AGR2 immunocytochemistry; patient survival; ERα-positive breast cancer
Progranulin and C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) were recently discovered as novel adipokines which may link obesity with altered regulation of glucose metabolism, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance.
Research Design and Methods
We examined circulating progranulin and CTRP3 concentrations in 127 subjects with (n = 44) or without metabolic syndrome (n = 83). Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship of progranulin and CTRP3 levels with inflammatory markers and cardiometabolic risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and adiponectin serum concentrations, as well as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT).
Circulating progranulin levels are significantly related with inflammatory markers, hsCRP (r = 0.30, P = 0.001) and IL-6 (r = 0.30, P = 0.001), whereas CTRP3 concentrations exhibit a significant association with cardiometabolic risk factors, including waist circumference (r = −0.21), diastolic blood pressure (r = −0.21), fasting glucose (r = −0.20), triglyceride (r = −0.34), total cholesterol (r = −0.25), eGFR (r = 0.39) and adiponectin (r = 0.26) levels. Serum progranulin concentrations were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than those of the control group (199.55 [179.33, 215.53] vs. 185.10 [160.30, 204.90], P = 0.051) and the number of metabolic syndrome components had a significant positive correlation with progranulin levels (r = 0.227, P = 0.010). In multiple regression analysis, IL-6 and triglyceride levels were significant predictors of serum progranulin levels (R2 = 0.251). Furthermore, serum progranulin level was an independent predictor for increased CIMT in subjects without metabolic syndrome after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors (R2 = 0.365).
Serum progranulin levels are significantly associated with systemic inflammatory markers and were an independent predictor for atherosclerosis in subjects without metabolic syndrome.
Previous studies reported that serum amyloid A (SAA) is elevated in patients with tumors, including breast cancer, compared to healthy controls. In addition, the levels of SAA increase gradually with tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the blood SAA level of breast cancer patients, and evaluated its potential as a serum biomarker for the early diagnosis of breast cancer and as a staging estimate. SAA protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples from 30 healthy women, 21 women with benign diseases and 118 breast cancer patients who were subdivided into 4 groups based on their clinical characteristics. SAA levels were not statistically different in stage I breast cancer patients compared with the healthy controls and benign breast disease patients. SAA concentrations had medians of 0.63 µg/ml in normal healthy women, 0.76 µg/ml in patients with benign disease (p>0.05) and 0.82 µg/ml in stage I breast cancer patients (p>0.05). By contrast, SAA values in stage Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ patients had a significantly higher median compared to those of the healthy, benign breast diseases and stage I groups (p<0.05). Breast cancer patients with lymph node (LN) metastasis or distant metastasis were found to have significantly higher SAA concentrations than those without metastases. SAA is not a suitable marker for early breast cancer diagnosis, but its level is correlated with the stage of breast cancer. Thus, it may be a good candidate marker for the staging and prognosis of breast cancer.
serum amyloid A; breast cancer; staging; diagnosis
Recent evidence supports ‘the neurotrophin hypothesis of depression' in its prediction that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in depression. However, some key questions remain unanswered, including whether abnormalities in BDNF persist beyond the clinical state of depression, whether BDNF levels are related to the clinical features of depression and whether distinct antidepressants affect BDNF levels equally. We addressed these questions and investigated serum BDNF levels in 962 depressed patients, 700 fully remitted persons (⩾6 months) and 382 healthy controls. We found serum BDNF levels to be low in antidepressant-free depressed patients relative to controls (P=0.007) and to depressed patients who were treated with an antidepressant (P=0.001). BDNF levels of fully remitted persons (whether unmedicated or treated with an antidepressant) were comparable to those of controls. Analyzing the sample of antidepressant-free depressed patients showed that BDNF levels were unrelated to the core clinical features of depression such as its severity or first versus a recurrent episode. The antidepressant associated upregulation of serum BDNF in depressed patients was confined to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (P=0.003) and St John's wort (P=0.03). Our results suggest that low serum levels of BDNF are a state abnormality that is evident during depression and normalizes during remission. Increases in serum levels of BDNF during antidepressant treatment appear to be confined to some antidepressants and do not parallel clinical characteristics, such as the severity of depressive symptoms.
depression; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; antidepressants; BDNF
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and the
identification of biomarkers for the early detection of breast cancer is a
relevant target. The present study aims to determine serum peptidome patterns for
screening of breast cancer.
