We report here the first large-scale affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) study of chromatin-associated protein, in which over 100 different baits involved in chromatin biology were studied by modified chromatin immunopurification (mChIP)-MS. In particular, focus was placed on poorly studied chromatin binding proteins, such as transcription factors, which have been underrepresented in previous AP-MS studies.mChIP-MS analysis of transcription factors identified dense networks of protein associated with chromatin that were composed of specific transcriptional co-activators, information not accessible through the use of classical AP-MS methods.Finally, we demonstrate that novel protein–protein interactions identified in study by mChIP have functional implications exemplified by the detailed study of both the ubiquitination of the proline isomerase Cpr1 and of histone chaperones involved in the regulation of the HTA1-HTB1 promoter.Our work demonstrates the value of targeted interactome studies, in which affinity purification methods are adapted to the needs of specific baits, as is the case for chromatin binding proteins.
The maintenance of cellular fitness requires living organisms to integrate multiple signals into coordinated outputs. Central to this process is the regulation of the expression of the genetic information encoded into DNA. As a result, there are numerous constraints imposed on gene expression. The access to DNA is restricted by the formation of nucleosomes, in which DNA is wrapped around histone octamers to form chromatin wherein the volume of DNA is considerably reduced. As such, nucleosome positioning is critical and must be defined precisely, particularly during transcription (Workman, 2006). Furthermore, nucleosomes can be actively assembled/disassembled by histone chaperones and can be made to ‘slide' along DNA by the actions of chromatin remodelers. Moreover, the histone proteins are heavily regulated at the expression level and by extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs) (Campos and Reinberg, 2009). Histone PTMs have also been shown to help recruit numerous chromatin-associated factors in accordance with the histone code (Strahl and Allis, 2000). Although our understanding of chromatin and its roles has improved, we still have limited knowledge of the chromatin-associated protein complexes and their interactions.
The characterization of biological systems and of specific subdomain within them, such as chromatin, remains a difficult task. An efficient approach to gain insight in the function of protein is to define its interactome. The underlying principle of protein interaction mapping is that proteins found to interact must be involved in common processes and localization, i.e., guilt by association. The large-scale mapping of proteins interactions allows to annotate protein of unknown functions, implicate protein of known functions in different processes and derive new hypothesis. This is possible because most proteins do not act in isolation but rather as part of complexes, and thus possess interaction partners that can now be detected with the right tools. AP-MS has emerged as a powerful tool for characterizing protein–protein interactions and biological systems in general (Gingras et al, 2007; Gstaiger and Aebersold, 2009).
Recently, we reported the development of a novel affinity purification approach termed mChIP, which was designed to improve the characterization of DNA binding proteins interactome (Lambert et al, 2009). The mChIP method consists of a single affinity purification step, whereby chromatin-associated proteins are isolated from mildly sonicated and gently clarified cellular extracts using magnetic beads coated with antibodies (Lambert et al, 2009; Figure 1A). As such, the mChIP approach maintains chromatin fragments in solution enabling their specific purification, something not previously possible in classical AP-MS methods (Lambert et al, 2009).
In this study, we report the utilization of mChIP followed by MS for the characterization of more than 100 proteins and their associated protein networks (Figure 1B). We initially focused on DNA-associated proteins that had been poorly characterized in past AP-MS studies, such as transcription factors. In addition, many histone modifiers, such as lysine acetyl transferases (KAT) and lysine methyl transferases, critical components of chromatin function and regulation, were also studied by mChIP. This resulted in raw non-redundant mChIP-MS data containing ∼9000 protein–protein interactions between ∼900 proteins. Following a two-step curation process designed to remove common contaminants and protein not specifically associated with the baits under study, a high confidence mChIP-MS data set was produced containing 2966 protein–protein interactions between 724 proteins (Figure 1B). It is important to note that our curation strategy was capable of maintaining the majority of the protein–protein interaction identified in previous AP-MS studies, while removing the bulk of protein–protein interaction not related to chromatin biology. Further analysis of the mChIP-MS data set revealed that for most bait tested, mChIP-MS resulted in the identification of more interaction partners than classical TAP-MS.
Visualization of the mChIP-MS data set was achieved by generating heat maps from two-dimensional hierarchical clustering of the bait–prey interactions. This revealed numerous clusters within our data set supporting functional relationship. For instance, mChIP analysis of the highly homologous heat-shock-inducible transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 clustered with different transcriptional co-activators. Importantly, our analysis also revealed key differences in the co-activators associated with Msn2 and Msn4 relevant to their function. Another example that we explore in greater details is the Cpr1 proline isomerase, a known member of the Set3 complex (Pijnappel et al, 2001). mChIP-MS analysis of Cpr1 revealed an extended network of associated proteins, including the E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 and its association partner Lge1 (Figure 5A). This association raised the possibility of a direct action of Bre1/Lge1 on Cpr1 to ubiquitinate it. In targeted experiments, we observed that Cpr1 is in fact ubiquitinated in a process involving Bre1/Lge1 (Figure 5E), confirming their functional relationship. As such, mChIP is capable of uncovering novel protein–protein interactions with physiological impacts.
In this study, we report how the use of an AP-MS method designed for a given class of protein (chromatin-associated proteins) can help uncover numerous novel protein–protein interactions. Furthermore, our work detected dense chromatin-associated protein networks being co-purified with multiple transcription factors and other DNA binding proteins. The fact that even in the best-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thousands of novel protein–protein interactions can be detected supports our view that targeted interactome studies are worthwhile and desirable. As such, the budding yeast interactome can still be consider incomplete and warrant further study.
We previously reported a novel affinity purification (AP) method termed modified chromatin immunopurification (mChIP), which permits selective enrichment of DNA-bound proteins along with their associated protein network. In this study, we report a large-scale study of the protein network of 102 chromatin-related proteins from budding yeast that were analyzed by mChIP coupled to mass spectrometry. This effort resulted in the detection of 2966 high confidence protein associations with 724 distinct preys. mChIP resulted in significantly improved interaction coverage as compared with classical AP methodology for ∼75% of the baits tested. Furthermore, mChIP successfully identified novel binding partners for many lower abundance transcription factors that previously failed using conventional AP methodologies. mChIP was also used to perform targeted studies, particularly of Asf1 and its associated proteins, to allow for a understanding of the physical interplay between Asf1 and two other histone chaperones, Rtt106 and the HIR complex, to be gained.