The present work focused on the serum proteomic analysis of 36 healthy volunteers
and 37 breast cancer patients using a ClinProt Kit combined with mass spectrometry
(MS). This approach allows the determination of peptidome patterns that are able
to differentiate the studied populations. An independent group of sera (36 healthy
volunteers and 37 breast cancer patients) was used to verify the diagnostic
capabilities of the peptidome patterns blindly. An immunoassay method was used to
determine the serum mucin 1 (CA15-3) of validation group samples.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) Algorithm was used to construct the peptidome
patterns for the identification of breast cancer from the healthy volunteers.
Three of the identified peaks at m/z 698, 720 and 1866 were used to construct the
peptidome patterns with 91.78% accuracy. Furthermore, the peptidome patterns could
differentiate the validation group achieving a sensitivity of 91.89% (34/37) and a
specitivity of 91.67% (33/36) (> CA 15–3,
P < 0.05).
These results suggest that the ClinProt Kit combined with MS shows great
potentiality for the diagnosis of breast cancer.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Breast neoplasms; Diagnosis; Proteomics; Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
This study is to investigate the expression of progranulin (PGRN) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the effect of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on its expression.
Thirty newly diagnosed severe SLE patients and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of PGRN and the inflammatory factors of SLE were detected by ELISA and the mRNA expression of these proteins were detected by real-time PCR.
The serum levels of PGRN, IL-6, PR3, TNFR, TNF-α and anti-dsDNA antibody in SLE patients were increased significantly compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). The relative expression of PGRN mRNA was increased by 4.88-fold in pre-treatment SLE patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). After prednisone treatment, the serum levels of PGRN decreased significantly, and the relative expression of PGRN mRNA was decreased by 1.34-fold compared with the untreated controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, Serum concentration of PGRN was correlated with serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, TNFR and anti-dsDNA antibody in both pre-treatment and post-treatment SLE patients.
PGRN is up-regulated in the SLE patients and is correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-dsDNA antibody. Glucocorticoids can down-regulate the expression of PGRN in SLE patients.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Progranulin; Glucocorticoid; IL-6
Detection of breast cancer at early stage increases patient’s survival. Mass spectrometry-based protein analysis of serum samples is a promising approach to obtain biomarker profiles for early detection. A combination of commonly applied solid-phase extraction procedures for clean-up may increase the number of detectable peptides and proteins. In this study, we have evaluated whether the classification performance of breast cancer profiles improves by using two serum workup procedures.
Serum samples from 105 breast cancer patients and 202 healthy volunteers were processed according to a standardized protocol implemented on a high-end liquid-handling robot. Peptide and protein enrichments were carried out using weak-cation exchange (WCX) and reversed-phase (RP) C18 magnetic beads. Profiles were acquired on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. In this way, two different biomarker profiles were obtained for each serum sample, yielding a WCX- and RPC18-dataset.
The profiles were statistically evaluated with double cross-validation. Classification results of WCX- and RPC18-datasets were determined for each set separately and for the combination of both sets. Sensitivity and specificity were 82 and 87 % (WCX) and 73 and 93 % (RPC18) for the individual workup procedures. These values increased up to 84 and 95 %, respectively, upon combining the data.
It was found that MALDI-TOF peptide and protein profiles can be used for classification of breast cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The classification performance even improved when two workup procedures were applied, since these provide a greater number of features (proteins).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00432-012-1273-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Breast cancer; Early detection; MALDI-TOF; Serum proteomics; Magnetic beads
The detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) has been linked with poor prognosis in advanced breast cancer. Relatively few studies have been undertaken to study the clinical relevance of CTCs in early-stage breast cancer.
In a prospective study, we evaluated CTCs in the peripheral blood of 82 early-stage breast cancer patients. Control groups consisted of 16 advanced breast cancer patients and 45 healthy volunteers. The CTC detection was performed using ErbB2/EpCAM immunomagnetic tumour cell enrichment followed by multimarker quantitative PCR (QPCR). The CTC status and common clinicopathological factors were correlated to relapse-free, breast cancer-related and overall survival.
Circulating tumour cells were detected in 16 of 82 (20%) patients with early-stage breast cancer and in 13 out of 16 (81%) with advanced breast cancer. The specificity was 100%. The median follow-up time was 51 months (range: 17–60). The CTC positivity in early-stage breast cancer patients resulted in significantly poorer relapse-free survival (log rank test: P=0.003) and was an independent predictor of relapse-free survival (multivariate hazard ratio=5.13, P=0.006, 95% CI: 1.62–16.31).
The detection of CTCs in peripheral blood of early-stage breast cancer patients provided prognostic information for relapse-free survival.
early-stage breast cancer; circulating tumour cell; CTC; enrichment; quantitative PCR; prognosis
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor mediating tumour angiogenesis. VEGF mRNA is differentially expressed in bladder cancer with high expression in superficial tumours (stage pTaand pT1) contrasting with low expression in muscle invasive tumours (stage ≥ pT2). To investigate mechanisms regulating VEGF expression in bladder cancer, VEGF mRNA and protein were measured in normal bladder (n = 12) and primary bladder cancers (n = 57). VEGF protein levels correlated with mRNA expression in normal bladder (r = 0.68, P = 0.02) and bladder cancer (r = 0.46, P = 0.0007). Whilst VEGF mRNA expression was threefold higher in superficial compared to muscle invasive bladder cancers (P = 0.0001) there was no difference in VEGF protein (P = 0.81). Accordingly, the median protein:mRNA ratios increased more than 15-fold with increasing tumour stage (P< 0.0001) suggesting translational regulation. Expression of the eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF-4E), a factor implicated in the translational regulation of VEGF, was greater in tumours than normal bladder (P< 0.0001) and correlated with VEGF protein:mRNA ratios (n = 43, r = 0.54, P = 0.0004) pointing to its role in the regulation of VEGF. In superficial tumours (n = 37) high expression of eIF-4E was associated with a poor prognosis and reduced stage progression-free survival (P = 0.04, Cox proportional hazards model). The study demonstrates that eIF-4E may be involved in translational regulation of VEGF in bladder cancer and might have a role as a prognostic factor in bladder cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
angiogenesis; VEGF; eIF-4E; bladder cancer
We reviewed the long-term survival, treatment-related mortality and morbidity of a continuous cohort of patients with Hodgkin's disease diagnosed and staged at the Haematology unit of the Belfast City Hospital between January 1973 and October 1992. The analysis included a comparison of the survival of those patients who were entered into BNLI (British National Lymphoma Investigation) trials compared to those not entered during this 20 year period. In addition univariate and multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed. The complete remission rate (CR) was 79.6% with a 15 year survival of 55.3%. On multivariate analysis in which deaths due to active Hodgkin's disease only were considered age > 50 emerged as the most significant prognostic factor (P < 0.0007), the presence of B symptoms also having independent significance (P = 0.008). Trial status did not have any independent prognostic significance. Eighty one deaths occurred: active Hodgkin's disease (50), second malignancy (9), treatment-related (10), unrelated (9), unknown (3). This long-term follow up study provides useful information additional to the data produced by clinical trials which are biased by selection criteria. The occurrence of Haemophilus Influenzae meningitis in a patient 17 years following splenectomy highlights the need for appropriate vaccination of patients splenectomised for Hodgkin's disease.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in breast cancer cells and the corresponding serum levels in individual patients. The study also evaluated the potential of serum levels of the two growth factors as diagnostic markers in a case–control study.
VEGF expression and bFGF expression were determined in 62 and 63 tumor samples, respectively. Serum VEGF and bFGF levels were determined in 54 and 65 healthy women and in 69 and 73 breast cancer patients, respectively, using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
A direct correlation was observed between VEGF expression and bFGF expression in individual tumors (P = 0.001) and between serum levels (P = 0.038) in individual patients, but not between tumor cell expression and the corresponding serum level for either growth factor. Median values of serum levels in healthy women and breast cancer patients were not different for VEGF (P = 0.055), but were significantly different for bFGF (P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve identified a serum bFGF concentration of 1.0 pg/ml, with 84.9% sensitivity and 63.1% specificity, as the best cut-off value to discriminate between healthy women and breast cancer patients. An age-based subgroup analysis showed that serum values of patients older than 70 years of age mainly contributed to the high accuracy.
Our data repropose bFGF as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for breast cancer.
breast cancer; diagnostic tool; growth factors; serum levels
Outcome, adjusted for case-mix and deprivation, in 3200 patients undergoing resection for colorectal cancer in 11 hospitals in Central Scotland between 1991 and 1994 was studied. There were significant differences among individual hospitals in the proportion of elderly (P<0.001) and deprived (P<0.0001) patients, the mode (P=0.007) and stage (P<0.0001) at presentation, and the proportion of patients who underwent apparently curative resection (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in postoperative mortality. Cancer-specific survival at 5 years following apparently curative resection varied from 59 to 76%; cancer-specific survival at 2 years following palliative resection varied from 22 to 44%. The corresponding hazard ratios, adjusted for the above prognostic factors, for patients undergoing apparently curative resection varied among hospitals from 0.58 to 1.32; and the ratios for palliative resection varied from 0.73 to 1.26. This study demonstrates that, after adjustment for variations in case-mix and deprivation, significant differences in outcome among hospitals following resection for colorectal cancer persist.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 331–335. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600120 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign
colorectal cancer; survival; case-mix; deprivation; hospital